Does Empathy Lead to Anything More Than Superficial Helping? Comment on Batson etal. (1997)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Does Empathy Lead to Anything More Than Superficial Helping? Comment on Batson etal. (1997)"

Transcription

1 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Copyright 1997 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 1997, Vol. 73, No. 3, /97/$3.00 Does Empathy Lead to Anything More Than Superficial Helping? Comment on Batson etal. (1997) Steven L. Neuberg, Robert B. Cialdini, Stephanie L. Brown, Carol Luce, and Brad J. Sagarin Arizona State University Brian E Lewis University of California, Los Angeles To properly test the hypothesis that empathy-associated helping is altruistic, one needs to (a) consider plausible nonaltruistic alternatives for the observed empathy-helping effects, (b) validly and reliably measure these nonaltruistic alternatives, and (c) examine whether the empathy-belping relationship remains after removing the effects of the full complement of reasonable nonaltruistic alternatives. C. D. Batson, K. Sager, E. Garst, M. Kang, K. Rubchinsky, and K. Dawson (1997) failed to meet these criteria. New data, and reanalyses of existing data, bolster the case that self-other overlap-- a nonaltruistic motivator--underlies the association between empathy and costly helping. At best, empathy per se leads to superficial helping. In a postscript, the authors comment briefly on C. D. Batson's (1997) reply to this comment and, given his remarks, speculate as to whether the empathyaltruism formulation is even relevant to understanding meaningful forms of help. We have always found back-to-back (perhaps better termed eye-to-eye) scholarly exchanges fascinating reading. Although, for observers, such exchanges can be highly engaging--even entertaining--pieces of academic theater, they typically carry an associated burden. Rarely can they be fairly judged through a surface reading of article abstracts or summaries. A careful assessment of the sometimes dense particulars of methods, measures, and analyses is required. The present exchange seems no exception. However, we have tried to lay out our position in as reader-friendly a manner as possible, beginning with a brief background summary, then moving to a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of the work of Batson, Sager, Garst, Kang, Rubchinsky, and Dawson (1997) as well as our own, and ending with the presentation of new data that reconcile the two seemingly divergent data sets. Background For more than 20 years, Daniel Batson and his colleagues have argued that altruistic helping exists and that it occurs when the potential helper experiences for the person in need. According to this empathy-altruism hypothesis, empathy-based helping is motivated not by self-interest but by a Steven L. Neuberg, Robert B. Cialdini, Stephanie L. Brown, Carol Luce, and Brad J. Sagarin, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University; Brian P. Lewis, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles. We thank C. Daniel Batson for sharing his data with us. Correspondence should be addressed to either Steven L. Neuberg or Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona Electronic mail may be sent via the Internet to either or concern for the other's welfare. Indeed, an impressive number of research studies appear to support this view (Batson & Shaw, 1991 ). We recently suggested, however, that empathy-helping findings are open to an alternative interpretation (Cialdini, Brown, Lewis, Luce, & Neuberg, 1997). In modem theories of the self, as well as in current evolutionary thought, important features of the self can be located outside of the person and inside others. In addition, those conditions that typically lead to (e.g., kinship, familiarity, perspective taking) also lead people to see parts of their selves in others. The possibility exists, then, that empathy-associated helping is not selfless but is rooted in the (usually implicit) desire to help that part of the self that is located in the other. Our experiments supported this possibility: The powerful impact of on helping was consistently eliminated when oneness--a measure of perceived self-other overlap--wa s also considered. We concluded that empathy-associated helping can no longer be presumed to be altruistic because as empathy increases, so does the presence of the self in the other. Batson et al. ( 1997 ) responded to our findings with two studies of their own, which they interpreted as incompatible with our claims and consistent with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Although many issues could be raised in reaction, space constraints force us to focus instead on just three main points: First, as with previous studies from their lab, Batson et al.'s procedures failed to rule out fully the action of egoistic motives for helping. Second, a new experiment puts to rest several of Batson et al.'s concerns about our studies. Third, reanalyses of the Cialdini et al. (1997) experiments revealed that empathic concern seems to orient people toward help and to stimulate superficial helping, but it does not appear to predict the levels of meaningful help people provide. In contrast, it is in the arena of meaningful (nontrivial) helping that oneness and egoistic motivators seem to have their greatest influence. These findings 510

2 EMPATHY AND SUPERFICIAL HELPING: COMMENT 511 not only explain the apparently conflicting outcomes of our work versus those of Batson et al. but also suggest a conceptual integration of existing theory and empirical findings in the larger literature. Properly Assessing Altruism According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, altruistic behavior is motivated by the desire to benefit another. Should any nonaltruistic concern lead people to help, the helping cannot be viewed as purely altruistic. If we accept this premise, rigorous explorations of the empathy-altruism hypothesis must meet, at minimum, three criteria: First, in any investigation, the researcher must assess each of the nonaltruistic variables that may be reasonably considered to motivate aid in that situation (e.g., those shown by prior research to spur helping). Second, the researcher must measure these nonaltruistic alternatives validly and reliably. Third, the researcher must examine whether the observed empathy influence on helping still remains after removing the effects on helping of the full complement of relevant nonaltruistic alternatives; it does not suffice to test the empathyaltruism hypothesis against just one nonaltruistic alternative at a time (Cialdini, 1991; Sorrentino, 1991 ). Although stringent, these hurdles are conceptually necessary because the altruistic explanation posits that no egoistic variable can account for helping if the help is truly altruistic. Unfortunately, Batson and his colleagues have yet to design an experiment that meets these criteria. In the typical study, they assess at most a subset of reasonable nonaltruistic alternatives; they do not always measure the nonaltruistic alternatives with the validity and reliability they afford measures of empathic concern; and they never remove the effects on helping of a full complement of reasonable nonaltruistic alternatives before concluding that empathy-associated helping is altruistic. Instead, they adopt the strategy of dispatching, in one study at a time, compelling nonaltruistic alternatives. For instance, they concerned themselves in one investigation with social approval; in a separate investigation, with guilt; in a third, with sadness reduction; and in a fourth, with empathic joy. Although this strategy can create the appearance that the compelling nonaltruistic alternatives have been adequately disconfirmed in aggregate, these studies--by their design--cannot provide strong evidence for altruistic aid. The two studies reported by Batson et al. (1997) neatly illustrate these problems. First, plausible nonaltruistic motivators (e.g., social desirability) were not measured or taken into account. Consequently, it could not be determined whether the observed empathy-helping effects remained after partialing out the influences on helping of the full complement of nonaltruistic factors. Finally, the focal nonaltruistic motivator du jour--selfother overlap--was measured unreliably, especially as compared with the assessment of? Burdened by such problems, the Batson et al. studies do not provide compelling evidence for altruistic helping. Addressing Batson et al.'s Critique Batson et al. (1997) criticized our studies on four grounds: (a) We did not directly manipulate or perspec- tive taking; (b) our experimental paradigm captured only "imagined needs and self-reports of imagined willingness to help"; (c) self-other distinctiveness, and not overlap, contributes to empathy-associated helping; and (d) we measured empathic concern and the egoistic motivators only after the helping opportunity. We address these criticisms in turn. First, although we did not manipulate using perspective-taking instructions, we did directly manipulate empathic concern (without affecting oneness) through our severity of need variable. It is not clear why we would need to manipulate through perspective-taking instructions. If per se influences helping, then it should do so whether it arises from perspective-taking instructions, from severity of need, from perceptions of kinship or friendship, or from other factors. Our reading of the empathy-altruism hypothesis provided no suggestion that the hypothesis should be 1 Space limitations preclude a thorough treatment of this issue here, so we must be brief. First, Batson et al. (1997) used a truncated version of our oneness index in their operationalization of self-other overlap. Our index included two components: the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) scale (Akron, Aron, & S mollan 1992) and a measure of willingness to use the term "we" to describe the relationship with the needy other. Batson et al. used only the los scale, reducing the reliability of their measure of self-other overlap to that of a one-item scale. Second, they changed the wording of the IOS scale instructions from that of Aron et al. (1992) in a way that we believe channeled participants into a focus on their separateness from the person in need. That is, prior to Aron et ai.'s standard instructions, Batson et al. made salient participants' nonoverlapping identity with the other through the orienting clause "Considering yourself as Se/f and the person whose pilot interview you heard as Other...." Perhaps this initial orientation toward separateness accounted for the relative failure of the los scale to predict helping in the Batson et al. studies (rs =.22 and.29, as compared with a range from.43 to.70 in our studies). In any event, if the purpose of research is to test the applicability of a rival construct such as self-other overlap to a theoretical account, it seems unwise to change the measurement of that construct in the process. Third, Batson et al. used similarity as an indicator of self-other overlap, assessing it after the helping opportunity, unlike the other putative mediators, which were measured beforehand. Whether this order made a difference we cannot know, but we note that the obtained weak similarity-helping correlations (rs =. 17 and.07) run counter to much research demonstrating powerful effects of similarity on helping (see Dovidio, 1984, for a review). Finally, in an attempt to recreate the measure of self-other overlap put forth by Davis, Conklin, Smith, and Luce (1996), Batson et al. had participants rate both themselves and the person in need on a series of attributes, defining selfother overlap in terms of the absolute difference between the ratings of self and other. There are several issues of note. First, the Davis et al. measure was composed of many more attributes, likely increasing not only its psychometric reliability but also its validity as an indicator of self-concept. Second, in the hope of reducing reactivity biases, Davis et al. assessed self-attributes weeks before and in a different context than other-atla'ibutes. In contrast, Batson et al. assessed self- and other-attributes back-to-back in the lab. We suspect that this methodological change encouraged participants to seek not similarities but differences between themselves and the person in need and thereby contributed to Batson et al.'s failure to replicate the Davis et al. findings. In sum, it appears that Batson et al. assessed self-other overlap with less than desirable reliability and validity, making it difficult for them to explore rigorously the nonaltruistic hypothesis.

