1 ALTERNATIVE PATHS TOWARDS THE AGE OF MERCANTILISM: REVISITING THE 17 TH CENTURY S ECONOMIC CRISIS. The centuries- long history of the Ottoman Empire has been and somehow still is considered by non- Ottoman historians from a teleological approach 1. So challenging is the idea that the Middle East has been ruled by an independent, hegemonic State, that the European or, better to say, Eurocentric culture and mentality need to keep celebrating its actual historical decay and ultimate end. The institutional experience of the Ottoman Empire still happens to be either abused or sentenced to a damnatio memoriae. This is particularly true in those countries that are directly caught up in the Ottoman memory. These nations, such as Turkey, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and other Balkan countries, also happen to host the most extensive Ottoman archives in the world. As far as Italian historiography is concerned, Ottoman documents are seldom directly examined, even when dealing with the ever- fashionable topics of Mediterranean history. Leaving aside the deliberately overlooked period of post- unitary connections, even the diversified relationships between the Ottoman Empire and the Ancient Italian States are traditionally investigated using sources other than Ottoman documents. This, I believe, has been conducive to producing a hesitation in historiographical advances from the late 1970s onwards. Many questions that had been posed by a generation of Italian historians, deeply concerned with economic structures and models, and influenced by Fernand Braudel s perspective, have been abandoned in favor of topics that have more to do with methodological assumptions than with an actual interpretation of historical data 2. It would be hazardous to think that the development of a comparative approach, alone, would have protected Italian historiography in the uncertain circumstances currently affecting humanities. Nevertheless, what is certain is that the perspective offered by a different point of view of the same structures and events necessarily broadens the horizons of a discipline and makes it more difficult to weaken its cultural significance. The history of the Mediterranean and of the Ancient Italian States is now ready to be verified via Ottoman sources, in all their wide varieties. 1 Salzmann, Romano, 1995.
2 2 Furthermore, the actual amount and quality of Ottoman sources kept in Italian archives is far from being completely known. In the State Archives of Palermo, for example, Ottoman documents are classified as unreadable Arabic documents, which means that the memory of Ottoman interests in Sicily has been completely erased: in 1861, six Ottoman consuls were active on the island and now nobody there is able to read their documents. One may hold the difficulties of the language as responsible for the non- involvement of Italian scholars and historians; but this assumption however scientifically unacceptable is inexorably called into question by the deeply- rooted tradition of Ottoman studies in Italy 3. Another reason might be the previous, lengthy inaccessibility of Turkish archives, but then why should the perfectly accessible Ottoman documents kept in the Italian archives share the same destiny? And why should not this reason be null and void, now that the Turkish archives have been opened? Rather, I am inclined to think that a peculiar strategy of State- building is at the basis of this repression : after 1876, the new Italian ruling class let colonialism transmit a new ideology of consent. Post- Garibaldi discourses on the pretended Italianness of Albania started to fill up the pages of the national press, the Corriere della Sera printing among the most chauvinist anti- Ottoman prose. Now that the not- too- glorious age of Italian social- colonialism 4 is only a distant memory, our historical tradition seems still gratuitously bound to the idea that the storia patria needs to be based on native sources, relegating Ottoman and, in general, foreign records to being a curiosity for philologists, if not a rarity for antiquarians. Will a department of comparative/world history ever be founded in Italy? It seems perhaps more appropriate however provocative to keep an eye on the interest shown in the last few months by the Italian industries in the Turkish economic boom and to claim that at least this renewed commercial vocation eastwards will demand and produce an innovative cultural and political base for its development. The eastwards trend in international trade has been considered a structural aspect in the history of the Italian peninsula 5. The governments held by the destra storica were fully 3 See, for example, the late- 19 th century establishment of the chair in Turkish Language at the Scuola Superiore di Commercio in Venice (Bellingeri, 1991). 4 Carocci, Romano, 1972.
3 3 aware of its original character and kept encouraging it by building infrastructures in the country and by demanding high performances from Italian diplomacy abroad and especially in the Ottoman Empire 6. The close, substantial connection between trade, peace and diplomacy is maybe the Republic of Venice s most precious bequest to the modern Italian State. A quintessentially neutral power, its ruling class constantly acted as a conflict- defusing factor in 16 th century Mediterranean affairs 7. As we shall see, this pattern continued with even more intensity throughout the first decades of the following century, from the (propitious) abandonment of the Holy League (1573) till the War of Candia (1645). Venice was still among the leading industrial powers of the time and trade with the Ottoman Empire was vital to the very existence of the State. Nevertheless, after the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus, Venetian interests in the Eastern Mediterranean were destined to be seriously compromised. The loss of such an important base for their feudal business economy would have soon deprived the Venetian merchants of their privileged position in the commercial competition of the time. True, the Venetian network in Syria was so deeply rooted that the relatively short war in Cyprus did not have an immediate effect on the commercial competition in the area: throughout the subsequent two decades, the merchants of Saint Mark s continued to be the most influential and numerous trading nation in Aleppo. Nevertheless, this inertia was destined to end. Moreover, and partially in consequence of these late- 16 th - century events, at the beginning of the 17 th century the first crisis of production occurred in all its dramatic evidence 8. The crisis of the 17 th century is considered a general crisis 9. This means that its causes and effects are traceable in many aspects of the economic life of the time: demographic, industrial and commercial. Some historians prefer to stress its structural pattern, pointing out the irreversible failure of a whole model of development 10. The English and the Dutch not only won the competition with the former leading economies the so- called Italians but also laid the foundations of a completely innovative deal in the economic history of the world. This process was neither quick nor sudden. On the contrary, throughout the second 6 Chabod, Hale, Romano, Parker and Smith, 1978; Hobsbawn, 1954; Wallerstein Rapp, 1976.
