1 Chapter3 Relationship to Software Engineering Standards STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS Standards organizations are bodies, organizations, and institutions that produce standards. These organizations develop standards to provide stability and consistency, with the hope oflowering costs in any industry or enterprise. Software standards play an important role as they can be used to reduce costs and complexity when buying software systems and they can be used to monitor the quality of the systems and products that are produced. Software standards are also an excellent reference on what is considered good practice by the international community of professionals that work in these areas. ISO Technical Committee 176 on Quality Management and Quality Assurance lim Organization for 9Jii I International Stondordization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a network ofthe national standards institutes ofover 150 countries, formed on the basis ofone member per country. The United States is representedby the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI). The hallmark ofiso standards are that they are consensus-based, market driven, voluntary, and are used in worldwide agreements. ISO has numerous Technical Committees (TCs). TC 176 on Quality Management and Quality Assurance is responsible for developing the ISO 9000 series of standards and guidance documents. The TC 176 scope is standardization in the field ofgeneric quality management, including quality systems, quality assurance, and generic supporting technologies, including standards that provide guidance on the selection and use of these standards. Member nations maintain and revised the Quality Management and Practical Supportfor ISO 9001 Software Project Documentation. By S. Land and J. Walz IEEE Computer Society
2 16 Chapter 3 Relationship to Software Engineering Standards Quality Assurance Standards. TC 176 produced the ISO 9001:2000 in December 2000 and expects its revisions to be published by year end International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic, and related technologies. Together, ISO, IEC, and ITU (International Telecommunication Union) have built a strategic partnership with the WTO (World Trade Organization) with the common goal of promoting a free and fair global trading system. ISOIIEC Joint Technical Committee 001 ISO.lye 1 rrc -::;- =====. NF MATI N T HN Y NOA For software and system standards, ISO and IEC created the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 001 "Information technology" (JTC 1) for standardization in the field ofinformation technology. JTCI Information Technology includes the specification, design, and development of systems and tools dealing with the capture, representation, processing, security, transfer, interchange, presentation, management, organization, storage, and retrieval of information. ISOIIEC JTC1 SC7 Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee One JTC 1 subcommittee (SC) is SC7 Software and Systems Engineering. This SC was created in 1997, with the scope ofthe standardization ofprocesses, supporting tools, and supportingtechnologies for the engineering ofsoftware products and systems. Figure 3-1 illustrates how SC7 scope interacts with other SCs and disciplines. ISO TC176 transferred ISO 9001 software guidance responsibilities to ISOIIEC JTC1/SC7. Thus, JTC1/SC7 published the ISO/IEC Software and System Engineering-Guidelines for the Application ofiso 9001:2000 to Computer Software in JTCl/SC7 has published almost 90 standards and 25 are currently under development. Due to the large collection of software engineering standards developed by the IEEE Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee, JTCl/SC7 has an active liaison with IEEE Computer Society.
3 Standards Organizations 17 Project Management SOFTWARE and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Safety OECTC65}, Security, other mission-critical Figure 3-1. Interaction ofsc7 scope with other TCs and disciplines. American National Standards Institute ~rds The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, nonprofit organization [501(c)3] that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. The Institute's mission is to enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the U.S. quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity. 1 ANSI facilitates the development of American National Standards (ANS) by accrediting the procedures of standardsdeveloping organizations (SDOs). These groups work cooperatively to develop voluntary national consensus standards. Accreditation by ANSI signifies that the procedures used by the standards body in connection with the development of American National Standards meet the Institute's essential requirements for openness, balance, consensus, and due process. ANSI has over 200 SDOs, with the 20 largest SDO producing 90% of the standards. One of the largest SDO is IEEE-SA. '
4 18 Chapter 3 Relationship to Software Engineering Standards Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers +IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) is a nonprofit technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 150 countries. IEEE promotes the engineering process of creating, developing, integrating, sharing, and applying knowledge about electronic and information technologies and sciences for the benefit of humanity and the profession. The Institute provides groups the opportunity to take part in shaping the direction of technology and its marketplace application by developing industry-driven standards. IEEE holds annually more than 300 major conferences and produces 30% of the world's published literature in electrical engineering, computers, and control technology." The Institute provides wide technology coverage over 40 societies. The largest is the IEEE Computer Society (IEEE CS). The IEEE CS is a leading international provider of technical information and services in computer and information