3 512 NEUBERG ETAL. supported only when had been generated by perspective-taking instructions. Batson et al. (1997) also suggested that because our experimental paradigm did not use currently active helping situations, it may have been unable to elicit real from participants or to capture anything beyond their willingness to play act "socially normative scripts for how one ought to act and feel." We have two responses. First, as we noted (Cialdini et al., 1997), our participants were asked not to speculate on what they might be feeling but to report what they were presently feeling. In this way, we inquired into the genuine responses of our participants to our manipulations. Second, our findings replicated quite nicely the previous work of Batson and his colleagues in multiple ways: The levels of felt by our participants were sizable and well within the range recorded in earlier studies using active need situations. Empathic concern was correlated highly with helping. Empathic concern was correlated with interpersonal closeness, sadness, and distress. Moreover, continued to predict helping after controlling for the effects of sadness and distress. Given the extent of replication, should Batson et al. now wonder whether their own studies capture only the power of "socially normative scripts"? In sum, because our methods so closely replicated results supporting the empathy-altruism hypothesis, it seems unconvincing to argue that those same methods were to blame when the empathy-helping relationship disappeared after self-other overlap had been partialed out. Third, in contrast to our position that self-other overlap underlies the influences of empathy on helping, Batson et al. (1997) argued the reverse: that self-other distinctiveness is necessary if one is to appreciate the circumstances of others and feel empathy for them. Although we have no doubt that some minimal level of self-other distinctiveness is necessary for empathy-associated helping to take place--else we place the bandage on our arm instead of on the wounded victim's-- it is not clear to us that differentiating between the self- and other-concepts increases such helping. Indeed, the suspect nature of their self-other overlap measure aside (see Footnote 1 ), a reanalysis of their Experiment 1 data revealed that perspectivetaking participants showed greater self-other differentiation than control participants on only two items--overburdened (p <.09) and pressured (p <.ll)--both of which imply not a characteristic feature of one's self-concept but rather a temporary (and objective) feature of the victim's highly stressful circumstance. Furthermore, Batson et al. found no evidence for their distinctiveness hypothesis in Study 2. For these reasons, we are not convinced that differentiating between the self-concept and the other-concept enables empathy-associated helping] Fourth, Batson et al. (1997) were concerned that we measured empathy after helping, contrary to the proposed natural sequence of these variables. To allay their concern, we ran a new study that replicated the eviction setting presented in Studies 1 and 3 of Cialdini et al. (1997) but moved the measure of empathic concern before the helping opportunity. In brief, participants were asked to describe in writing either a near stranger, an acquaintance, a good friend, or a family member (preferably a sibling). They were then asked to consider that this person had just been evicted from his or her apartment and was in need of help. We then assessed their, feelings of sadness and distress, and perceptions of oneness with the person. Finally, participants were asked to choose among seven helping options, ranging from providing no help to offering to let the person live with them rent-free. Our results replicated those of the prior studies perfectly, demonstrating that our earlier effects were not an artifact of measuring empathy after helping. First, relationship closeness led to increased willingness to help, F(3, 76) = 61.51, p = Second, relationship closeness led to both increased empathic concern, F(3, 76) = 10.82, p =.0001, and oneness, F(3, 76) = 56.14, p < Third, both and oneness were highly correlated with helping, rs =.62 and.80, respectively. Finally, we ran a hierarchical regression to determine whether the significant zero-order empathy-helping relationship would hold after we partialed out the nonaltruistic motivators (e.g., sadness, distress, oneness). These data are presented in Table 1 and reveal that empathy failed to predict helping after the nonaltruistic motivators had been considered, although oneness remained a significant predictor. In sum, these data provide the fifth replication of our findings, lending further doubt that empathy-associated helping is truly altruistic. They also reveal that our previous results were not an artifact of the order in which we measured, as Batson et al. (1997) had feared. In seeking ways to reconcile these data with those of Batson et al. (1997), we noticed that although the participants in the Batson et al. studies were provided with a four-level measure of helping--no help, 2-4 hr, 5-7 hr, or 8-10 hr of offered help--virtually all who offered to help did so at the lowest level available to them. In Experiment 1, although 25 of 40 participants offered some degree of help, only 3 of them offered to help beyond the minimum. Similarly, in Experiment 2, although 24 of 60 participants offered some degree of help, only 2 of them offered to help beyond the minimum. As a result, Batson et al.'s purportedly continuous measure of offered help was effectively a dichotomous measure. Thus, their data did not allow a determination of which levels of help may have been associated with. We used our new data set to explore the question of the kind of helping that might generate. First, after transforming participants' helping responses into dichotomous scores (would not help vs. would help), we repeated our standard analyses. The results were striking and counter to what we found when using a continuous measure of helping: Consistent with the empathy-altruism hypothesis, remained a significant predictor of willingness to help even after all the measured nonaltruistic motivators were accounted for, b =.11, F(1, 69) = 10.91, p <.001. We then analyzed the data of all participants who reported a willingness to help (74 of 79 participants were willing to help in some form)--that is, nonzero helping--and our previous findings emerged: Empathic concern lost its ability to predict amount of nonzero help after 2 As an aside, Batson et al. (1997) frequently characterized the selfother overlap hypothesis as implying psychological indistinguishability. Although such a depiction might be useful as a straw man, no theorist with an affinity for this hypothesis of whom we are aware would make such an extreme claim, nor would we. To "see" part of oneself in another is not to believe that one and other are the same.