4 4 half of the preceding century the English had slowly proceeded towards what has been called the unmaking of Venetian hegemony in Mediterranean trade 11. Their first and most effective weapon had been to counterfeit Venetian fabrics. Lower- quality and cheap imitations of Venetian textiles were introduced into the Levantine markets and circulated with the fake brand of the lion of Saint Mark s. This strategy was accompanied by a jump in the industrial system of textile production, supported as argued by the energy economists by mineral energy resources: coal and turf instead of wood 12. Consequently, lower costs of production, together with daring choices in the fields of colors and materials, had the effect of expanding the market. More people had access to cheaper products. This did not mean that Venetian fabrics were about to disappear: on the contrary, the Sultan and the Ottoman élite would continue to favor Venetian luxury items throughout the existence of the Republic. What changed was the system of consumption on a wider scale 13. The Dutch and English merchants were paying for raw materials such as cotton and wool with (smuggled) 14 American silver, partially recovered through the sale of the end products of their industry. This mercantilist scheme of proto- colonial penetration kept the Mediterranean and the Ottoman Empire, more than any other State at the center of the world s interests. The Mediterranean lands were at the same time a space where raw materials were produced and a promising, socially diversified community of consumption. Varied strategies were adopted in order to intervene in the different social and institutional realities that came into contact with this new economy 15. In Southern Italy, for example, the English merchants substituted the Venetian and Genoese network by developing a pattern of intervention focusing on re- exports 16. In general, English trade in Italy was mainly a transit trade, Livorno being an indispensable stopping- off point on the route taken by English ships sailing to the Mediterranean 17. In the Ottoman Empire, too, strategies are difficult to generalize to a common pattern, each provincial situation as well as that of the capital 18 needing a more 11 Rapp, Wrigley, Braudel, 1974; Carmagnani, 2010; Parker, 2001 and Pamuk, Moutoukias, Pagano de Divitiis, Ibidem. 17 Braudel and Romano, 1951; Ghezzi, 2007; D Angelo, 2004 and Pagano de Divitiis, Eldem, Goffman and Masters, 2003 and Mantran, 1996.
5 5 detailed inspection 19. Nevertheless, all these places had to cope with a new mercantilist approach in the commercial transactions and ultimately happened to suffer from it while finding their place within modernity 20. Indeed, the crisis of the 17 th century introduced structural elements of inequality and disharmony among trading regions. Even today s disparity between Northern and Southern European countries needs to be traced back to the 17 th century in order to be properly understood 21. Now, what was the impact of this crisis on the economic policies of the period? Did the former leading economies react? It has been written that the Question d Orient cannot be examined without also considering the answers provided to that question by the Orient(s) it(them)self(- ves) 22. Did the old world 23 think about an alternative path towards the age of mercantilism 24? Though structural, the crisis has been described as relative and not absolute, as far as the city of Venice was concerned 25. Mechanisms of old- regime social security such as the guild system prevented living standards from lowering, the highest price of the crisis being ultimately paid by the countryside, through re- feudalization methods. This pattern had the effect of protecting the industrial sector and, on a different though interlinking level, made it possible for the Republican ruling class to establish autonomous priorities in the State s economic policies. If an answer to the crisis has to be looked for, it must be in the Venetian commercial affairs. In 1577, a Jewish merchant named Daniel Rodriga presented to the Senate of the Republic a project of establishing an international port in the Dalmatian city of Spalato, formally part of the Venetian stato da mar 26. The proposal was taken into consideration and accepted by the authorities. Basically, Rodriga s project was to apply a low- custom policy in order to attract Ottoman goods to Spalato rather than to any other Eastern Adriatic port. Spalato being a Venetian colony, the ships would have then left compulsorily for the Serenissima. As the Levant Company had its Livorno, Venice could count 19 Hanna, 1998; Khouri, 1997; Goffman, 1990; Frangakis- Syrett, 1992; Smyrnelis, 1999 and Faroqhi, Masters, Romano, Georgeon, Lanaro, [S]i sbaglierebbe a concludere [ ] che Venezia assistette inerte a questo declassamento di una marina mercantile che per secoli era stata il suo vanto (Sella, 1961 and 1994). 25 Rapp, Paci, 1971.
6 6 on its Spalato. As a satellite free port, the Dalmatian city could become Venice s feudal subterfuge to the new economy. One only has to look at a map to understand how slim the portion of Venetian territory was on the Dalmatian coast. Immediately beyond the border, began the boundless paese turchesco. The project of the scala di Spalato had to count on the organic cooperation of the Ottomans or it could not exist. It has been written that economic history has its own chronology, independent from the traditional partition of human history 27. Quite similarly, it may be argued that it has its own space too, equally independent from the geography drawn by institutional borders. In this sense, Early- Modern Venetian Dalmatia and Ottoman Bosnia were a concrete example of geographic contiguity and economic interdependence. There were towns under Ottoman rule, their natural port ( marina ) being beyond the border, in Venetian territory. Such was the case of Venetian Spalato (İsplit) and Ottoman Kilis (Clissa). The more critical and controversial the Balkan border became during the wars, the less intense it became during the longer periods of peace. A pervasive phenomenon of professional cross- migration had already been denounced on many occasions by Qānūnī Süleymān (mid- 16 th century): immediately before a military campaign against Persia, the Sultan had to repeat his orders of salt for the army, since all of it was already in the hands of the Venetian merchants, the Ottoman salt- works being monopolized by their network 28. The situation might be described in terms of economic pervasiveness of the city- State of Venice towards the Ottoman periphery. The current oblivion of Early- Modern history makes everybody remember Ottoman Bosnia as a province far from its political center, economically depressed and deeply harassed by ethnic disputes and colonial interests. This is mainly due to the 19 th - century and current events concerning this area, but also to the post- Fascist voluntary oblivion of Venice s maritime power on the Eastern coast of the Adriatic. Moreover, it should also be remembered that Ottoman Bosnia corresponded to the western, farthest ramification of a trade route whose cohesion was augmented by the unity of Ottoman rule. How this unity contributed to delaying the occurrence of the economic crisis has not been investigated yet 29. What emerges from the documents is that a whole stream of Eastern 27 Romano, Gökbilgin, 1964 and Hocquet, Barkan, 1961.
