1 Spirituality and the Recovery Movement Joe Powell LCDC, CAS Executive Director Association of Persons Affected by Addiction Spiritual Crossroads: Faith, Mental Health and the African American Community May 15-16, 2012
2 God Given to be of Service in our Community SAMHSA Peer to Peer Recovery Community Support Services o Grant awards : 1998 (3 year grant) and 2003 (4 year grant) Target population: o Peers in or seeking recovery from substance use/addiction o Family members o Three Guiding Principles - Recovery First, Inclusion & Authenticity Hours of Operation: Mon-Fri 9 am to 8pm, Sat 12-6pm Monthly average services per peer group 2,181 Monthly Peer Recovery Coaching sessions 527 Average daily visitors Peer support groups each week Staff 17 Peers in recovery 3 Family member 20 Full-time and 101 volunteers
3 Spiritual Objectives 1. Overview of the roles religion and spirituality have played in mental health/addiction recovery in America over the past years. 2. Highlight themes and lessons drawn from this spiritual history of addiction and mental health in the African American Community. 3. Show the spiritual impact of the recovery movement at a local, state and federal level.
5 In Our Own Voice by Vanessa Jackson The depth of spiritual wounding that can occur when an individual is cut off from his or her religious community or, even worse, when religion is used to further abuse people, is incredible. On the other hand, the power that spirituality has to heal and to restore a survivor s sense of self and serve as a vehicle for reconnection to community is equally powerful.
6 The Power of Recovery In Our own Voice o The telling of stories has been an integral part of the history of people of African descent. o From the griots of ancient Africans to the sometimes painful lyrics of hip-hop artists, people of African descent have known that our lives and our stories must be spoken, over and over again, so that the people will know our truth. o Over come illness and heal our communities. - JP
7 The Colored Temperance Movement Frederick Douglass pledge in 1845 Black Temperance Societies - Role of the Black Church in addressing alcohol problems
8 FREDERICK DOUGLASS Slave Abolitionist These holidays serve as conductors, or safety valves, to carry off the rebellious spirit of enslaved humanity.when a slave was drunk, the slave holder had no fear that he would plan an insurrection; no fear that he would escape to the north. It was the sober, thinking slave who was dangerous, and needed the vigilance of his master to keep him a slave. (Douglass, 1855, p. 256)
9 Our Rationale o The African American church is the largest and oldest human service provider in the African American community. o It is also the institution with the most credibility. o Untapped resources (human and financial).
10 Spiritual Support in the Church and Community o Mental illness and substance use, particularly HIV, HCV, family violence, criminal justice system, homelessness, etc. either directly or indirectly impact the entire Black Church. o The African American church offers an abundance of resources that can be used for reaching persons who are marginalized or disenfranchised. o These realities make it imperative that we continue our collaboration with churches in the development and implementation of Recovery Community education and support.
11 History of Addiction/Alcoholism o AA, religion & the evolution of Recovery Mutual Aid Societies Eleventh Step Groups o Christ o Alcoholics Victorious (1948) o Overcomers Outreach (1977) o JACS (1979) Matt Talbot Retreat Movement (1941) o Calix Society (1947) Christ Centered Twelve Step Programs o Liontamers Anonymous (1980) Extension of Twelve Steps o Millati Islami
12 Historical Religious & Spiritual Support o Harlem Club of Former Alcoholic Degenerates -- Emmanuel Movement & Jacoby Club o The rise of juvenile narcotic-addiction in urban communities of the 1950s sparked the involvement of Christian churches in the addictions arena. Such activities included outreach programs like: o The work of Father Daniel Egan (the Junkie Priest ), community counseling clinics such as Saint Mark s Clinic in Chicago (1954) and the Addict s Rehabilitation Center in Manhattan (1957), and faith-based treatment communities and sober-living environments such as Samaritan Halfway. o Society (1958), Exodus House (1958), Teen Challenge (1961), and Village Haven (1962). The Phoenix House.
14 Government Response to Addiction Problems o In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a federal, state and local partnership was forged to create community-based alcoholism treatment programs across the United States. o Treatment programs initiated by the anti-poverty and mental health programs of the 1960s were significantly expanded in the 1970s under the sponsorship of National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
15 Zero Tolerance Retreat through the 1980s and early 1990s cultural and policy shifts o Re-stigmatization fear, shame and crazy o De-medicalization addiction not treated as a chronic disease o Re-criminalization prison/jails as the new mental Institution
16 Historical Treatment & Recovery o 1980s brought a heightened interest in the history of alcohol and other drug problems in the African American community. (Herd, 1983, 1985) o A growing body of literature calling for cultural frameworks for understanding and responding to the treatment of AOD problems (Peter Bell and Evans, 1981), including calls for responses to the special needs of addicted African American women. (Corrigan and Anderson, 1982). o This period also witnessed the creation of organizations such as the National Black Alcoholism and Addictions Council and the Institute on Black Chemical Abuse.