4 EMPATHY AND SUPERFICIAL HELPING: COMMENT 513 Table 1 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for Variables Predicting Intended Helping for Evicted Person Variable B SE B Step 1: Participant gender and Empathic concern *** Step 2: Sadness and distress Empathic concern t Empathic concern Oneness *** Note. Given our theoretical focus on and oneness as predictors of helping, and for presentational clarity, we do not report here the findings for participant gender or for the sadness and distress items. ***p < t p < 13 (marginally significant). the nonaltruistic variables were accounted for, b =.068, F(1, 64) = 0.73, ns, and the variable of oneness remained a unique predictor of helping, b =.94, F(1, 64) = 44.74, p < Thus, whereas was able to 15redict whether participants expressed a willingness to help, oneness (and not ) predicted how much help participants were willing to provide. We use the remainder of this paper to explore more fully this effect and its theoretical implications. Before moving on, however, we briefly note that the findings from this study also bear on the first two concerns voiced by Batson et al. (1997). Specifically, our finding that empathy was able to predict participants' decisions about whether to help, even after we controlled for self-other overlap, further indicates that one does not need a perspective-taking manipulation to create adequate levels of ; our relationship-closeness manipulation created sufficient to replicate the Batson et al. effects. Second, because we were able to perfectly replicate the Batson et al. findings by using the dichotomous helping measure, their critique of our paradigm as unable to detect effects obtained in active helping situations becomes even less compelling. In sum, we are confident that the Cialdini et al. (1997) findings are not attributable to weak empathy effects, "artificial" elements of our paradigm, or the order in which we measured empathy. Rather, we think they say something important about the roles of and oneness in shaping helping behavior. We turn, then, to explore the intriguing results from our last analysis, proposing that the function of may be essentially preparatory, serving to orient people to opportunities for helping and acting to spur relatively superficial assistance. Empathy and Superficial Helping We believe that empathy can have two quite important influences on helping, stemming from empathy's status as an emotion. Emotions serve two functions central to human survival: They alert us to important, personally relevant features of the environment, and they provide us with the energy to respond to these features (e.g., Carver & Scheier, 1990; Frijda, 1986; Higgins, 1987; Mandler, 1984; Simon, 1967; Tomkins, 1970). For instance, when a dangerous-looking thug approaches us on a dimly lit street, the emotional system both interrupts our ongoing mental activities so that we might take notice of the stranger and releases adrenaline-like biochemicals so that we might take quick and robust physical action. Although they alert us to the need for action and facilitate that action, emotions do not by themselves determine the specific course of action taken. Although fear of the approaching stranger may prepare us for action, we still must decide whether to slip into a doorway, run across the street, clench a fist, pull out the pepper spray, or shout for help. It is at this point that the costs and benefits of various options are considered and emotional arousal provides sufficient energy to support the selected tactic. 3 Applying this functional perspective on emotions to empathy, one should expect empathy to play a central role in both alerting us to another's need and energizing our attempts to help. One might conceive, then, of empathy as a first step to providing aid--a step that turns an individual into a potential helper-- and one that may even facilitate superficial helping, if such an opportunity is readily available. Conditions that independently lead us to focus on the potentially needy person, like close relationships in the real world and the perspective-taking instructions of Batson and his colleagues, should amplify these prosocial functions of empathy. We should not, however, expect empathy to play a unique role in determining helping decisions when meaningful costs are involved. Such circumstances require potential helpers to consider the price of providing aid (see Footnote 3). Therefore, fluctuations in are likely to be derivative, and thus secondary, to those variables such as perceived self-other overlap that apply directly to self-benefit and, hence, to the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. To test deductions from our argument, we reanalyzed all our data. Several predictions emerged from our framework. First, there should be significant zero-order relationships between empathy and the amount of aid our participants provide once they decide to help, reflecting the energizing and support functions that empathy serves. Second, because these functions are secondary within the context of cost-benefit analyses, the empathy-helping relationship should become nonsignificant once the effects of cost-relevant variables such as oneness are considered. Third, these cost-relevant variables--in our data, especially oneness--should uniquely predict the amount of nonzero help. These hypotheses are consistent with those proposed in Cialdini et al. (1997). Finally, and independent of the Cialdini et al. (1997) hypotheses, we expected empathy to be a unique predictor of the decision to help, but only when the easiest helping options were relatively costless. In the eviction need setting used in Studies 1 and 3 of Cialdini et al. (1997), the easiest helping option was handing an apartment guide to the person in need; this was rated 3 We make no claim that such cost-benefit analyses are always thoughtful or performed "on-line." In many cases, selected tactics are simply activated from memory on the basis of their success in similar circumstances, real or imagined.

5 514 NEUBERG ET AL. Table 2 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for Variables Predicting Intended Amount of Nonzero Help for Person in Need for the Five Helping Replications in Cialdini et al. (1997) Variable B SE B Study 1: Eviction Empathic concern * Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness "** Study 2: Orphaned children Empathic concern ** Empathic concern * Empathic concern Oneness *** Study 3: Phone call Step I: Participant gender and Empathic concern ** Empathic concern * Empathic concern Oneness ** Study 3: Eviction Empathic concern ** Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness *** Study 3: Orphaned children Empathic concern t Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness * Note. Given our theoretical focus on and oneness as predictors of helping, and for presentational clarity, we do not report here findings for participant gender or for the sadness, distress, and other egoistic items. *p <.05. **p <.001. ***p < tp <.15 (marginally significant). by a different set of participants as having a cost level of 0.6 on a 10-point scale. We considered this level of help superficial and thus expected empathy to be a unique predictor of the decision to help. In the orphan need setting used in Studies 2 and 3, the easiest helping option was donating $10 to a fund for the children; this was rated as having a cost level of 3.0 on a 10-point scale. We considered this level of help costly and thus did not expect empathy to be a unique predictor of the decision to help. Finally, in the phone call need setting of Study 3, the easiest helping option was pointing out the nearest pay phone; this was rated as having a cost level of 0.3 on a 10- point scale. Because this level of help is essentially costless, we expected empathy to be a unique predictor of the decision to help. In sum, we expected that empathy would be a unique predictor of the decision to help in the eviction and phone call settings but not in the orphaned children setting. To test our first three hypotheses, we replicated the hierarchical regression analyses from Cialdini et al. (1997), but this time we used the amount of nonzero help offered as the dependent variable. As Table 2 reveals, these predictions were supported across all five replications: (a) Empathic concern predicted amount of nonzero helping, (b) it did so until the nonaltruistic variables were entered, and (c) oneness was a significant predictor above and beyond all other predictors. Table 3 reveals generally strong evidence in support of the fourth hypothesis. When the helping measure was dichotomized into no help versus help, we expected that would uniquely predict dichotomous helping in the two eviction replications. This was indeed the case (ps <.12 and.07). Although these effects reach only marginal levels of significance, they do replicate the more powerful effects (p <.001) discovered in the new data set reported in this article. Empathic concern was not expected to remain a predictor of dichotomous helping in the two orphan replications, as the easiest helping opportunity available to pa4"t, icipants was a relatively costly one. Indeed, empathy's unique effects did not approach significance (ps >.50 and.75). Finally, in the phone call setting, predicted marginally (at best) a unique proportion of the decision to help (p <.25), despite the superficial nature of the easiest helping opportunity. We speculate that the relative lack of an empathy effect here may stem from the relatively low level of need inherent in the circumstance (Batson & Shaw, 1991 ). In any event, the evidence for even superficial empathy-based helping is quite weak in the phone call setting. 4 In sum, although not able to provide an experimental test of our new hypothesis, reanalyses of the Cialdini et al. (1997) data reveal that the ability of to predict helping is limited to deciding between providing either relatively costless help or no help at all. These findings have several important 4 The above analyses included all four levels of relationship closeness (i.e., near stranger, acquaintance, good friend, and family member). Because the research by Batson and his colleagues has focused on aid to strangers, we combined--in order to have a sufficient sample size-- the participant populations from the three replications of the eviction setting (two from Cialdini et al., t997, and the one reported in this article), and repeated the above analyses on only the near stranger condition. The findings replicated perfectly: (a) Empathic concern uniquely enhanced the decision to help (p <.001 ); (b) did not uniquely enhance the amount of nonzero helping, and indeed, its association with amount of nonzero help was negative (p <.08); and (c) oneness uniquely enhanced the amount of nonzero help (p <.001 ).

