Report on Mali testing September, 2005

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1 Report on Mali testing September, Introduction IUCN, IISD, SEI-B and Intercooperation have developed a tool to enable project planners and managers to assess and enhance a project s impact on community-level adaptive capacity. Specifically, the tool has been structured to: 1) Set the climate context: Identify the impacts of current climate hazards and climate change in the project area, particularly on local livelihoods ) Set the livelihood context: Identify the resources needed to help people conduct their livelihoods and cope with these impacts ) Screen project activities: Assess how project activities affect the availability and access to resources that are central to livelihoods and coping strategies ) Manage climate risk: Adjust the project so that opportunities to enhance resource availability / access are strengthened, and activities that undermine activities/access are adjusted In an effort to render this tool as useful as possible, the partner organizations decided to conduct a series of field tests on planned or ongoing natural resource management projects in Africa, South Asia, and Central America. The tests would involve project team members traveling to the project sites to work with local project managers and community members in gathering relevant information and applying the tool, developing recommendations on how to adjust project activities so that they take into account their impact on local adaptive capacity. The first field test took place in Mali, during September, 005. Anne Hammill (IISD) traveled to Mali to work with IUCN s National Programme Coordinator, Aliou Faye, in testing the tool on a project entitled, Project D'appui à la Gestion des Ecosystemes Inondables dans Quatre Terroirs du Delta Interieur du Fleuve Niger (PAGEIT) Mali (Support Project for the Management for Floodable Ecosystems in Four Territories of the Inner Niger Delta). See Annex 1 for map, and Annex for trip agenda. They were also joined by Ourouzo Dakouo (Intercooperation), who wanted to participate in the testing to see how it might be applied in other project sites.. Summary of Activities.1 Preparation: Prior to field testing, IUCN-IISD-SEI-IC Team members reviewed a project document, which outlined the purpose, objectives and specific activities of the PAGEIT project, as well as its social, environmental and policy context. Further research into Mali s climate change impacts, adaptation initiatives and policy responses was also conducted. Upon arrival in Mali, meetings with IUCN partners working on climate change issues provided current information on anticipated impacts of climate change in Mali as well as general insight into the research and policy context for the region.

2 . Testing: Anne Hammill, Aliou Faye and Ourouzo Dakouo (Intercooperation) reached the project site, Youwarou in the late afternoon on September 1, 005. They met with PAGEIT project staff to discuss the testing process, and decided to divide it into two components: 1) Evening meeting with project staff and community stakeholders to introduce the Livelihoods and Climate Change project, personnel and institutions; explain the purpose of the visit and the tool; and provide a brief introduction to climate change and its impacts on livelihoods; and ) Morning meeting with project staff and community stakeholders to test the tool. The introductory evening session lasted about an hour and was attended by over a dozen stakeholders (see Annex ), many of whom shared their own observations of changing climate conditions. The tool testing on the following morning was also well-attended and involved a lot of participation and dialogue between community members and project staff on climate and livelihood issues. The first two steps of the tool (i.e. setting the climate context and setting the livelihood context) took the most time, but the discussions were very informative and stakeholders seemed encouraged that their own observations of environmental change were legitimate (i.e. had a scientific basis) and could be addressed through the PAGEIT project.. Wrap-Up: Following the community testing of the tool, the IUCN field office hosted a lunch for all participants, after which Anne Hammill, Aliou Faye and Ourouzo Dakouo departed Youwarou. Upon returning to Bamako, Anne Hammill and Aliou Faye spent a day going through the results of the field test, entering answers/responses into the MS Word version of the tool, and adjusting or adding information as needed (at the discretion of Faye). Aliou Faye sent the final version of the completed MS World tool document to Anne Hammill a few days later. A narrative summary of the tool testing process was subsequently prepared by Aliou Faye for presentation at the UNFCCC COP 11 in Montreal.. Results of Tool Testing: Using the steps and process outlined in the MS Word version of the tool, a summary of the results of the participatory tool testing are provided below. Region: Africa Country: Mali Ecosystem: Inland wetland; rangeland; rivers and streams