17 Spiritual Recovery & Treatment o The 1980s and 1990s witnessed attempts to adapt traditional recovery support structures, such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, for increased cultural relevance, as well as attempts to develop culturally sensitive and competent treatment. (Mark Sanders, 1993) o There were also a growing number of indigenous addiction recovery movements within African American communities. Five such recovery movements include the following.
18 Religious and spiritual Recovery Advocacy Pioneers o Rev. Cecil Williams Glide Memorial & o Father Clements-One Church-One-Addict, Free N One o New Faith o Faith-based Recovery Support Structures o Free N One o Victorious Lady o Celebrate Recovery
19 Glide Memorial Methodist Church o 80% of the congregants are working on recovery. o The program is culturally based. o Pastor Cecil Williams believes that African Americans need a recovery effort that takes their culture into consideration, recognizes their history and socially spirited manner of relating to each other. o Most of the members of Glide Church had tried traditional 12-step groups prior to joining Glide and felt isolated, as many were the only African Americans or the only individuals addicted to crack in the group.
20 One Church-One Addict o Founded by the renowned Father George Clements in o Purpose of the project is to recruit churches to help recovering addicts maintain their recovery. o Currently, over 900 churches in 31 states are involved with the project. o At The Million Man March in October 1995, Father Clements talked about his plans to launch, One Church-One Inmate. o The goal is to recruit faith communities (churches, temples and synagogues) to provide post-release aftercare for men and women leaving prison. From source: Father George Clements's Biography
21 Free N - One o Founded in 1987 by Ronald Simmons in Los Angeles, California. o Christian-centered recovery program that provides support groups for addicts and their family members. o Program has spread to African American churches throughout the country. o There are over 50 churches in Illinois alone holding Free-N- One meetings weekly.
22 Nation of Islam o The Nation of Islam is perhaps one of the most successful program in reaching African American male substance abusers in the criminal justice system. o Efforts in the 1950s and ongoing today. o 1995, the author interviewed 10 African American males who were chemically dependent, with criminal pasts and who credited their recoveries to the Nation of Islam. o Some attended 12-step group meetings (Narcotics Anonymous) and were members of the Nation of Islam.
23 African American Survivors Organization o Meeting begins with a reading entitled, Who is a Survivor? and What is an African American Survivors Group Meeting? o Followed by reading the Seven Principles of Nguza Saba, which are followed during a Kwanzaa celebration, and teach group members some of the principles of African culture. o Principles include unity, self-determination, collective works and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity. o Responsibility to do as much as you can to leave your community more beautiful than how you found it. o Faith.
24 Public s Perception Of In Recovery From Faces & Voices of Recovery April 2004/Hart Research and Coldwater Corporation [National Random phone survey N = 801] (APAA-Dallas, TX) When you hear the word recovery, as in This person is in recovery from an addiction, what does recovery mean? Person is free from addiction/no longer uses D&A 22% Person is trying to stop using D&A 62% Person has been damaged by D&A 8% Person has mental illness 3%
25 Recovery by Any Means Necessary Recovery model is broad enough to embrace us who talk about their addictions in terms of disease and recovery, habit and choice, badness (crime) and reformation, sin (demon-possessed) and redemption (Godtouched), cursed (for breaking cultural taboos) and healed, excess and harmony (balance), shame and honor (face), genocide and personal/cultural survival, or simply messed up and worn out ( sick and tired of being sick and tired ). ~All Roads in Recovery
26 Recovery Definition o Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves abstinence and improved health, wellness, and quality of life. (CSAT 2005 Nat. Recovery Summit) Faces and Voices of Recovery o Recovery from substance dependence is a voluntarily maintained lifestyle characterized by sobriety, personal health, and citizenship. (Betty Ford Institute, 2007) o Behavioral health recovery is a process of change whereby individuals work to improve their own health and wellness and to live a meaningful life in a community of their choice while striving to achieve their full potential. (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2011)
27 Recovery Capital o Recovery capital refers to the amount and quality of internal and external resources that one can bring to bear to initiate and sustain recovery from addiction. o A number of factors have been identified as predictors of recovery in short-term studies and constitute recovery capital including: Cognitive recovery readiness Participation in 12-step fellowships Faith/spirituality/life meaning
28 Preventing Genetic Risk and Acquired Biological Causes of Substance Use/Abuse Fortunately, risk factors are not predictive factors due to protective factors, and the risk of neurobehavioral disinhibition can be moderated by the protective factors stemming from interventions in schools/communities and families (e.g. the Strong African American Families -SAAF Program, Recovery Community Organizations, Church).