6 EMPATHY AND SUPERFICIAL HELPING: COMMENT 515 Table 3 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses for Variables Predicting Whether Participants Decided to Help Person in Need for the Five Helping Replications in Cialdini et al. (1997) Variable B SE B Study 1: Eviction Empathic concern *** Empathic concern " Empathic concern Oneness ** Study 2: Orphaned children Empathic concern Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness Study 3: Phone call Empathic concern * Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness Study 3: Eviction Empathic concern *** Empathic concern * Empathic concern I" Oneness I" Study 3: Orphaned children Empathic concern "~ Empathic concern Empathic concern Oneness * Note. Given our theoretical focus on and oneness as predictors of helping, and for presentational clarity, we do not report here findings for participant gender or for the sadness, distress, and other egoistic items. *p <.05. **p <.001. ***p < "p <.15. implications. First, they are consistent with the finding of Batson, O'Quin, Fultz, Vanderplas, and Isen (1983) that under conditions of substantial cost to the helper, does not facilitate helping--an outcome that led these authors to characterize empathy-based altruism as a "fragile flower easily crushed by self-concern" (p. 718). Indeed, our results reveal that the flower of empathy-motivated helping is more fragile yet, blooming only in the garden of superficial assistance. These findings present an interpretational challenge to the empathyaltruism hypothesis. Helping that occurs without genuine cost to the helper (e.g., handing an evicted person an apartment guide) invites the possibility that it may be undertaken for selfinterested reasons, such as avoiding the perception of being especially unhelpful, reducing immediate hostility, or enhancing the prospect of receiving aid in return--all of which would be made more likely by taking the other's perspective. Second, these analyses tentatively point to the promise of a modified framework of empathy influences on helping. Grounding our conceptualizations in the theories and evidence of the functions of emotion, we posit that empathy both orients people toward potential helping circumstances and energizes whatever (if any) helping attempts ensue. It may also enable superficial helping. Empathy does not, however, uniquely influence how much meaningful help people decide to give. Such helping is influenced instead by factors such as oneness, which contribute in a straightforward way to assessments of costs and benefits. We are currently designing experiments to explore this framework more directly. In Closing Should we conclude from the foregoing analysis that the empathy-associated helping effects obtained in the Batson et al. (1997) studies occurred because the helping option chosen by most participants represented essentially costless aid? We think not. In our view, those effects were more likely attributable to the combined action of a set of non-empathy-based (and nonaltruistic) factors that were not appropriately measured or not removed from causal consideration. For example, in contrast to our studies, Batson et al. did not control for social desirability concerns as participants' helping choices were not anonymous, they did not include the egoistic factors of sadness and distress in the analyses, and they did not appropriately assess the construct of self-other overlap (see Footnote 1 ). In conclusion, we believe that perceived oneness remains a viable nonaltruistic motivator of helping effects commonly attributed to altruistic motivation. We also believe that evidence relegating the unique impact of empathy on helping to the arena of superficial assistance changes fundamentally the likely interpretation of that assistance. Of course, in light of the longstanding debate generated by this topic, we have little doubt that observers have yet to see its last round. References Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & SmoUan, D. (1992). Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, Batson, C.D. (1997). Self-other merging and the empathy-altruism hypothesis: Reply to Neuberg et al. (1997). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, Batson, C. D., O'Quin, K., Fultz, J., Vanderplas, M., & Isen, A. (1983). Influence of self-reported distress and empathy on egoistic versus

7 516 NEUBERG ET AL. altruistic motivation to help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, Batson, C. D., Sager, K., Garst, E., Kang, M., Rubchinsky, K., & Dawson, K. (1997). Is empathy-induced helping due to self-other merging? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, Batson, C. D., & Shaw, L. L. (1991). Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of prosocial motives. Psychological Inquiry, 2, Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. E (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97, Cialdini, R. B. (199l). A/truism or egoism? That is (still) the question. Psychological Inquiry, 2, Cialdini, R. B., Brown, S. L., Lewis, B. P., Luce, C., & Neuberg, S. L. (1997). Reinterpreting the empathy-altruism relationship: When one into one equals oneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, Davis, M. H., Conklin, L., Smith, A., & Luce, C. (1996). The effect of perspective taking on the cognitive representation of persons: A merging of self and other. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, Dovidio, J. E (1984). Helping behavior and altruism: An empirical and conceptual overview. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17, pp ). New York: Academic Press. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, Mandler, G. (1984). Mind and body: Psychology of emotion and stress. New York: Norton. Simon, H. A. (1967). Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychological Review, 74, Sorrentino, R. M. (1991). Evidence for altruism: The lady is still waiting. Psychological Inquiry, 2, Tomkins, S. S. (1970). Affect as the primary motivational system. In M. Arnold (Ed.), Feelings and emotions (pp ). New York: Academic Press. Received March 18, 1997 Revision received April 22, 1997 Accepted April 22, 1997 Postscript: W(h)ither Empathy-Altruism? In this postscript, we find ourselves delivering a retort to a rebuttal of a response! We are not complaining about the opportunity, though, as the Batson article (1997) that follows contains several assertions that warrant comment. Space constraints require that we limit ourselves to commenting on only a few of them, however. First, Batson (1997) suggests that if self-other merging is not synonymous with self-other indistinguishability (as it certainly is not in our thinking), our position ceases to pose a serious problem for the empathy-altruism model. We disagree. To the extent that the conditions said to produce altruistic motivation also produce at least some degree of self-other overlap--as when one recognizes aspects of oneself (e.g., one's genes) in the other--there exists a serious problem in interpreting aid for the other as truly selflessly motivated. This overlap does not require the perception that the self and other are indistinguishable but requires only that there is some degree of self-other merging. Second, Batson (1997) argues that our manipulation (relationship closeness) and our measure (perceived oneness) of self-other overlap are confounded in that they can reflect differing social categories (e.g., stran~l ers, friends, kin) that are associated with differing helping norms. He argues further that the norms associated with these differing social categories may therefore account for our findings. However, this criticism ignores our multiple demonstrations that our findings appeared even when we examined our data within these social categories. For example, in both the original data analyses of Cialdini et al. (1997) and the reanalyses of Neuberg et al. reported in this article, our typical data pattern replicated perfectly when we analyzed the helping data of only those participants in the near stranger conditions--the conditions most analogous to Batson's methodology. Thus, even when we analyzed helping within the same social category, thereby eliminating the potential confound due to category-specific norms, our standard findings have emerged. Third, Batson (1997) contends that, contrary to our argument, empathy can indeed lead to more than superficial forms of aid, as evidenced by prior work that supported the empathy-altruism hypothesis while incorporating costly helping action (volunteering to take electric shock). In response, we reassert our position that although such work included costly help, it cannot be viewed as good support for the hypothesis because it did not adequately extract the influence of the full set of nonaltruistic motivators (especially oneness) on that costly aid. Finally, Batson (1997) maintains that we have mischaracterized the empathy-altruism model, which, he states, does not claim that empathy leads to helping, as we imply. Rather, the model only posits that empathic emotion evokes altruistic motivation, which may or may not spur helping, depending on the relative strengths of the various conflicting motives in / the situation. If this is how Batson wishes to characterize the model-- as implicating motivation and not behavior--we will certainly accede. But we feel that our data continue to be highly relevant to an evaluation of the model. That is, the empathy-altruism model may remain intact in light of our data because it deals with altruistic motivation rather than helping. However, if, as our findings suggest, altruistic motivation does not uniquely affect meaningful levels of aid, one must question the utility of the model. The effect of our data, then, may be to place the mode/ in a different sort of jeopardy. The empathy-altruism model may not be wrong, but because the motivation it concerns has no impact on meaningful forms of help, it may simply be irrelevant.