3 .1 Climate Profile What are the potential climate change impacts in the project area? Mali is getting hotter and drier increased temperatures, reduced rainfall, increased drought, and decreased cereal production. What are the current climate hazards that pose the most significant threats to the project area, what are their impacts, and what strategies do people use to cope? HAZARDS IMPACTS COPING STRATEGIES 1 Drought 1.1 Crop Damage / Loss 1. Loss of trees 1. Social tensions and conflict 1.1a Gathering of wild food 1.1b Food storage 1.1c Migration 1.1d Income diversification 1.1e Casual labour 1.a Tree/crop replanting 1.b Crop shifting 1.a Traditional dispute resolution systems 1.b Engagement of local authorities 1.c Establishment of local rules Reduced Flooding.1 Surface water scarcity. Reduced fish stocks. Income loss.1a Local migration (closer to water).1b Income diversification.1c Casual labour (agriculture, sm business).1d Improved channel maintenance.a Local migration to look for more fish.b Income diversification (fish to livestock).c Casual labour.a Local migration.b Asset liquidation (esp. livestock).c Increased lending (micro credit) Extreme Heat.1 Sick or weak livestock.1a Asset liquidation (sell weak animals).1b Tree/crop replanting (shade animals)

4 . Livelihood Profile What resources to local people rely on, and how are they related to climate impacts and coping strategies? *Highlighted resources are those that were deemed most affected by climate change or most important to coping strategies identified in the climate context. RESOURCE TYPE Natural Resources Physical Capital Financial Resources Socio-political Capital Human Resources Resources Important for Livelihoods - freshwater fish (revenue) - livestock (revenue) - fuelwood - roads - boats - wells - phone/fax - liquid assets (livestock) - access to markets - access to micro credit - local government - traditional social networks - socio-professional org - NGOs - literacy - fisheries training - agricultural training - livestock training To what extent are resources affected by climate change? How important are resources to coping strategies identified above?. Project Activity Screening PAGEIT activities being screened: a) Rehabilitation of channels b) Forest regeneration c) Awareness raising on endangered species d) Reform of local resources management rules

5 What is the impact of these activities on those natural resources that were identified as being strongly affected by climate change and/or important to coping strategies? Fish KEY NATURAL RESOURCE Fuel wood Effect of activity? Effect of activity? Rehabilitation of channels Positive Positive Forest regeneration Positive (fish habitat) Positive (more supply) Raise awareness endangered species Reform local resources management rules Positive (ecosystem balance habitat protection) Positive (better maintained fish stocks) neutral Positive (sustainable use/supply) What is the impact of these activities on those physical capitals that were identified as being strongly affected by climate change and/or important to coping strategies? Roads Effect of activity? KEY PHYSICAL CAPITAL Boats Effect of activity? Rehabilitation of channels Negative (channels cross/cut off roads) Positive (more water to navigate) Forest regeneration Neutral Positive (reduces impact of storms) Raise awareness endangered sp Reform local resources management rules Neutral Neutral Negative (too many hippos attack boats) Positive (better managed) forests/bourgu protects boats from storms) What is the impact of these activities on those social capitals that were identified as being strongly affected by climate change and/or important to coping strategies? 5

6 KEY SOCIAL CAPITAL Local government Traditional social networks Rehabilitation of channels Effect of activity? Positive (reinforce local capacity and resources contrib. to econ dev t) Effect of activity? Positive Forest regeneration Positive (see above) Positive Raise awareness endangered sp Reform local resources management rules Positive (reinforce local capacity; endangered species protection can lead to ecotourism econ dev t) Positive (reinforces local capacity to manage and develop rules) Positive Positive What is the impact of these activities on those human resources that were identified as being strongly affected by climate change and/or important to coping strategies? KEY HUMAN RESOURCES Fisheries training Agricultural training Livestock training Effect of activity? Effect of activity? Effect of activity? Rehabilitation of channels N/A Positive (bringing back lost skills in rice production) N/A Forest regeneration N/A N/A N/A Raise awareness endangered sp Positive (protection fish habitat) Positive (reconcile agriculture and hippopotamus protection) Positive (information shared on which animals can be killed, which should be protected) Reform local resources management rules Positive (increase management capacity) Positive (increase management capacity) Positive (increase management capacity of pasture; carrying capacity) 6