29 President Barack Obama Solutions to America s challenges are being developed every day at the grassroots. Government should not be supplanting these efforts, but supporting them.
30 Baseline Spirituality, Religiosity, Life Meaning and Recovery Mean No Yes Sustained abstinent recovery at F1 Spiritual well-being Life meaning Religiosity
31 Pathways Pilot Spirituality and religion as recovery support Describe any religious/spiritual experience/ support that you have had as a significant part of your recovery h Organized religion, church step recovery program and fellowship Spiritual God/Higher Power/spirituality Spiritual awakening/experience 16 Support from peers 14 God (non-specific) 12 None 10 Surrender/admitted powerlessness 8 Community invoolvment,volunteer work/service h Adds up to < 100% because up to 3 answers were coded
32 African American Music Arts and Addiction/Recovery Important experiences in the life of a people are expressed through the cultural media of language, music, literature, dance and art. More prominent African Americans are becoming public about their recovery from addiction. o Whoopi Goldberg o Samuel Jackson o Natalie Cole o Ray Charles o Jada Pinkett Smith o Mary J. Blige o Tupac o Eminem o Whitney Houston o Richard Pryor o Len Bias o Dwight Gooden o Sammy Davis o Miles Davis o Billie Holiday o Charlie Parker
33 Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) o FBOs have expanded the concept of choice by offering faith-based options to African Americans who may have a more spiritual approach to their recovery. o In many cases African Americans consider them trustworthy sources that were located within the client s community and who were unaffiliated with any formal state or federal structure. o FBOs are particularly effective for engaging and retaining those of us who had been incarcerated or had criminal records.
34 Faith & Community-Based Organizations (FBCOs) o FBCOs infused the culturally congruent support networks with recovery support services such as transportation, child care, scriptural study groups, faith-based counseling, and peer-to-peer support. o The inclusion of recovery support services has enhanced treatment outcomes and has helped peers to remain motivated and engaged in their communities. o FBCOs can counter the spiritual malaise or the results from guilt and shame for how addiction/mental health problems has affected loved ones and, consequently, can hinder recovery.
35 Factors Pushing Recovery Focus Recovery Movement to a Recovery Oriented System of Care Recovery Treatment TX Recovery Vision Reality 2010
36 Factors Influencing This Change o Emerging and energized recovery community e.g. FAVOR, Christians in recovery, Recovery Centers o Research findings supporting ongoing, continuity of services o Value Options Recovery initiatives o Inclusion and evolvement of grassroots faith-based and community-based organizations o Changing norms and expectations as defined by the Institute Of Medicine Quality Chasm reports o Recognition of many pathways to recovery o Federal, state and local approaches to person-centered care o Betty Ford Institute Definition of Recovery
37 Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care Approach o In the recovery-oriented systems of care approach, the treatment agency is viewed as one of many resources needed for successful recovery integration into the community. o No one source of support is more dominant than another. o Various supports need to work in harmony with the communities of color direction, so that all possible supports are working for and with the person in recovery. Addiction Messenger, November 2007, Vol. 10 Issue 11, published by the Northwest Frontier ATTC.