7 7 products, including for example Indian pepper, arrived in Bosnia by caravan 30. Together with local products, such as wool, wax, cheese, thickfelt, silk and semi- processed leather, these goods all reached Saray Bosna and then took different routes to reach the maritime coast westwards. Dubrovnik, Narenta, Maqarsqa, Şebenik, Leş and Nova were the major accesses to the sea. The Venetian project of letting the Balkan merchandise converge in Kilis and then Spalato was an attempt to clamp down on this fragmentation, preserving the cohesive nature of trade granted by the unity of the Ottoman lands. In this sense, the territory ruled by the Venetians played its traditional role of natural continuation of the Ottoman lands. Many authoritative words have been written about the compatibility of the two States 31. The project of the scala di Spalato may very well be considered as the extreme declination of this compatibility. The realization of the project could count on an already well- established Venetian network in the area. A Conte was in charge in the port of Spalato and another was in the nearby city of Zara, both submitting to a Provveditore Generale di Dalmazia, also established in Zara. These three public offices were assigned to patricians for three years. Moreover, just across the nearby Ottoman border, a Venetian consul not necessarily a patrician was appointed both in Kilis and in Saray Bosna, nowadays Sarajevo (Daniel Rodriga, for example, was in charge at the end of the 16 th century). This institutional network, reaching deep into the Ottoman domains, was somehow the demonstration of the vitality of Venetian interests in the Balkans even before the actual establishment of the Scala. At the end of the 16 th century, the target became that of activating this network towards a new perspective: allowing the route from Saray Bosna to Kilis, to Spalato, and ultimately to Venice, to become the preferential path for traded goods travelling westwards. In view of this target, the aforementioned network was integrated by other, not- necessarily institutionalized, figures with the task of facilitating cooperation with the Ottoman authorities established in Skopije, Sofia, and Saray Bosna, and with the merchants at all levels: [ ] vi commettemo che dobbiate immediate mandar quelle persone che voi stimarete buone per condur a fine questo negozio, facendolo trattar con quella circonspettione che dalli savii nostri sopra la mercantia 30 BOA, MD 24, hüküm 43, 16/Za/ Braudel,
8 8 vi è stata scritta, [ ] non interversando in ciò il nome pubblico, ma solamente il beneficio di quei sanzacadi et de mercanti [ ] 32, the Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia wrote in 1588 to the Rettori di Zara. As is suggested by this quotation, at this stage the Venetian ruling class chose to keep a low international profile on the project. The keyword was indeed circonspettione. Venetians were particularly careful not to let the project become an international affair. After the loss of Cyprus or, according to traditional chronological partition, after the Battle of Lepanto Venice is relegated by historiography to a role of regional power. Was it really so? Yes, would answer in reassuring tones the Venetian ruling class of the day, about whose rare pragmatism many illuminating words have already been written 33. On the contrary, Venetians were playing their cards on a regional base, in order to re- assess their hegemony on the contended transit trade of their Gulf, as the Adriatic Sea was called in those days. Who were the competitors and who the potential enemies? As stated by the Cinque Savi in a paper dated June 1589, [n]oi, presa informazione particolare et dal clarissimo messer Nicolò Bragadino, ultimamente ritornato di là, et da Daniel Rodriga, crediamo che i dubii dell effettuarla si risolvono in dua molto principali, l uno sopra le difficoltà che potranno esser poste dall emino di Narenta et dal Sanzaco del Ducado, interessati molto per questa deliberazione, quello come datiaro di quella scala et questo come patrone del paese per dove convengono passar hora tutte le mercantie, le quali mutando scala converranno tralasciar quel camino con interesse di quel sanzacado. L altra dubietà nasce dal timore che hanno tutti i mercanti per il pericolo del viaggio, potendo in molti luoghi del paese, per l abondanza di boschi et altri siti esser assaliti et da Uscocchi et da altri [ ] 34. The Ottoman authorities mentioned by the document occupied different positions in the local administration. The first the emin of the port town of Narenta was the person to whom customs duties were entrusted, either in exchange of a salary or, more often in this area, of a share of the income (iltizām). The second was the sancaqbeýi of Duka, an administrative figure of middling importance, also appointed by the Sultan, who mediated between local demands and the beýlerbeýi. The two of them nourished a direct or indirect interest in trade. Of course, the passage of a caravan through a city meant dependable sources of income under many 32 ASV, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, I serie, b. 162, September 27th Arbel, ASV, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, I serie, b. 162, June 16th 1589.