7 . Project Adjustments Rehabilitation of channels: Build bridges, pedestrian pathways Current activity: Les chenaux conduisant aux mares sont désensablés et favorisent les inondations des cuvettes [sand is removed from channels that lead to pools and allow for river basin to be flooded] Revised activity: Les principaux chenaux d alimentation en eau des mares sont désensablés pour favoriser les inondations et la circulation des personnes et du bétail grâce à l aménagement de voies de passages tels que les ponts [sand is removed from the principal channels that feed the pools in order to allow for basin flooding, and the movement of people and livestock across roads will be facilitated with newly constructed bridges/pathways] Forest regeneration: Expand forest regeneration activities Current activity : Au moins 5 ha de forêts dégradées sont annuellement régénérés dans les terroirs de Youwarou et de Dentaga [at least 5 hectares of degraded forest are regenerated annually in Youwarou and Dentaga] Revised activity : L appui à la régénération annuelle de 5 ha de forêts par les populations renforce leurs capacités à améliorer l équilibre écologique local, tout en permettant l augmentation de la production des ressources fourragères et surtout celle des poissons qui s y reproduisent [supporting community regeneration of 5 ha of forests in such a way that it builds their capacity to improve local ecosystems while also augmenting the production of foraging resources and the reproductive areas for fish] Awareness-raising on endangered species: Current activity: Le niveau d information des populations sur la protection /préservation des espèces de faune (aquatiques, aviaires) s est accru. 7

8 [Communities learn about the need to protect aquatic fauna] Revised activity: Les populations prennent conscience de la nécessité de protéger les des espèces de faune aquatiques rares et déterminent les voies de passage des pirogues ainsi que des cultures en dehors des zones d habitat, en vue d éviter les attaques des hippopotames et des crocodiles. [Communities learn about the need to protect aquatic fauna and determine boat passageways that are outside of the animals habitat areas in order to prevent hippopotamus and crocodile attacks] Reform local resource management rules: Current activity: Les acteurs locaux appliquent mieux la réglementation en matière de gestion des ressources naturelles Revised activity : Les acteurs locaux améliorent la gestion des ressources naturelles en éditant des eux-mêmes des règles et des conventions locales consensuelles qu ils appliquent sans influence extérieure. LESSONS LEARNED - The tool must be made available in multiple languages. The IUCN Mali office was able to translate the MS Word version of the tool and distribute copies to participants, which helped the testing process enormously. - The first two steps setting the climate and livelihood contexts take the most time, especially if the user (i.e. the project manager) does not have the necessary information. The last two steps are relatively easy and straightforward once the user understands the links between climate and livelihoods. - Participatory testing process is time-consuming, but very informative especially for the project managers who may think they already know all of the information needed to use the tool! - Participatory process for testing or applying the tool is an effective climate change awareness-raising strategy. In Mali, participants were interested to learn about the scientific explanation behind climate change, as it corroborated their own personal observations of change 8

9 - Many project managers / staff lack basic understanding on climate change. Yet the effective application of this tool requires a basic understanding of climate change and its impacts. The tool must therefore be accompanied by teaching materials and resources on climate change. In the Mali test, the involvement of the National Programme Coordinator, who is very knowledgeable about climate change, facilitated the process. If the testing had been left to PAGEIT project staff, the testing process would have been more challenging. - The tool provides a useful framework for explaining the links between climate change, livelihoods and a project. Although the testing process took about 5 hours, the structure of the tool allowed for a logical progression of the discussion, where participants were able to identify and understand the links clearly. - The tool should call for prioritization of responses. In the interest of time and efficiency, users should be asked to list the top hazards, impacts, coping strategies, livelihoods resources etc. Users are welcome to list all the information that come to mind (for the purpose of documenting and archiving information), but the tool application process should only address priorities. - The final step i.e. on project adjustments is still unstructured, and indicators may only be a starting point for identifying or developing real adjustments. 9