Reinterpreting the Empathy- Altruism Relationship: When One Into One Equals Oneness

Reinterpreting the Empathy- Altruism Relationship: When One Into One Equals Oneness Reinterpreting the Empathy- Altruism Relationship: When One Into One Equals Oneness Robert B. Cialdini, Stephanie L. Brown, Brian P. Lewis, Carol Luce, and Steven L. Neuberg Arizona State University Important

More information

Egoism, Empathy, and Self-Other Merging

Egoism, Empathy, and Self-Other Merging Egoism, Empathy, and Self-Other Merging Joshua May Southern Journal of Philosophy Vol. 49 (2011), pp. 25-39 Spindel Supplement: Empathy & Ethics, Remy Debes (ed.) Emerging Scholar Prize Essay [Note: This

More information

Behavioral Interventions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

Behavioral Interventions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior Behavioral Interventions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior Icek Ajzen Brief Description of the Theory of Planned Behavior According to the theory, human behavior is guided by three kinds of considerations:

More information

Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009

Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009 Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009 10 Things New Scholars should do to get published Duane Wegener Professor of Social Psychology, Purdue University Hello, I hope you re having

More information

Enhancing Critical Thinking and Daily-Life Application in a Psychology Course: A Case Album Approach

Enhancing Critical Thinking and Daily-Life Application in a Psychology Course: A Case Album Approach Enhancing Critical Thinking and Daily-Life Application in a Psychology Course: A Case Album Approach J.P. Leung, Darius K.S. Chan and Catherine S.K. Tang The Chinese University of Hong Kong A b s t r a

More information

April 2006. Comment Letter. Discussion Paper: Measurement Bases for Financial Accounting Measurement on Initial Recognition

April 2006. Comment Letter. Discussion Paper: Measurement Bases for Financial Accounting Measurement on Initial Recognition April 2006 Comment Letter Discussion Paper: Measurement Bases for Financial Accounting Measurement on Initial Recognition The Austrian Financial Reporting and Auditing Committee (AFRAC) is the privately

More information

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature

More information

CFSD 21 ST CENTURY SKILL RUBRIC CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING

CFSD 21 ST CENTURY SKILL RUBRIC CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING Critical and creative thinking (higher order thinking) refer to a set of cognitive skills or strategies that increases the probability of a desired outcome. In an information- rich society, the quality

More information

Donating vs. Investing

Donating vs. Investing Donating vs. Investing Bastian Stern December 1, 2012 An important question for those of us who intend to do good by donating to the most effective causes is whether we should donate now, or whether we

More information

An Evaluation of Developmental Education in Texas Public Colleges and Universities. Table of Contents

An Evaluation of Developmental Education in Texas Public Colleges and Universities. Table of Contents An Evaluation of Developmental Education in Texas Public Colleges and Universities Prepared by Hunter R. Boylan, Ph.D. and D. Patrick Saxon, M.B.A. National Center for Developmental Education Developmental

More information

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Type of document: Policy _x_ Guideline Procedure Version: 1.0, January 1 2001 Decision: Steering Group, Date? A Campbell Systematic Review is meant to review

More information

AP PSYCHOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP PSYCHOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES AP PSYCHOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study behavior. Three of the main research methods used are Case study Correlational study, and Experiment.

More information

Chapter 9 Overall Outline

Chapter 9 Overall Outline Chapter 9 - Prosocial Behavior Objectives 1) An exploration of the bases of prosocial behaviour 2) An examination of the effects of personality, gender, religion, culture, and other variables on prosocial

More information

English Summary 1. cognitively-loaded test and a non-cognitive test, the latter often comprised of the five-factor model of

English Summary 1. cognitively-loaded test and a non-cognitive test, the latter often comprised of the five-factor model of English Summary 1 Both cognitive and non-cognitive predictors are important with regard to predicting performance. Testing to select students in higher education or personnel in organizations is often

More information

PEER REVIEW HISTORY ARTICLE DETAILS VERSION 1 - REVIEW. Saket Girotra University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA United States 04-Aug-2015

PEER REVIEW HISTORY ARTICLE DETAILS VERSION 1 - REVIEW. Saket Girotra University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA United States 04-Aug-2015 PEER REVIEW HISTORY BMJ Open publishes all reviews undertaken for accepted manuscripts. Reviewers are asked to complete a checklist review form (http://bmjopen.bmj.com/site/about/resources/checklist.pdf)

More information

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research

7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research 7 Conclusions and suggestions for further research This research has devised an approach to analyzing system-level coordination from the point of view of product architecture. The analysis was conducted

More information

C. Wohlin, "Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?", Proceedings 1st International Symposium on Empirical

C. Wohlin, Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?, Proceedings 1st International Symposium on Empirical C. Wohlin, "Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?", Proceedings 1st International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering, pp. 27-36, Nara, Japan, October 2002.

More information

Exploring the Antecedents of Electronic Service Acceptance: Evidence from Internet Securities Trading

Exploring the Antecedents of Electronic Service Acceptance: Evidence from Internet Securities Trading Exploring the Antecedents of Electronic Service Acceptance: Evidence from Internet Securities Trading Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai Department of Management Information Systems Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy

More information

Virtual Teaching in Higher Education: The New Intellectual Superhighway or Just Another Traffic Jam?

Virtual Teaching in Higher Education: The New Intellectual Superhighway or Just Another Traffic Jam? Virtual Teaching in Higher Education: The New Intellectual Superhighway or Just Another Traffic Jam? Jerald G. Schutte California State University, Northridge email - jschutte@csun.edu Abstract An experimental

More information

PACKAGE VS CUSTOM: THE DECISION POINTS

PACKAGE VS CUSTOM: THE DECISION POINTS P.O. Box 336 Ramsey, NJ 07446 P 201.818.5108 F 201.818.9498 www..com PACKAGE VS CUSTOM: THE DECISION POINTS A White Paper by Richard Luettgen This paper was developed to provide general background to assist

More information

G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia INTERVIEWING AND OBSERVATION G.F. Huon School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Keywords: Unobtrusive observation, systematic observation, ethical considerations, reactivity,

More information

Ethical Egoism. 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism.