9 9 aspects 35 ; therefore, it was not even necessary for the political authorities to have a direct interest in the goods actually traded which, in many cases, they had in order to intervene in favor of one route or another. These two figures were neither the only nor the most dangerous competitors of the newly established scala di Spalato. True, their bases were closer to Spalato than any other port- town and the growth of the latter would have deprived them of flow of international goods. According to the Cinque Savi, both of them were to be easily neutralized through the well- known strategy of the negotio, which in this case consisted of obtaining the support of a higher placed authority (the beýlerbeýi of Bosnia) and other local figures, playing on the rivalries between the servants of the Sultan. This strategy, which modern culture would classify as political or diplomatic, was on the contrary essentially organic to trade, this last being an activity far more complex than we may assume today. The Ottoman functionaries often embraced the Venetian cause out of financial interest, a share of the potential income being destined directly to them. Merchants from Ancona and from Dubrovnik, whose fortunes were subject to a sudden increase whenever a military controversy would pitch the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire, were to be particularly annoyed by the establishment of an international port in Spalato. For sure, their opposition would have been more challenging than any other s for the Venetians, since both of these cities could have turned to the Pope and asked for support. The Venetians were certainly unwilling to deal with a direct intervention of the Pope in economic affairs concerning the Gulf 36. Moreover, at the end of the 16 th century as in many other periods the Pope s intervention would have been immediately supported by the King of Spain, both of them being affronted since the Venetian abandonment of the Holy League. In other words, better to pass for an undervalued regional power rather than to put up with religiously disguised political interference 37. Moreover, both Spain and the Papacy could easily count on a third, promising ally in their fight for hegemony in the Adriatic: the Austrian monarchy was taking its first steps towards the Balkans, the Uskok piracy being its (irregular) maritime force 38. Almost two centuries later, at the end of the 18 th century, 35 BOA, MAD 706, 3/C/ Sarpi, Cessi, Bracewell, 1992.
10 10 Trieste would turn out to be the long- lasting and unquestioned winner in the Adriatic competition 39. Though inscribed in the same context, the auspicated circonspettione mentioned by the Cinque Savi was mentioned rather as regards to the central government of the Ottoman Empire. In this first stage, neither the Sultan nor the Grand Vizier were to be informed of the project. This strategy is openly described in Venetian sources, but may also be discernible in the Ottoman accounts of the time. Often, the Venetians instructed the beý of Kilis and, through his mediation, the beýlerbeýi of Saray Bosna to realize infrastructures destined to facilitate the passage of caravans. Whether it was a bridge that needed to be built, or a forest to be cleared, in order to flush out the innumerable bandits, the Venetians informed the Ottoman authorities and asked for prompt intervention. In some cases, the tasks were accomplished by the local administration, although an intervention from Istanbul was frequently required, especially when permanent infrastructures, such as bridges or caravanserais, were planned. Should such circumstances occur, the local authorities informed first the Venetians of the necessity to contact the central government. At this first stage, the Cinque Savi would rather spend money out of the Republic s Treasury, than have the Sultan solicited on a project that was meant to be kept under wraps. In 1589, the Cinque Savi wrote: [m]a perché conviene per comodo delle mercantie et caravane ottener che nel paese turchesco, sopra il fiume della Citina lontano da Spalato meza giornata, sii da Turchi fabricato un ponte et havendo di ciò trattato il Rodriga, come egli asserisse, che il sanzaco suddetto, dal quale ha avuto per risposta che non vi porrà mano senza espresso comandamento della Porta, sarà necessario procurar in questo, mentre che nel fiume suddetto siino posti doi ponti sopra burchielle secondo l uso d Italia, perché comodamente et con prestezza passino le mercantie et caravane. A qual cosa, come crediamo che sarà facile ottenere, renderà anco minor pregiudizio alle cose pubbliche per quei rispetti che sono considerabili molto in questo proposito. 40 After all, the heavy customs duty of the mezi noli, affecting the ships traveling to and from the rival ports of Narenta and Dubrovnik, was destined to cover the expenses needed for the construction of the lazaret and of any other 39 Tucci, ASV, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, I serie, b. 162, 16th 1589.
11 11 infrastructure required for the full completion of the route (the customs house, bridges, watchtowers etc.). The lazaret itself was of prime importance in the Venetian strategy: the strict sanitary measures adopted by the Serenissima not only served the purpose of preventing dangerous epidemics, but also allowed the authorities to let personal interpretations of those very measures become the rule. Ragusean ships were captured and dragged into the lazaret for exasperating quarantines in order to delay the delivery of the goods they transported 41. The project of the scala di Spalato was indeed at the center of Venetian trade politics up until the War of Candia. Together with the relatively good performance of the industrial sector, the stubborn defense of the Spalato route may be considered as one of the measures that made the decline of the 17 th - century relative and not absolute as far as urban living standards were concerned. Venetian fabrics kept circulating in the market places of Sofia, Skopije and Saray Bosna for much longer than in the new and old trading centers of the Middle East, such as Aleppo, İzmir and Cairo, where the competition of the Northerners had been more successful. This interpretation tells us a lot about the capacities of a State to influence the economic vicissitudes interfering with the life and means of its people. The firm intention to avoid the direct involvement of the Sultan in this first stage is confirmed by the Ottoman sources. The Sultan s letters to his representatives in Bosnia dealt with all topics but the scala di Spalato. Nevertheless, in some cases, the Sultan ended up legislating in favor of the scala without actually being aware of the wrong he was doing to his authorities in Narenta or to his tributary vassals the Raguseans. These circumstances did not last more than twelve years. Very soon, the competition in the Adriatic became so bitter that an actual alliance between Venice and Istanbul was required in order to protect the route leading to and from Spalato. The scala had become the symbol of Venice s independence and was supported by a strong political project, powered and argued for by such refined intellectuals as Paolo Sarpi. Sarpi challenged Grotius s Mare Liberum on a conceptual basis and offered theoretical support to the Venetian sovereignty on the Adriatic 42. An undisputed protagonist of the period of the Interdetto, he foresaw the 41 Paci, Moscarda, 2002.
