Software Processes. The software process. Generic software process models. Waterfall model. Waterfall model phases

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1 Software Processes CSC 221 Introduction to Software Engineering software processes extract from Sommerville s chapter 3 slides Alan Dix Coherent sets of activities for specifying, designing, implementing and testing software systems Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 1 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 2 The software process Generic software process models A structured set of activities required to develop a software system Specification Design Validation Evolution A software process model is an abstract representation of a process. It presents a description of a process from some particular perspective The waterfall model Separate and distinct phases of and development Specification and development are interleaved A mathematical system model is formally transformed to an implementation Reuse-based development The system is assembled from existing components Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 3 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 4 Waterfall model Waterfall model phases definition System and software design Implementation and unit testing Integration and system testing Operation and maintenance and definition System and software design Implementation and unit testing Integration and system testing Operation and maintenance The drawback of the waterfall model is the difficulty of accommodating change after the process is underway Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 5 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 6

2 Waterfall model problems Inflexible partitioning of the project into distinct stages This makes it difficult to respond to changing customer requirements Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood Exploratory development Objective is to work with customers and to evolve a final system from an initial outline. Should start with well-understood requirements Throw-away prototyping Objective is to understand the system requirements. Should start with poorly understood requirements Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 7 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 8 Outline description Concurrent activities Specification Validation Initial version Intermediate versions Final version Problems Lack of process visibility Systems are often poorly structured Special skills (e.g. in languages for rapid prototyping) may be required Applicability For small or medium-size interactive systems For parts of large systems (e.g. the user interface) For short-lifetime systems Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 9 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 10 Based on the transformation of a mathematical through different representations to an executable program Transformations are correctness-preserving so it is straightforward to show that the program conforms to its Embodied in the Cleanroom approach to N.B. really about replacing/ augmenting/supporting software development the design and implementation phase of software development definition transformation Integration and system testing Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 11 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 12

3 transformations transformations T1 T2 T3 T4 Problems Need for specialised skills and training to apply the technique Difficult to formally specify some aspects of the system such as the user interface R1 R2 R3 Executable program Applicability Critical systems especially those where a safety or security case must be made before the system is put into operation P1 P2 P3 P4 Proofs of transformation correctness Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 13 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 14 Reuse-oriented development Reuse-oriented development Based on systematic reuse where systems are integrated from existing components or COTS (Commercial-off-the-shelf) systems Process stages Component modification System design with reuse and integration Component modification and integration System design with reuse System validation This approach is becoming more important but still limited experience with it Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 15 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 16 Process iteration Incremental development System requirements ALWAYS evolve in the course of a project so process iteration where earlier stages are reworked is always part of the process for large systems Rather than deliver the system as a single delivery, the development and delivery is broken down into s with each delivering part of the required functionality Iteration can be applied to any of the generic process models Two (related) approaches Incremental development Spiral development User requirements are prioritised and the highest priority requirements are included in early s Once the development of an is started, the requirements are frozen though requirements for later s can continue to evolve Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 17 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 18

4 Incremental development Incremental development advantages Define outline requirements Develop system Assign requirements to s Validate System incomplete Design system architecture Integrate Validate system Final system Customer value can be delivered with each so system functionality is available earlier Early s act as a prototype to help elicit requirements for later s Lower risk of overall project failure The highest priority system services tend to receive the most testing Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 19 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 20 Extreme programming Spiral development New approach to development based on the development and delivery of very small s of functionality Relies on constant code improvement, user involvement in the development team and pairwise programming Process is represented as a spiral rather than as a sequence of activities with backtracking Each loop in the spiral represents a phase in the process. No fixed phases such as or design - loops in the spiral are chosen depending on what is required s are explicitly assessed and resolved throughout the process Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 21 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 22 Spiral model of the software process Spiral model sectors Determine objectives alternatives and constraints Plan next phase REVIEW plan Life-cycle plan plan Integration and test plan Evaluate alternatives identify, resolve risks Operational Prototype 3 Prototype 2 protoype Prototype 1 Simulations, models, benchmarks Concept of Operation S/W requirements Product design Detailed Requirement design validation Code Design Unit test V&V Integration Acceptance test Service test Develop, verify next-level product Objective setting Specific objectives for the phase are identified assessment and reduction s are assessed and activities put in place to reduce the key risks and validation A development model for the system is chosen which can be any of the generic models Planning The project is reviewed and the next phase of the spiral is planned Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 23 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 24

5 summary normative process models summary similar activities waterfall model evolutionary development formal development reuse-oriented development mainly effect design and implementation requirements and design and implementation architectural design, detailed and sub-system design, integration of components, deployment testing, verification and validation evolution deployment, maintenance, changing requirements Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 25 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 26 summary... but different timings common theme waterfall model each activity in sequence whole system within each activity al development each slice of system in sequence all activities for each part spiral development when it seems right! R&S D&I V&V E documents and activities (software quality) more than stages and phases (management) Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 27 Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 3 (extract) Slide 28

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