10 ANNEX 1: MAP OF YOUWAROU DEPARTMENT (SUB-REGION) 10

11 ANNEX : TOOL TESTING TRIP AGENDA (SEPTEMBER 11 16, 005) Date September 11, 005 September 1, 005 September 1, 005 September 1, 005 September 15, 005 September 16, 005 Activity Arrival in Bamako, Mali Meeting with Aliou Faye (IUCN) Preparations for trip to field site Meeting with Acting Head of Intercooperation, Mali Meeting with National Climate Change Coordinator Travel to Mopti (/ of distance to field site) Meeting with AGHYRMET project coordinator in Mopti Travel to Youwarou (field site) Project briefing with PAGEIT project team, technical departments and community representatives at field site Community consultation to test Livelihoods and Climate Change Tool Return to Mopti Meeting with Wetlands International, Mali Return to Bamako Wrap-up of tool testing in Bamako 11

12 ANNEX : LIST OF PARTICIPANTS FOR INTRODUCTORY EVENING SESSION REUNION DE BRIEFING AVEC L EQUIPE DU PROJET, LES PARTENAIRES TECHNIQUES ET LES REPRESENTANTS DES POPULATIONS BENEFICIAIRES Youwarou, le 1 septembre Liste des participants Name Occupation Institution 1. Adbrahamane GOITA Coordonnateur Projet PAGEIT. Marie Christine TRAORE Animatrice Projet PAGEIT. Hassane KAYA Animateur Projet PAGEIT. Siaka TRAORE Gestionnaire Projet PAGEIT 5. Soumaila NIANGALY Chef de Secteur Service Elevage 6. Moussa GUINDO Chef de Secteur Service Agriculture 7. Abdoulaye DEMBELE Secrétaire administratif Comité Local de Gestion des Ressources Naturelles 8. Amadoun BOCOUM Président Comité Local de Gestion des Ressources Naturelles 9. Alhassane SARRO Chef de Secteur Service de la Pêche 10. Ourouzo DAKOUO Encadreur Intercoopération Sahel 11. Daouda DIARRA Chef de Secteur Service de la Conservation de la Nature 1. Anne HAMMILL IISD 1. Aliou FAYE Représentant UICN au Mali UICN 1. Felix TOGO Chef Secteur sortant Service Agriculture 1

13 ANNEX : LIST OF PARTICIPANTS FOR TOOL TESTING MEETING TESTING LIVELIHOODS AND CLIMATE CHANGE TOOL Youwarou, le 1 septembre Liste des participants Name Occupation Institution 1. Adbrahamane GOITA Coordonnateur Projet PAGEIT. Marie Christine TRAORE Animatrice Projet PAGEIT. Hassane KAYA Animateur Projet PAGEIT. Siaka TRAORE Gestionnaire Projet PAGEIT 5. Soumaila NIANGALY Chef de Secteur Service Elevage 6. Moussa GUINDO Chef de Secteur Service Agriculture 7. Abdoulaye DEMBELE Secrétaire administratif Comité Local de Gestion des Ressources Naturelles (CLG) 8. Amadoun BOCOUM Président CLG 9. Alhassane SARRO Chef de Secteur Service de la Pêche 10. Ourouzo DAKOUO Encadreur Intercoopération Sahel 11. Daouda DIARRA Chef de Secteur Service de la Conservation de la Nature 1. Anne HAMMILL IIDD 1. Aliou FAYE Représentant UICN au Mali UICN 1. Amadou DAOU Chef de Secteur Opération Pêche 15. Mahamane TRAORE Conseiller Communal Commune de Youwarou 16. Nouhoury Tié TIAO Notable Youwarou 17. Abdourahamane Programme Officer Coopération Suisse MAIGA 18. Yaya BOCOUM Président Chambre Youwarou 1

14 d Agriculture 19. Sory A. TIAO Chef de Village et Vice- Youwarou Président du CLG 0. Aliou FAYE Représentant UICN Mali UICN 1. Anne HAMMILL IIDD 1

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