12 12 detrimental influence of the Pope on the relationships among the ancient Italian States and the emerging nations, and even proposed the State s conversion to Protestantism. Was this the price to pay for an alliance with the only logical trading partner, the Ottomans?
13 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arbel Benjamin, Sauterelles et mentalités. Le cas de la Chypre vénitienne, in Annales ESC, 44/5 (1989), pp Barkan Ömer Lutfi, The Price Revolution of the Sixteenth Century: A Turning Point in the Economic History of the Near East, in International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 6 (1975), pp Barkey Karen, Bandits and Bureaucrats, The Ottoman Route to State Centralization, Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press Bellingeri Giampiero, Venezia e il Turco. Dalla Cancelleria Ducale a Ca' Foscari, in S. Perosa, M. Calderaro e S. Ragazzoni (eds.), Venezia e le lingue e letterature straniere, Roma, Bulzoni 1991, pp Bracewell Catherine W., The Uskoks of Senj: piracy, banditry and holy war in the sixteenth- century Adriatic, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press Braudel Fernand and Romano Ruggiero, Navires et marchandises à l entrée du port de Livourne ( ), Paris, A. Colin Braudel Fernand, Capitalism and material life, , 3 vols., New York, Harper & Row Carmagnani Marcello, Le isole del lusso: prodotti esotici, nuovi consumi e cultura economica europea, , Torino, UTET Carocci Giampiero, Storia d Italia dall Unità a oggi, Milano, Feltrinelli Cessi Roberto, La Repubblica di Venezia e il problema adriatico, Padova, CEDAM Chabod Federico, Storia della politica estera italiana dal 1870 al 1896, vol. 1, Bari, Laterza Chaudhury Sushil and Morineau Michel (eds.), Merchants, Companies and Trade. Europe and Asia in the Early Modern Era, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press D Angelo Michela, Mercanti inglesi a Livorno, , Messina, Istituto di Studi Storici, Eldem Edhem, Daniel Goffman and Bruce Masters (eds.), Doğu ile batı arasında Osmanlı kenti : Halep, İzmir ve İstanbul, İstanbul : Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, 2003.
14 14 Faroqhi Suraiya, The Ottoman Empire and the world around it, London and New York, I. B. Tauris Frangakis- Syrett Elena, The Commerce of Smyrna in the Eighteenth Century, Athens, Center for Asia Minor Studies Georgeon François, La période des Tanzimat, in Mantran R. (ed.), Histoire de l'empire Ottoman, Paris, Fayard 1989, pp Ghezzi Renato, Livorno e il mondo islamico nel XVII secolo. Naviglio e commercio di importazione, Bari, Cacucci Goffman Daniel, Izmir and the Levantine World, , Seattle, University of Washington Press Hale John R. (ed.), Renaissance Venice, London, Faber & Faber Hanna Nelly, Making big money in 1600: the life and times of Ismaʻil Abu Taqiyya, Egyptian merchant, New York, Syracuse University Press Hobsbawn Eric J., General Crisis of the European Economy in the 17th century, in Past and Present, 5 (1954), pp Hocquet Jean- Claude, Le sel et la fortune de Venise, Villeneuve- d'ascq, Publications de l'université de Lille III Khoury Rizk Dina, State and provincial society in the Ottoman empire : Mosul, , New York, Cambridge University Press Lanaro Paola (ed.), At the centre of the old world : trade and manufacturing in Venice and on the Venetian mainland ( ), Toronto, Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies Mantran Robert, Histoire d Istanbul, Paris, Fayard Masters Bruce A., The origins of Western economic dominance in the Middle East: mercantilism and the Islamic economy in Aleppo, , New York, New York Unversity Press, Moscarda Dea, Grozio, Sarpi: due dissertazioni politiche sulla navigazione dei mari nel secolo XVII, Rovigno, Atti del Centro di Ricerche Storiche di Rovigno XXXII (2002). Moutoukias Zacharias, Contrabando y control colonial en el siglo XVII: Buenos Aires, el Atlántico y el espacio peruano, Buenos Aires, Centro Editor de América Latina 1988.
15 15 Neill Anna, British Discovery Literature and the Rise of Global Commerce, New York, Palgrave Ormrod David, The Rise of Commercial Empires. England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Paci Renzo, La scala di Spalato e il commercio veneziano nei Balcani fra Cinque e Seicento, Venezia, Deputazione di storia patria per le Venezie Pagano de Divitiis Gigliola, English Merchants in Seventeenth- Century Italy, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press Pamuk Şevket, A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press Parker Geoffrey and Smith Lesley M. (eds.), The general crisis of the seventeenth century, London and New York, Routledge Rapp Richard T., The unmaking of the Mediterranean trade hegemony: international trade rivalry and the commercial revolution, in The Journal of Economic History, 35/3 (1975), pp Rapp Richard T., Industry and Economic Decline in Seventeenth- Century Venice, Cambridge, Harvard University Press Romano Ruggiero, L Italia nella crisi del secolo XVII, in Id., Tra due crisi: l Italia del Rinascimento, Torino, Einaudi Romano Ruggiero, Una tipologia economica, in Id. and C. Vivanti (eds.), Storia d Italia, vol. 1. I caratteri originali, Torino, Einaudi Romano Ruggiero, Industria, storia e problemi, Torino, Einaudi Romano Ruggiero, Braudel e noi. Riflessioni sulla cultura storica del nostro tempo, Donzelli Salzmann Ariel, Tocqueville in the Ottoman Empire. Rival Paths to the Modern State, Leiden and Boston, Brill Sarpi Paolo, Dominio del Mare Adriatico della Serenissima Repubblica di Venetia, Venezia, Roberto Meietti Sella Domenico, Commerci e industrie a Venezia nel secolo XVII, Venezia, Istituto per la Collaborazione Culturale 1961.