processing technology and was founded in Today, with nearly 100,000 members, the IEEE CS is the world's leading organization of computer professionals. IEEE CS is dedicated to advancing the theory, practice, and application of computer and information processing technology. The Society is considered to be the leading provider of technical information and services to the world's computing professionals. It fosters international communication, cooperation, and information exchange, as over 40% of the members live and work outside the United States.' The IEEE SDO is the Standards Association (IEEE-SA). The IEEE-SA is a world-renowned, independent American National Standards Institute (ANSI) accredited SDO. The IEEE-SA is an independent professional and credible standardssetting body that develops industry-driven standards based on current scientific consensus, either through individual experts or corporate entities. IEEE-SA is an honest information broker for resolving issues and developing consensus to find industry solutions. They provide benefits for corporate growth and exposure, and to help provide business initiatives with lower risk through use of IEEE standards. IEEE-SA maintains a large portfolio ofmore than 900 active standards and 700 indevelopment projects. These standards and development projects are managed by over 140 Standards Committees. One such Standards Committee is the Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee (S2ESC). IEEE standards are internationally implemented in an array of environments, all resulting in the improved competitiveness ofcompanies incorporating them and adding value to industry and the marketplace. 2www.ieee.org 3www.computer.org
5 IEEE S2ESC Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee [~/ EeE s~.::.~.'4.. I. E~ Standards Organizations 19 The IEEE Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee (S2ESC) is rapidly approaching its 30th anniversary. In 1976, this arm of the IEEE Computer Society was chartered to develop the first standards for software engineering. S2ESC was chartered with the vision to develop a family of products and services based on software engineering standards for use by practitioners, organizations, and educators to: (1) improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their software engineering processes; (2) improve communications between acquirers and suppliers, and (3) to improve the quality of delivered software and systems containing software. This section describes S2ESC, the contribution it has made to the software engineering community over these last 30 years, and how S2ESC continues to ensure that its products are relevant, valued, and reflect best current practice . From a narrow perspective, S2ESC manages the scope and direction of IEEE Software and Systems Engineering and Standards. S2ESC is the standards arm of the IEEE Technical Council on Software Engineering (TCSE), and has worked to provide a standards collection that: Provides a consistent view ofthe state ofthe practice Is aligned with the Software Engineering Body ofknowledge (SWEBOK) Addresses practitioner concerns Is affordable From a broader perspective, in addition to the development of standards, S2ESC develops supporting knowledge products and sponsors or cooperates in annual conferences and workshops in its subject area. S2ESC also participates in international standards making as a member of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO/IEC JTC I/SC7 and as a direct liaison to SC7 itself. The mission of the S2ESC is: 1. To develop and maintain a family of software and systems engineering standards that is relevant, coherent, comprehensive, and effective in use. These standards are for use by practitioners, organizations, and educators to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their software engineering processes, to improve communications between acquirers and suppliers, and to improve the quality of delivered software and systems containing software.
6 20 Chapter 3 Relationship to Software Engineering Standards 2. To develop supporting knowledge products that aid practitioners, organizations, and educators in understanding and applying our standards. 3. To support and promote a Software Engineering Body of Knowledge, certification mechanisms for software engineering professionals, and other products contributing to the profession ofsoftware engineering. ISO/IEC JTC1 SC7 Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee (S2ESC) At the center of software engineering standardization in the United States is the Software and Systems Engineering Standards Committee (S2ESC) of the IEEE Computer Society. This IEEE CS standards development sponsor maintains over 40 standards that directly support the practice of software and systems engineering. The counterpart of S2ESC in the international forum is ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC7 S2ESC participates in SC7 through the Computer Society's membership in the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) that formulates national positions and selects the delegation for meetings of SC7. The CS also has a category A liaison to SC7, permitting direct participation with the exception of voting. Figure 3-2 shows the relationship ofthe IEEE CS to other SOOs. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ISO 9001, ISO 90003, IEEE 12207, AND ISOnEC There are relationships among quality assurance, life cycle processes, and process assessment standardizations. ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 90003, IEEE 12207, and ISO/IEC are all important to completely understand the requirements ofiso 9001 for a software engineering organization. ISO 9001 represents quality assurance at the system level. ISO/IEC gives the SE organization guidance on how to apply ISO 9001 on a software project. IEEE represents the processes employed throughout the life cycle of a software product. Each one of the ISO/IEC Figure 3-2. Relationship of S2ESC to other snos.