Ethical Egoism. 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism. Ethical Egoism 1. What is Ethical Egoism?: Let s turn to another theory about the nature of morality: Ethical Egoism. Ethical Egoism: The morally right action is the one that best promotes the agent s

More information

For decades, the dominant view on the concept of altruism in psychology and other

For decades, the dominant view on the concept of altruism in psychology and other Motivational Bases of Prosocial and Altruistic Behavior: A Critical Reappraisal Todd D. Nelson Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and biologists have debated the Abstract existence of altruism in

More information

PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES BY COURSE LISTING

PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES BY COURSE LISTING PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES BY COURSE LISTING Psychology 1010: General Psychology Learning Goals and Outcomes LEARNING GOAL 1: KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PSYCHOLOGY Demonstrate familiarity with

More information

Automated Text Analytics. Testing Manual Processing against Automated Listening

Automated Text Analytics. Testing Manual Processing against Automated Listening Automated Text Analytics Testing Manual Processing against Automated Listening Contents Executive Summary... 3 Why Is Manual Analysis Inaccurate and Automated Text Analysis on Target?... 3 Text Analytics

More information

The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys

The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys Philip Gendall It has been suggested that the response rate for a self administered questionnaire will be enhanced if the cover of the questionnaire

More information

The availability heuristic in the classroom: How soliciting more criticism can boost your course ratings

The availability heuristic in the classroom: How soliciting more criticism can boost your course ratings Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 2006, pp. 86 90 The availability heuristic in the classroom: How soliciting more criticism can boost your course ratings Craig R. Fox UCLA Anderson School

More information

Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective

Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective Orit Hazzan's Column Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective This column is coauthored with Jeff Kramer, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London ABSTRACT

More information

Jim Kjelland. Jim Kjelland Economic Returns to Higher Education: Signaling v. Human Capital Theory An Analysis of Competing Theories

Jim Kjelland. Jim Kjelland Economic Returns to Higher Education: Signaling v. Human Capital Theory An Analysis of Competing Theories Economic Returns to Higher Education: Signaling v. Human Capital Theory An Analysis of Competing Theories I. Introduction A decision to pursue higher education involves an informal analysis on part of

More information

Surviving the Medico-legal Process

Surviving the Medico-legal Process Surviving the Medico-legal Process Dr Jeannie Higgins February 2002 Invited paper International RSI Awareness Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) & Overuse Injury Association Canberra, Australia Overview The

More information

PSYCHOLOGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

PSYCHOLOGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT PSYCHOLOGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Human aspects of the project management Ver 1.0 2 360 Degree Approach of IT Infrastructure Projects PSYCHOLOGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Abstract Project Management usually

More information

SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY INTRODUCTION

SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY INTRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY INTRODUCTION ELYN R. SAKS * When my dear friend and colleague, Stephen Behnke, invited me to participate in a panel discussing multiple

More information

Employee Health and Well being in the NHS: A Trust Level Analysis

Employee Health and Well being in the NHS: A Trust Level Analysis Employee Health and Well being in the NHS: A Trust Level Analysis Anna Topakas Lul Admasachew Jeremy Dawson Aston Business School, Aston University Contents Executive Summary...2 1. Background...3 2. Methods...4

More information

Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes Any gene that furthers our survival and increases the probability that we will produce offspring is likel

Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes Any gene that furthers our survival and increases the probability that we will produce offspring is likel Social Psychology Elliot Aronson University of California, Santa Cruz Timothy D. Wilson University of Virginia Robin M. Akert Wellesley College slides prepared by Travis Langley Henderson State University

More information

MSPB HEARING GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction... 1. Pre-Hearing Preparation... 2. Preparation of Witness... 4. Preparation of Documents...

MSPB HEARING GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction... 1. Pre-Hearing Preparation... 2. Preparation of Witness... 4. Preparation of Documents... MSPB HEARING GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction........................................................ 1 Pre-Hearing Preparation............................................... 2 Preparation of Witness................................................

More information

Objectives of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health

Objectives of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health Objectives of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health I) To help establish an atmosphere conductive to recovery (containing minimal anxiety & maximum support) by utilizing individual & group activity program.

More information

)LQDQFLDO$VVXUDQFH,VVXHV RI(QYLURQPHQWDO/LDELOLW\

)LQDQFLDO$VVXUDQFH,VVXHV RI(QYLURQPHQWDO/LDELOLW\ )LQDQFLDO$VVXUDQFH,VVXHV RI(QYLURQPHQWDO/LDELOLW\ ([HFXWLYH6XPPDU\ %\ 3URI'U0LFKDHO*)DXUH//0 DQG 0U'DYLG*ULPHDXG Maastricht University and European Centre for Tort and Insurance Law (ECTIL) Final version

More information

1.1 Research in Geography [Meaning & Importance]

1.1 Research in Geography [Meaning & Importance] Department of Geography GEO 271 Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things. - Waldo Tobler s First Law of Geography 1.1 Research in Geography [Meaning

More information

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects.

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects. UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects

More information

PATTERNS OF NATIONALISM IN POST-SOVIET STATES Research Proposal by Marharyta Fabrykant

PATTERNS OF NATIONALISM IN POST-SOVIET STATES Research Proposal by Marharyta Fabrykant PATTERNS OF NATIONALISM IN POST-SOVIET STATES Research Proposal by Marharyta Fabrykant (1) Key Question The topic of our research suggests the following key question: What typology of nationalism can most

More information

The Decline of the U.S. Labor Share. by Michael Elsby (University of Edinburgh), Bart Hobijn (FRB SF), and Aysegul Sahin (FRB NY)

The Decline of the U.S. Labor Share. by Michael Elsby (University of Edinburgh), Bart Hobijn (FRB SF), and Aysegul Sahin (FRB NY) The Decline of the U.S. Labor Share by Michael Elsby (University of Edinburgh), Bart Hobijn (FRB SF), and Aysegul Sahin (FRB NY) Comments by: Brent Neiman University of Chicago Prepared for: Brookings

More information

Learning effectively through Groupwork

Learning effectively through Groupwork Learning effectively through Groupwork These guidelines provide an overview of three main aspects of groupwork. These are: 1. Working as a team overview of why groupwork is important 2. Stages in group

More information

Related guides: 'Planning and Conducting a Dissertation Research Project'.

Related guides: 'Planning and Conducting a Dissertation Research Project'. Learning Enhancement Team Writing a Dissertation This Study Guide addresses the task of writing a dissertation. It aims to help you to feel confident in the construction of this extended piece of writing,

More information

The replication of empirical research is a critical

The replication of empirical research is a critical RESEARCH TECHNICAL COMMENT PSYCHOLOGY Comment on Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science Daniel T. Gilbert, 1 * Gary King, 1 Stephen Pettigrew, 1 Timothy D. Wilson 2 A paper from the Open

More information

AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (Shakespeare s Henry VIII, Cardinal Wolsey s Speech) The score reflects the quality of the essay as a whole its content, its style,

More information

THE TOP 5 TIPS FOR BECOMING MORE ASSERTIVE. Being Assertive is not just using a certain set of communication skills or

THE TOP 5 TIPS FOR BECOMING MORE ASSERTIVE. Being Assertive is not just using a certain set of communication skills or THE TOP 5 TIPS FOR BECOMING MORE ASSERTIVE Being Assertive is not just using a certain set of communication skills or behaviours. Assertiveness is, first and foremost an attitude of mind with an accompanying

More information

Eye-contact in Multipoint Videoconferencing

Eye-contact in Multipoint Videoconferencing Eye-contact in Multipoint Videoconferencing Birgit Quante and Lothar Mühlbach Heinrich-Hertz-Institut für Nachrichtentechnik Berlin GmbH (HHI) Einsteinufer 37, D-15087 Berlin, Germany, http://www.hhi.de/

More information

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i

Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

These core elements are included in three increasingly detailed levels of definition:

These core elements are included in three increasingly detailed levels of definition: A Definition of Motivational Interviewing The definition of Motivational Interviewing (MI) has evolved and been refined since the original publications on its utility as an approach to behavior change.