16 16 Sella Domenico, L economia, in Cozzi Gaetano and Prodi Paolo (eds.), Storia di Venezia, vol. 6. Dal Rinascimento al barocco, Roma, Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana Smyrnelis Marie- Carmen, Les Européens et leur implantation dans l espace urbain de Smyrne, in Bottin Jean and Calabi Donatella (eds.), Les étrangers dans la ville, Paris, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l homme 1999, pp Trivellato Francesca, The familiarity of strangers : the Sephardic diaspora, Livorno, and cross- cultural trade in the early modern period, New Haven, Yale University Press Tucci Ugo, Una descrizione di Trieste a metà del Settecento, in Quaderni Giuliani di Storia, 1/2 (1980), pp Wallerstein Immanuel, The Modern World- System II, Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World- Economy, , New York, Academic Press, Williamson James A., Maritime Enterprise, , New York, Octagon Books Wrigley Edward A., Energy and the English Industrial Revolution, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press 2010.
Focus Lesson - The Impact of the Crusades Merchant ships in the harbor at Naples after the Crusades How did the Crusades affect Europe and the Middle East? The Results of the End of the Medieval Crusades
1815 Napoleon is captured Unification of Italy Time to divide his empire and answer the following questions: How do you prevent the rise of another Napoleon? How do you establish a lasting peace & genuine
Standards Addressed by The Choices Program National Standards for the Social Studies National Standards for Social Studies are available online at cnets.iste.org/currstands. Strand I: Culture and Cultural
Economic Policy and State Intervention (Richards and Waterbury CHs #2,3,7,8,9) 1. Recovery Since 1800 2. Growth Policies 3. Why the Middle East Chose Import Substitution 4. MENA vs. Asia 5. Reform Disparity
St. Michael-Albertville High School Teacher: Derek Johnson World History I (Master) September 2014 CEQ: Early Civilizations 1. Explain how the first 1. I can explain how the first cities emerged. Early
Course Title Course Code : INTRODUCTION TO EUROPEAN HISTORY : HST114 Recommended Study Year* : Year 1 No. of Credits/Term : 3 Mode of Tuition Class Contact Hours Category in Major Prog. Prerequisites Co-requisites
Content : Victorian Times : The British Empire 1. Historical Background 2. The Victorian era 2.1 Foreign policy (The Empire s conflicts) 2.2 Domestic policy (London during her era) 3. Conclusion 1. Historical
Andrea Pedeferri Curriculum Vitae Personal Data 3601 Greenway apt 811 21218 Baltimore, MD USA +1 443 850 0092 email@example.com http://departments.columbian.gwu.edu/philosophy/people/172 Areas of Specializations
TURKEY AT THE CROSSROADS: POLITICS AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN AN EMERGING POWER IN THE MIDDLE EAST Marshall Student Center Room 3707 University of South Florida Thursday, March 24, 2011 Sponsored by the Department
Historical Perspective International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War Historical Perspective This chapter introduces various historical examples
Advanced Placement (AP ) Social Studies Courses The AP social studies courses are intended to provide a rigorous college level introduction to the social sciences for high school students. While no official
CHAPTER 3 Section 4 European Kingdoms and Feudalism Germanic states emerged in the former Western Roman Empire and created a new European civilization. European Kingdoms and Feudalism (cont.) By 500 A.D.,
Mediterranean Travel Map A Fan-Made Savage Worlds TM Resource by Jordan Peacock for use with Pirates of the Spanish Main TM RPG If you want to send your heroes after the Pirates of the Barbary Coast, here
12 Is China Catching Up with the US? Kenneth Lieberthal Opinion Kenneth Lieberthal Is China Catching Up with the US? While China has emerged as a key player in global affairs, significant challenges to
101 Archi-Cultural Translations through the Silk Road 2 nd International Conference, Mukogawa Women s Univ., Nishinomiya, Japan, July 14-16, 2012 Proceedings THE ORGANIZATION OF LONG-DISTANCE TRADE AND
Unit 8 Important Empires II 1 Unit 8 - Important Empires II Timeline Map Japan Tokugawa Important Empires II Mongol Ghana China Africa Mali Ming Songhai Middle East Maya Ottoman Empire Latin America Aztec
Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires Ottoman Empire Turks- groups from central Asia, spread west 9 th -11 th centuries Seljuk Turks took over Abbasid caliphate, enemies of Byzantines Ottoman Turks- Osman rewarded
IMPACT OF THE CRUSADES DBQ This task is based on the accompanying documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purpose of this task. This task is designed to test your ability to work with
CHINA AND EUROPE, 1500-2000 and BEYOND: What is Modern? Lesson Guide to Web Module Bram Hubbell, the Friends Seminary, Brooklyn, New York. Eight Sections following those of the Web module: I. Introduction
Economic Relations between Italy and Albania 1993 2000 Juliana Marko, MSc, PhD Candidate Faculty of History and Philology, University of Tirana, Albania Abstract The history of economic relations between
Name Date Assessment: From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. 1. Which of the events below was a result of the event in the headline? Seljuk
Chapter 7 Section 1 Founding the Roman Republic Identify the role of geography played in Italy s and Rome s development Describe the form of government of the Roman Republic Explain the Conflict of the
CINQUE TERRE ITALY TRAVEL GUIDE This cinque terre italy travel guide will contain a general description in the item, the name and functions of the company's different parts, step-by-step instructions of
BENIAMINO CARAVITA Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy 1. The federal idea in Italian history Italy became a unitary State between 1861 and 1870, assembling under
Sykes-Picot: 100 Years Later May 26, 2016 by Kaisa Stucke of Confluence Investment Management Last week marked the 100th anniversary of the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the disintegrating Ottoman
Colonial & Revolutionary Periods SAMPLE APUSH ESSAY TOPICS 1) Analyze the cultural and economic responses of TWO of the following groups to the Indians of North America before 1750. British French Spanish
The Roman Republic The Growth and Expansion January 4, 2016 AIM: To what extent does the political legacy of Ancient Rome continue today? DO NOW: Prepare for outline quiz. Homework: Outline The Rise of
NICOLA AMENDOLA CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL E-mail: Web Site: Office: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.economia.uniroma2.it/amendola.htm Dipartimento di Economia e Istituzioni Università di Roma Tor
THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY Historical background. The Roman Empire. The Italian culture. The French Revolution and The Napoleonic Wars. The Vienna settlement. Mazzini and the idea of an Italian state (Risorgimento).