7 Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) 21 clauses that are software unique point to the applicable process in IEEE software development life cycle to provide more details on implementation considerations. ISO/IEC represents process assessment as applied in SE organizations. IEEE provides the baselines oflife cycle processes to the ISO/IEC assessment process. ISO 9001 provides the basis for quality assurance to both IEEE and ISO/IEC as described by Figure 3-3. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (SWEBOK) The purpose of the Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWE BOK) is to provide a consensually validated characterization of the bounds of the software engineering discipline and to provide a topical access to the Body of Knowledge supporting that discipline. Software Quality is one of the ten SWEBOK Knowledge Areas (KA) and deals with software quality considerations that transcend the software life cycle processes. As software quality is a ubiquitous concern in software engineering, it is also considered in many of the other SWEBOK KAs, including Software Engineering Management and Software Engineering Process. The Software Engineering Management KA can be defined as the application of management..... : ~.iiii~l&... -r,:i...' - "'II ~....." Figure 3-3. ISO 9001 as a basis for quality assurance.
8 22 Chapter 3 Relationship to Software Engineering Standards activities-planning, coordinating, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting-to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic, disciplined, and quantified. The Software Engineering Process KA is concerned with the definition, implementation, assessment, measurement, management, change, and improvement of the software life cycle processes themselves. ISO 9001 implementation and usage will directly contribute to these three SWEBOK KAs. In order to circumscribe software engineering, it is necessary to identify the disciplines with which software engineering shares a common boundary. Two of the eight SWEBOK Related Disciplines of Software Engineering cover the usage of ISO 9001 as described by Table 3-1. Quality Management is one of the eight Related Disciplines and is defined in ISO as "coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality." The main reference on quality management is ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management Systems Requirements. Project Management (PM) is another Related Disciplines. Project Management is defined in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge" (PMBOK Guide). PMBOK has nine Knowledge Areas, one is Project Quality Management, which is intended to be compatible with that ofthe ISO 9001 and has three major project quality management processes: Quality Planning, Quality Assurance, and Quality Control. CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL INTEGRATED (CMMI) The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) developed the Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) framework in Portions ofthis framework are described as Table 3-1. SWEBOK relationship to ISO 9001 Knowledge areas Topical areas Topics related to ISO 9001 Software Quality Software Quality Software Engineering Fundamentals Process Quality Software Quality Management Processes Practical Considerations Quality Improvement Software Quality Assurance Software Quality ManagementTechniques Software Engineering Software Project Planning Quality Management Management Software Engineering Process Definition Software Life Cycle Processes Process Process Assessment Process Assessment Models
9 Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) 23 generic practices (GP) and are applicable to all CMMI process areas. Generic practices provide institutionalization to ensure that the processes associated with the process area will be effective, repeatable, and lasting. In a similar purpose, ISO 9001 requires institutionalization to ensure that all business processes will be effective, repeatable, and lasting. Table 3-2 provides a cross-reference of CMMI GP to ISO 9001 requirement clauses and shows good coverage for most of ISO Table 3-2. CMMI generic practices and ISO 9001 cross reference Abbreviation GGI GP 1.1 GG2 GP 2.1 GP 2.2 GP 2.3 GP2.4 GP2.5 GP2.6 GP2.7 GP2.8 GP2.9 GP 2.10 GG3 GP3.1 GP 3.2 CMMI generic goals and practices Achieve Specific Goals Perform base practices. Institutionalize a Managed Process Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the processes. Establish and maintain the plan for performing the processes. Provide adequate resources for performing the processes, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the processes. Train the people performing or supporting the processes as needed. Place designated work products of the processes under appropriate levels of configuration management. Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the processes as planned. Monitor and control the processes against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action. Objectively evaluate adherence of the processes against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance. Review the activities, status, and results ofthe processes with higher-level management and resolve issues. Institutionalize a Defined Process Establish a defined process. Collect improvement information. ISO 9001 clauses ,4.2.1,5.1,5.5.3, 7.6, , 4.2.2, 5.4.2, 7.1,7.3,7.5.1,7.6, 8.1, ,6.1, , , 4.2.3, 4.2.4, 7.3.7, ,7.2.3,7.3.2, ,7.5.1,7.6, , 7.6, , 5.6.2, 5.6.3, 7.2.2, 7.3.2, ,
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