More information

Mistaken causation? A case to teach the difference between correlation and causality

Mistaken causation? A case to teach the difference between correlation and causality Mistaken causation? A case to teach the difference between correlation and causality ABSTRACT Katherine B. Hartman Ohio University James B. Hunt University of North Carolina Wilmington Carla Y. Childers

More information

Service Quality Research/3 Qualitative Research Into Service Quality

Service Quality Research/3 Qualitative Research Into Service Quality Publishing Date: January 1991. 1991. All rights reserved. Copyright rests with the author. No part of this article may be reproduced without written permission from the author. Service Quality Research/3

More information

360-degree Feedback: A summary evaluation

360-degree Feedback: A summary evaluation 360-degree Feedback: A summary evaluation William J Fear Copyright William James Fear 2014. The author asserts their rights over this text according to copyright law. All rights reserved by the Author.

More information

Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system. the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system.

Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system. the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system. Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system There is some talk of giving victims a voice, indeed this seems to have replaced the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system.

More information

UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE

UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATORY USE OF ERP SYSTEMS 1 Rui D. Sousa Terry College of Business University of Georgia rsousa@uga.edu Dale L. Goodhue Terry College of Business University of Georgia dgoodhue@terry.uga.edu

More information

Positive Psychology: A Belief in Human Strengths Robert Brooks, Ph.D.

Positive Psychology: A Belief in Human Strengths Robert Brooks, Ph.D. Positive Psychology: A Belief in Human Strengths Robert Brooks, Ph.D. Given my keen interest in the concept of resilience and my longstanding advocacy for an approach to parenting, education, and therapy

More information

Using qualitative research to explore women s responses

Using qualitative research to explore women s responses Using qualitative research to explore women s responses Towards meaningful assistance - how evidence from qualitative studies can help to meet survivors needs Possible questions Why do survivors of SV

More information

WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University

WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University WRITING A RESEARCH PAPER FOR A GRADUATE SEMINAR IN POLITICAL SCIENCE Ashley Leeds Rice University Here are some basic tips to help you in writing your research paper. The guide is divided into six sections

More information

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures Chapter 13 Prejudice: Causes and Cures Prejudice Prejudice is ubiquitous; it affects all of us -- majority group members as well as minority group members. Prejudice Prejudice is dangerous, fostering negative

More information

It is widely accepted by those in the scientific community that women have been

It is widely accepted by those in the scientific community that women have been 1 It is widely accepted by those in the scientific community that women have been systematically disregarded and discriminated against in science. However, the extent to which this has undermined aspirations

More information

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011 (ISBN: 978-0-6740-4664-1). 326pp. Clare Stainthorp (University of Glasgow) Niobe

More information

Challenging the Scientist Practitioner Model: Questions About I-O Education and Training

Challenging the Scientist Practitioner Model: Questions About I-O Education and Training Challenging the Scientist Practitioner Model: Questions About I-O Education and Training Rosemary Hays-Thomas The University of West Florida Editor s Note: The following paper resulted from an Education

More information

Comments on Professor Takao Tanase s Invoking Law as Narrative: Lawyer s Ethics and the Discourse of Law

Comments on Professor Takao Tanase s Invoking Law as Narrative: Lawyer s Ethics and the Discourse of Law Proceedings from the 2005 Sho Sato Conference in Honor of Takao Tanase Comments on Professor Takao Tanase s Invoking Law as Narrative: Lawyer s Ethics and the Discourse of Law Norman Spaulding Stanford

More information

IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS. Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer

IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS. Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer The recent and widespread interest in the importance of emotional intelligence (EI) at work

More information

Student Preferences for Learning College Algebra in a Web Enhanced Environment

Student Preferences for Learning College Algebra in a Web Enhanced Environment Abstract Student Preferences for Learning College Algebra in a Web Enhanced Environment Laura Pyzdrowski West Virginia University Anthony Pyzdrowski California University of Pennsylvania It is important

More information

DO PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO INCREASE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK WORK? Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer http://ei.haygroup.com. Methods

DO PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO INCREASE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK WORK? Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer http://ei.haygroup.com. Methods Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations EI Program Eval 1 DO PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO INCREASE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK WORK? Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer http://ei.haygroup.com

More information

Aylin Akyol - Azize Ergeneli - Aynur Tas - Selma Gultekin. The study results are interpreted and implications of them are discussed.

Aylin Akyol - Azize Ergeneli - Aynur Tas - Selma Gultekin. The study results are interpreted and implications of them are discussed. MEDIATING EFFECT OF FIRMS SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL S ALTRUSTIC PERSONALITY, ETHICAL SENSITIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE BEHAVIOR Aylin Akyol - Azize Ergeneli - Aynur Tas -

More information

Diversity and Organizational Change

Diversity and Organizational Change Diversity and Organizational Change By Ginger Lapid-Bogda, Ph.D. Abstract: Diversity is often viewed as a training program, limited to a human resources initiative focused on race and gender and separate

More information

The Identified Victim Effect: An Identified Group, or Just a Single Individual?

The Identified Victim Effect: An Identified Group, or Just a Single Individual? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making J. Behav. Dec. Making, 18: 157 167 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bdm.492 The Identified Victim Effect: An

More information

PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS, LEARNING OUTCOMES AND COURSE ALLIGNMENT MATRIX. 8 Oct. 2010

PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS, LEARNING OUTCOMES AND COURSE ALLIGNMENT MATRIX. 8 Oct. 2010 PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS, LEARNING OUTCOMES AND COURSE ALLIGNMENT MATRIX 8 Oct. 2010 Departmental Learning Goals and Outcomes LEARNING GOAL 1: KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PSYCHOLOGY Demonstrate familiarity

More information

H-851 PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY. Spring 2005 M W 1:35-2:50 in Hayward 230

H-851 PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY. Spring 2005 M W 1:35-2:50 in Hayward 230 1 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY H-851 PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY Spring 2005 M W 1:35-2:50 in Hayward 230 Dr. Rory O Brien McElwee Office hours: M 3-4; T 10-11; Th 1-2:30 Office: Hayward Hall 224A E-mail: mcelweer@phila.edu

More information

EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card

EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card EBM Cheat Sheet- Measurements Card Basic terms: Prevalence = Number of existing cases of disease at a point in time / Total population. Notes: Numerator includes old and new cases Prevalence is cross-sectional

More information

Strategic Planning (in nonprofit or for profit organizations)

Strategic Planning (in nonprofit or for profit organizations) Strategic Planning (in nonprofit or for profit organizations) Written by Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Copyright 1997 2008. Adapted from the Field Guide to Nonprofit Strategic

More information

Writing the Empirical Social Science Research Paper: A Guide for the Perplexed. Josh Pasek. University of Michigan.

Writing the Empirical Social Science Research Paper: A Guide for the Perplexed. Josh Pasek. University of Michigan. Writing the Empirical Social Science Research Paper: A Guide for the Perplexed Josh Pasek University of Michigan January 24, 2012 Correspondence about this manuscript should be addressed to Josh Pasek,

More information

Background. Affect Integration and Reflective Function. However. Cont. Mentalization/reflective function 22.06.2012

Background. Affect Integration and Reflective Function. However. Cont. Mentalization/reflective function 22.06.2012 Background Affect Integration and Reflective Function The integration of affect, cognition, motivation, and behavior is increasingly emphasized across theories of psychopathology and psychotherapy Ole

More information

Do Students Understand Liberal Arts Disciplines? WHAT IS THE EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE of the curricular breadth encouraged at liberal arts institutions?