EUROPEAN STUDIES IN TURKEY: PRESENT STATE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE European studies in Turkey have gone through intensive development in the last few years, especially after the Helsinki summit. Today
Fight for North America: The Emergence of Colonial and Native Societies (1607-1754) Essential Question #1 If the goal of colonization was to create new empires for the European powers, why did the Europeans
Unit 01 - Study Questions 1. In what ways did geography and climate affect the development of human society? 2. What were the economic and social results of the agricultural revolution? 3. What are the
Rise of the Roman Republic Timeline 509 BCE: Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome, was overthrown by a group of patricians upset over his abuse of power. The Roman Republic was proclaimed. 494 BCE:
Western Michigan University ScholarWorks at WMU Best Midwestern High School Writing 2014 Winners Best Midwestern High School Writing: A Celebration and Recognition of Outstanding Prose 5-2014 The Downfall
IMPERIALISM, LEAD UP TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1. New Colonialism Imperialism TASK 1: Which countries were the major colonial powers in the second half of the 19 th century? Which colonies were under their
SEPTEMBER WHI.1 Historical Research and Geographical Analysis *(ongoing throughout year) identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources use maps, globes, artifacts, pictures identify major
7th Grade World Civilization Objectives Unit One Beginning of Human Civilization Unit Students will explain the historic development and achievements of the early civilizations. Explain how geography played
AP European History! Mr. Walters 1996 DBQ: Dutch Republic & Rival States1 Task: Identify and analyze the challenges to the security, unity and prosperity of the Dutch Republic, 1650-1713. Take into account
APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify
Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India? Unit X Quiz 2 1. When did the Suez Canal open? 2. Why was it initially difficult for European powers to control their
SOCIAL STUDIES MODERN WORLD HISTORY GRADE 9 I Can Checklist 2015-2016 Aligned with Ohio s Learning Standards for Social Studies Office of Teaching and Learning Curriculum Division 1 2 I can analyze a historical
1. The Ming emperor banned the building of large ocean-going ships in 1433. The Tokugawa shogun issued the Act of Seclusion in 1636. One way in which these historical occurrences are similar is that both
Name Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Label on Map: England, France, Spain, Russia, Holly Roman Empire, Paris, Rome, Mediterranean Sea, English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Term: Nation-state Describe: Draw: 1
SOCIAL STUDIES MODERN WORLD HISTORY GRADE 9 Curriculum Map and Standards 2015-2016 Aligned with Ohio s Learning Standards for Social Studies and the Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social
James Madison High School Social Studies Department World History and Geography 1 Power Standards Human Beginnings Students will be able to explain that Homo Sapiens emerged from Africa between 100,000
Unit 1 Maps, Time, and World History Introduction to Unit This unit specifically focuses on the spatial and temporal frameworks world historians use to organize their discipline. Through an exploration
Chiara Berichillo THE SMALL CENTRE OF PIEGARO AND ITS ANCIENT LINKS WITH GLASS PRODUCTION The small village of Piegaro, of medieval origins, rises among the green hills of Umbria in the western part of
Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Assessment: From Republic to Empire 1. Which of the following did Rome do during the first period of expansion, before 264 B.C.E.?
GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation
Degree Type Bachelor of Arts (BA) Degree Title History As an integral part of a liberal arts education, history courses introduce students to different historical eras, diverse cultures, famous and ordinary
POST-CLASSICAL EUROPE In Focus: Byzantium and the Middle Ages Third Wave Civilizations BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION: MODERN CONTEXT Reconciliation of 1964 Represents the path of European Civilization since the
Standard: History Enlightenment Ideas A. Explain connections between the ideas of the Enlightenment and changes in the relationships between citizens and their governments. 1. Explain how Enlightenment
The Great War aka WWI 1914-1918 4 MAIN Causes of WWI Militarism countries beefing up their militaries led to increased hostility Alliances countries had each other s backs Imperialism competition for colonies
Louisiana World History Louisiana History (Core Course: World History) World History 19. Explain the origins, developments, and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade between Africa and the Americas
LA VISIONE DEL MONDO SETTECENTESCO IN GULLIVER S TRAVELS VIAGGIO VERSO L IGNOTO SCOPERTA DELL IGNOTO DI SWIFT SCOPERTA DELL ALTRO RELATIVITA DELLE DIMENSIONI CRITICA DELLA SCIENZA UFFICIALE Viaggio verso
SULUKULE Urban Renewal or Ethnic Relocation? Rroma Foundation July 2008-1 - I. BACKGROUND The Sulukule neighbourhood in Istanbul lies right next to and within the old Byzantine Theodosian land walls. It
NM UNIT 8: Rome Benchmark 1-A. New Mexico: explore and explain how people and events have influenced the development of New Mexico up to the present day: the relationships among ancient civilizations of
Modern World History Curriculum Source: This image from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:view_of_bradford.jpg is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. Unit 4: Nationalism, Industrialism,
THEMATIC GROUP STRATEGIC PLANNING AND TOURISM Sergio Di Paolo, city of Genoa Sofia, July 2007 qmatters of language and concepts qmatters of experience and exchange (Genova, Istanbul, Oran) The territorial
Chapter 22 Essential Question Was it in the national interest of the United States to stay neutral or declare war in 1917? 22.1 In the spring of 1914, President Wilson sent a trusted advisor to Europe.