38 ROSC support person-centered and self-directed approaches to care that build on the personal responsibility, strengths, and resilience of individuals, families and communities to achieve health, wellness and recovery from alcohol and drug problems. Recovery Individual Family V Faith/spiritual Community Wellness Health
39 Cost Effectiveness Perception Of Care ROSC require an ongoing process of systems improvement that incorporates the experiences of those in recovery, their family members and community in health, home and purpose. Evidence-Based Practice Practice-Based Evidence Retention Social Services Housing Authority Wellness Child Welfare and Family Services Cultural Health Services Educational Housing/ Transportation Spiritual Family/ Child Care Financial Individual Family Community Legal Health Insurance Access/Capacity Recovery Systems of Care Services & Supports VSO & Peer Support Case Mgt DoD & Veterans Affairs Addiction Services System Alcohol/Drug Treatment Vocational PTSD & Mental Health Ongoing Systems Improvement Health Care Criminal Justice System Social Connectedness Recovery Support Services HIV Services Mental Health System Primary Care System Vocational Services Employment Reduced Crime Safe & Drug-free Safe Housing Health
40 Five A s of Healthcare Reform for Africa Americans Availability o o Does the service exist where people live their lives (live, work, study, play, shop, worship, etc.) Can I learn and about it in the church? Accessibility o Questions of ease and convenience to obtain and use the services o Wait time for appointment, wait time for service o Hours and days of operation o Travel time, travel access by car, parking, public transportation routes (any transfers? How many?, costs, availability, schedule, cab ease of getting there) o Costs o Physical accessibility o Child care Copyright 2010 National Center for Cultural Competence o Language, interpreters, translation Georgetown University o Will the Church help me access healthcare? V. Jackson, Ph.D., NCCC, 2008
41 Affordability o Costs to consumer and financial viability of service provider (eg., sliding fee scale, co-payments, deductibles, exclusions). o Ability to acquire third party coverage eligibility rules, administrative process/requirements to document eligibility (e.g., Birth certificates with raised seal, rent receipt in own name) relationship between multiple funding streams. Appropriateness o Recovery correctness of service & support offered/provided for prevention and treatment- Screening and assessment tools, take cultural issues into account in the construction, implementation. o Diagnoses are accurate and appropriate Interventions including medications are designed to achieve optimal outcomes, location of service (e.g., home, facility, school, church, etc.), level of restrictiveness of care, etc. Acceptability o Services believes that the services are congruent with cultural beliefs, values, community, recovery and world view.
43 Religious & Spiritual Recovery 1. Transformative religious & spiritual experience constitutes a legitimate catalyst of addiction/mental health recovery 2. Living in a community of shared experience, strength and hope heightens the quality and stability of addiction/mental health recovery. 3. Recovery is something more than the removal of alcohol & drugs/mental health family problems from an otherwise unchanged life, e.g., reconstruction of one s relationship with God, with others and with oneself. 4. Beyond Recovery often involves the embrace of core spiritual values, e.g., release, freedom, gratitude, humility, service work, giving back, tolerance and forgiveness
44 Religious & Spiritual Recovery 5. There is a long tradition of recovery carriers, healers wounded healers in the addictions/mental health arena who use their own healing as a platform to help others. 6. There is a long tradition of integrating religion, psychology and medicine in the treatment and recovery of addictive disorders. 7. The historical import of a single life can be enormous.
45 The future of our community In the future, treatment programs serving African Americans will pioneer joint service delivery models with these indigenous movements and will use these movements as part of the menu of recovery support services. The African American community is not a homogenous community and no single recovery support structure can meet the needs of all its members who need such a structure.
46 Going Forward in Recovery o Develop a harmonious place, that allows for open dialogue and honest discussion. o Create a safe place where consumers are encouraged and responsible for speaking the truth. o A place where African Americans of faith can remove their mask, be transparent and get healing. ~McCreary 10/2010
47 Religious & Spiritual Recovery Local Partners Dallas o Friendship West Baptist Church o Free at last Oak Cliff Bible Fellowship o Concord Baptist o Unity Church o Corinth AA group o Narcotics Anonymous o First Africa Church o Golden Gate o Local Faith Partners of African descent Fort Worth o Black Churches Network o Mount Rose Baptist Church o Greater New Hope Missionary Baptist o Diocese of Fort Worth o Teen Challenge o Cenikor Treatment Center o Eastside Ministries of Fort Worth o Re-Entry Resources of Fort Worth o Volunteers of America o MHMR
48 Religious and Spiritual Resources Texas o 12 Step Program o African American Church o Rev. Dr. Robert Gilmore America Honors Recovery Award o Involve participants - ask audience o Black United Fund of Texas National o 12 Step Program o African American Church o July Minority Health Month o Faces and Voices of Recovery o NAMI Sharing Hope African American Leaders
49 Community Journey of Recovery Over coming illness, trauma, mental Illness/addiction provides recovery capital and capacity that must be told as proof that: o Everyone has something to contribute to the community o Everyone must be welcome o The gift of recovery must be shared with family, community and a Higher Power o If not shared, the community and persons journey is incomplete
50 Resources Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration Texas Department of State Health Services Association of Persons Affected by Addiction Recovery Month National Leadership Council on African American Behavioral Health (NLC)
51 Creating new possibilities to be fully human, most powerful and living the life we love in our community Recovery by any means necessary