Do Students Understand Liberal Arts Disciplines? WHAT IS THE EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE of the curricular breadth encouraged at liberal arts institutions? One important educational outcome should be for students to develop accurate perceptions of the disciplines they study DONALD E. ELMORE, JULIA C. PRENTICE, AND CAROL TROSSET Do Students Understand Liberal

More information

Chapter 3 Local Marketing in Practice

Chapter 3 Local Marketing in Practice Chapter 3 Local Marketing in Practice 3.1 Introduction In this chapter, we examine how local marketing is applied in Dutch supermarkets. We describe the research design in Section 3.1 and present the results

More information

Test-Retest Reliability and The Birkman Method Frank R. Larkey & Jennifer L. Knight, 2002

Test-Retest Reliability and The Birkman Method Frank R. Larkey & Jennifer L. Knight, 2002 Test-Retest Reliability and The Birkman Method Frank R. Larkey & Jennifer L. Knight, 2002 Consultants, HR professionals, and decision makers often are asked an important question by the client concerning

More information

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS 169 EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Joshi Pradeep Assistant Professor, Quantum School of Business, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India joshipradeep_2004@yahoo.com

More information

Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research

Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research The guidelines embodied in this document were revised by the Editors of the Publications Division of the American Chemical Society in July 2015. Preface

More information

Chapter 5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations. The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative

Chapter 5. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations. The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative 149 Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summary The overriding purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of construction as a curriculum organizer when viewed from

More information

Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion. Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa

Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion. Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa David Boonin s recent book 1 is an impressively deep and detailed attempt to establish

More information

Abstract Title: Identifying and measuring factors related to student learning: the promise and pitfalls of teacher instructional logs

Abstract Title: Identifying and measuring factors related to student learning: the promise and pitfalls of teacher instructional logs Abstract Title: Identifying and measuring factors related to student learning: the promise and pitfalls of teacher instructional logs MSP Project Name: Assessing Teacher Learning About Science Teaching

More information

Exploratory Testing Dynamics

Exploratory Testing Dynamics Exploratory Testing Dynamics Created by James Bach, Jonathan Bach, and Michael Bolton 1 v2.2 Copyright 2005-2009, Satisfice, Inc. Exploratory testing is the opposite of scripted testing. Both scripted

More information

Comment On: Reducing Foreclosures by Christopher Foote, Kristopher Gerardi, Lorenz Goette and Paul Willen

Comment On: Reducing Foreclosures by Christopher Foote, Kristopher Gerardi, Lorenz Goette and Paul Willen Comment On: Reducing Foreclosures by Christopher Foote, Kristopher Gerardi, Lorenz Goette and Paul Willen Atif Mian 1 University of Chicago Booth School of Business and NBER The current global recession

More information

Current Problems and Resolutions. The Relative Effects of Competence and Likability on Interpersonal Attraction

Current Problems and Resolutions. The Relative Effects of Competence and Likability on Interpersonal Attraction The Journal of Social Psychology, 2008, 148(2), 253 255 Copyright 2008 Heldref Publications Current Problems and Resolutions Under this heading are brief reports of studies that increase our understanding

More information

Omnipotence & prayer

Omnipotence & prayer Omnipotence & prayer Today, we ll be discussing two theological paradoxes: paradoxes arising from the idea of an omnipotent being, and paradoxes arising from the religious practice of prayer. So far, in

More information

Statistical Analysis on Relation between Workers Information Security Awareness and the Behaviors in Japan

Statistical Analysis on Relation between Workers Information Security Awareness and the Behaviors in Japan Statistical Analysis on Relation between Workers Information Security Awareness and the Behaviors in Japan Toshihiko Takemura Kansai University This paper discusses the relationship between information

More information

Survey Process White Paper Series The Six Steps in Conducting Quantitative Marketing Research

Survey Process White Paper Series The Six Steps in Conducting Quantitative Marketing Research Survey Process White Paper Series The Six Steps in Conducting Quantitative Marketing Research POLARIS MARKETING RESEARCH, INC. 1455 LINCOLN PARKWAY, SUITE 320 ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30346 404.816.0353 www.polarismr.com

More information

PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES

PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND MEASURES The goals and directives for the psychology major are taken directly from the work of the Task Force on Undergraduate Psychology Major competencies

More information

FATAL ACCIDENT INQUIRY REVIEW. Response by Charles Hennessy. Solicitor Advocate. Glasaow

FATAL ACCIDENT INQUIRY REVIEW. Response by Charles Hennessy. Solicitor Advocate. Glasaow FATAL ACCIDENT INQUIRY REVIEW Response by Charles Hennessy. Solicitor Advocate. Glasaow I am a Solicitor Advocate practising in Glasgow and I have been qualified as a solicitor for over 30 years. I was

More information

1 The Unique Character of Human Existence

1 The Unique Character of Human Existence 1 1 The Unique Character of Human Existence Each of us is confronted with the challenge of being human, the challenge of becoming a person. It is important to emphasize this word challenge, because it

More information

PERCEPTION OF SENIOR CITIZEN RESPONDENTS AS TO REVERSE MORTGAGE SCHEME

PERCEPTION OF SENIOR CITIZEN RESPONDENTS AS TO REVERSE MORTGAGE SCHEME CHAPTER- V PERCEPTION OF SENIOR CITIZEN RESPONDENTS AS TO REVERSE MORTGAGE SCHEME 5.1 Introduction The present study intended to investigate the senior citizen s retirement planning and their perception

More information

Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors

Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors Appreciating the Complex World of Bachelors "Lifelong bachelors" (heterosexual men who are at least 40 years old and have never married) have long been the subject of public scrutiny. Usually this attention

More information

Is a Single-Bladed Knife Enough to Dissect Human Cognition? Commentary on Griffiths et al.

Is a Single-Bladed Knife Enough to Dissect Human Cognition? Commentary on Griffiths et al. Cognitive Science 32 (2008) 155 161 Copyright C 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN: 0364-0213 print / 1551-6709 online DOI: 10.1080/03640210701802113 Is a Single-Bladed Knife

More information

Introducing Social Psychology

Introducing Social Psychology Introducing Social Psychology Theories and Methods in Social Psychology 27 Feb 2012, Banu Cingöz Ulu What is social psychology? A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics

More information

Flexible Election Timing and International Conflict Online Appendix International Studies Quarterly

Flexible Election Timing and International Conflict Online Appendix International Studies Quarterly Flexible Election Timing and International Conflict Online Appendix International Studies Quarterly Laron K. Williams Department of Political Science University of Missouri williamslaro@missouri.edu Overview

More information

Factors of Adolescent Self-Concept: Mass Mediated, Peer, and Family Communication. David J. Feliciano. University of West Florida

Factors of Adolescent Self-Concept: Mass Mediated, Peer, and Family Communication. David J. Feliciano. University of West Florida Running head: FACTORS OF ADOLESCENT SELF-CONCEPT 1 Factors of Adolescent Self-Concept: Mass Mediated, Peer, and Family Communication David J. Feliciano University of West Florida FACTORS OF ADOLESCENT

More information

Leading Positive Performance: A Conversation about Appreciative Leadership. Diana Whitney, Phd, Amanda Trosten-Bloom and Kae Rader

Leading Positive Performance: A Conversation about Appreciative Leadership. Diana Whitney, Phd, Amanda Trosten-Bloom and Kae Rader Leading Positive Performance: A Conversation about Appreciative Leadership Diana Whitney, Phd, Amanda Trosten-Bloom and Kae Rader This is a preprint of an article published in Performance Improvement journal,

More information

A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional Intelligence and Service Performance in Banks

A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional Intelligence and Service Performance in Banks International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 8028, ISSN (Print): 2319 801X Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013ǁ PP.60-66 A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional

More information