Outline Introduction Geopolitical terms Geopolitics definition Alfred Mahan (1840-1914) Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) Introduction Geopolitics: the study of the geographical distribution of power among
PROJECT PROPOSAL: PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND FIGHT AGAINST COUNTERFEITING IN THE T/C SECTOR Protecting intellectual property and dealing with counterfeiting are vital to the textiles
Turkey, Islamists and Democracy: Transition and Globalization in a Muslim State, by Yildiz Atasoy. London, UK and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005.190pages. References to p. 214. Index to p. 227. $ In Turkey,
SSUSH1 The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships with Native
The Causes of the French and Indian War The End of the French Threat 1. relations between England & the colonies had been positive until the 1760s 2. England & France were the two main rivals for leadership
Seven Great Foundations Leonard Porter Ayres with a new introduction by David C. Hammack New material in this edition, copyright 2007 by the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations, John F. Kennedy School
Tennessee Curriculum Standards for High School World History Correlations to Wright Group/McGraw-Hill s World History Course Description: In World History High School, students study the history of humankind
Jamestown Questions and Answers Why is Jamestown important? Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in North America. It is America s birthplace. Who were the first Europeans to explore Virginia?
GLOBAL AND REGIONAL SECURITY ALLIANCES Carlos Seiglie Rutgers University, NJ, USA Sylvie Matelly Université Pierre Mendes France, Grenoble, France Keywords: collective action, public good, regional security
World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors
The 13 American Colonies Name: http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/13colonies3.htm Part 1: Coming to America The first colonies in North America were along the eastern coast. Settlers
From imported Indian cotton luxury goods to British produced luxury cotton textiles The textile industry in Britain in the late medieval and early modern period was dominated by wool. Linen became an important
English Summary THE MERCHANT, THE TOWN, AND THE CROWN The Burgher Community of Turku and Economic Organization from the Early Middle Ages to the 1570 s Introduction The aim of this dissertation in economic
TEMPLATE I ACADEMIC PROFILE OF A-NEST A) General Title Professor Dott. Surname: Santagostino First name Angelo Department: Economics Position/Grade/Category: Jean Monnet Professor, ad personam Chair PhD
Chapter 23 World War I 1914-1919 Chapter 23 1 Troubles in Europe 1. Nations competed for colonies in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. 2. These colonies not only provided new markets and raw materials
History 123 History Thomas W. Taylor, PhD, Chair Objectives Defying classification as either humanity or social science, history functions as both. It focuses on the values, as well as the ideas, personalities,
To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century
This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. lesson More Human Geography and Borders
Session/Sessione The Economic Outlook Il quadro economico ELECTRONIC POLL RESULTS RISULTATI DEL TELEVOTO INTELLIGENCE ON THE WORLD, EUROPE, AND ITALY LO SCENARIO DI OGGI E DI DOMANI PER LE STRATEGIE COMPETITIVE
DBQ: Grade 11 Manifest Destiny: 1820 1860 Robin Rawlins, Lake Region High School Directions: Analyze the following documents and answer the guided questions following each document. Using what you learn
Contents Section I... General Provisions... Section II... Foreign Exchange Trading... Section III... Opening and using of bank deposit accounts in foreign currency by a resident and a nonresident of the
Chapter 3: European Exploration and Colonization Trade Route to Asia in the 1400s European Trade With Asia Traders - people who get wealth by buying items from a group of people at a low price and selling
Lesson 201: Use of il quale by Keith A Preble, email@example.com Il quale can be used as a relative pronoun when it is combined with the definite article, il, la, i, le or when it is articulated with a simple
Unit 7 Lesson 2 The Republic and Roman Expansion Lesson 2 The Republic and Roman Expansion 1. checks and balances a. A government with three parts 2. civic duty b. The most powerful elected officials in
MAIN IDEAS NOTES Rise of the Ottoman Turks Expansion of the Ottoman Empire (p. 484) Late 13 th Century the Turks were ruled by a leader called Osman 1.) Late 1200s = Ottoman Turks controlled Osman Turks
The Great War Begins Main Idea Europe in 1914 was on the brink of war. After an assassination, the nations of Europe were drawn one by one into what would be called the Great War, or World War I. Content
Council of the European Union Brussels, 9 September 2014 (OR. en) 12929/14 LIMITE ENFOPOL 253 ASIM 71 FRONT 189 RELEX 721 COMIX 437 NOTE From: To: Subject: Presidency Law Enforcement Working Party Proposal
Objectives Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire in. Analyze the rise of Dutch and Spanish dominance in the region. Understand how the decline of Mughal India affected European traders in the region.
Escaping from the Malthusian Population Trap in Northwestern Europe Gerard M. Koot, 2013 History Department, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth During the last two centuries, people living in modern