March 2009 Annual Report 2008

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1 March 2009 Annual Report 2008 Bel V Rue Walcourt 148 / Walcourtstraat 148 B-1070 Brussels Tel Fax

2 ... TABLE OF CONTENTS TUCHATER 1 : INTRODUCTIONUT... 1 TUCHATER 2 : REGULATORY ACTIVITIES IN BELGIUMUT... 2 TU2.1.UT TUGENERAL ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONSUT... 2 TU2.2.UT TUOVERVIEW OF INSECTIONS IN NSUT... 3 TU2.3.UT TUOVERVIEW OF INSECTIONS IN OTHER NUCLEAR FACILITIESUT... 5 TU2.4.UT TUEMERGENCY REAREDNESS AND RESONSEUT... 7 TUCHATER 3 : SAFETY ASSESSMENTS AND NATIONAL ROJECTSUT... 9 TU3.1.UT TUOWER URATING & SG RELACEMENT AT DOEL 1UT... 9 TU3.2.UT TU 18 MONTHS EXTENDED CYCLES FOR DOEL 4UT 9 TU3.3.UT TUROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENTUT... 9 TU3.4.UT TUERIODIC SAFETY REASSESSMENTS (SR)UT TU3.5.UT TUGENERIC STUDIES (COMMON TO ALL NUCLEAR OWER LANTS)UT TU3.6.UT TUSAFETY-RELATED COMUTER-BASED SYSTEMS FOR NUT TUCHATER 4 : INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIESUT TU4.1.UT TUOECD ACTIVITIESUT TU4.2.UT TUIAEA ACTIVITIESUT TU4.3.UT TUCOOERATION WITH WESTERN SAFETY AUTHORITIESUT TU4.4.UT TUASSISTANCE ROJECT TO THE NUCLEAR REGULATORS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROEUT TU4.5.UT TUCOOERATION WITH OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONSUT TUCHATER 5 : OTHER TECHNICAL SUORT ACTIVITIESUT TU5.1.UT TUADVISORY ROLEUT TU5.2.UT TUDOMESTIC EXERIENCE FEEDBACKUT TU5.3.UT TUFOREIGN EXERIENCE FEEDBACKUT TUCHATER 6 : EXERTISE MANAGEMENTUT TU6.1.UT TUKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTUT TU6.2.UT TURESEARCH & DEVELOMENTUT TU6.3.UT TUTRAININGUT... 22

3 CHATER 1 INTRODUCTION Bel V was created in September 2007 by e Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) as its subsidiary. This new organization, completely under FANC s control, is intended to group all Belgian nuclear experts who are performing regulatory control activities in e area of nuclear safety and radiation protection. This grouping fits wi e recommendations of e parliament resolutions, published in April 2007, aiming at a more efficient organization of nuclear regulatory activities in Belgium. However Bel V could not become immediately operational because decisions were blocked on e political level by e lack of government. It is only in April 2008 at AVN and Bel V were able to sign an agreement rough which AVN s regulatory activities were transferred to Bel V, as of April 14, At is date, 46 AVN staff members were transferred to Bel V and continued to carry out all e regulatory activities as before. The stabilized relation wi e FANC offers e opportunity to re-build a complementary relationship between Bel V, e Belgian TSO, and e FANC, e Belgian nuclear safety auority. The tandem FANC-Bel V is e Belgian Regulatory Body. The priority in 2008 was to establish an efficient and effective working environment mainly in e area of regulatory inspection and control. An integrated inspection and control strategy was established and communicated to e licensees. It is publicly available on e FANC website. Synergies are also being sought in oer areas such as knowledge management, R&D, international activities and improvements to e regulatory context. Recruitment remains a major challenge. The unstable situation in e last few years as well as e uncertainty concerning e future of e regulatory organizations in Belgium caused e loss of several experienced people. Moreover e nuclear sector is heavily recruiting in Belgium and in e neighbouring countries. Starting wi 46 people in April, Bel V was nevereless able to reach a staff of st 51 on December 31, despite losing 4 people in e meantime. The objective is to reach 58 people by e end of The challenge is not only recruiting but also training and keeping e newly hired, who need to implement e acquired knowledge and experience during e years to come. This has to happen wi e experienced staff already heavily busy wi e regulatory activities. International networking offers some relief, but e language barrier and e difficulty to share specific technical knowledge about e national facilities remain important obstacles in sharing e burden across e borders. Building on e expertise and dedication of its staff, Bel V succeeded to maintain a high level of control on e safety of e nuclear installations under its responsibility. The incidental release of iodine at IRE at e end of August, rated level 3 on e INES, caused an additional burden on e Bel V staff. The main lesson learned by e licensee is e need to keep all safety processes under control (here e chemical processes) as part of e safety culture. The quality and reliability of e monitoring systems were also identified as needing permanent attention. For Bel V is event illustrated e difficulty to concentrate on e nuclear and radiological safety in an environment of high attention by e media and e political world, and anxiety of e public. In at respect, e complementarity FANC-Bel V is an asset. This report shows not only e attention Bel V has paid in 2008 to e safety of e Belgian nuclear installations under its control, but also to e activities needed to maintain and develop its high level of technical expertise as well as to fulfil its role as Belgian TSO

4 CHATER 2 REGULATORY ACTIVITIES IN BELGIUM 2.1. GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS Nuclear ower lants At e request of e Belgian Government, an OSART visited e site of Tihange Nuclear ower lant in May 2007, focused on unit 1. The team identified a number of topics in operational safety at can be improved. The most significant ones include: e work auorization process and its coordination, event analyses, e application of human performance tools, procedures for temporary modifications, e resolution of minor deficiencies in e field (labelling, cleanliness, small leakages), prevention of contamination. Since May 2007 and during e whole year 2008, CNT implemented an action plan in order to improve ese areas and to present solutions and results during e follow-up mission foreseen in January One of e most difficult challenges is to obtain evolution of human behaviour, in response to management expectations. Bel V took is plan into account in its inspection programme. Doel Nuclear ower lant is developing an action plan in order to prepare e OSART mission foreseen in Feedback from e Tihange OSART is taken into account. An important recruitment programme is under way at Electrabel since This is e result of e need to increase e staff as well as to plan for many retirements in e coming years, but also e result of e will of Suez to develop nuclear activities. The challenge is now to train and to retain e newly hired staff members, and to maintain enough competences in Doel and Tihange. A positive impact of e increased number of personnel begins to be felt on e field. Oer nuclear facilities An extensive internal audit has been conducted in 2007 at e SCK CEN on e issue of safety culture. An action plan to implement e conclusions of e audit was developed and followed in ositive evolution can be established, in particular in e Heal hysics Department. At Belgoprocess, some efforts are to be done to improve e safety culture. The follow up of e periodic safety review is also to be improved. As a result of e intensified inspection programme organised by AVN in 2007, and of e external audit conducted at e request of e FANC wi e help of e French Safety Auorities, a large number of recommendations has been put forward in order to improve e safety at IRE. The importance for IRE of e periodic safety review was also underlined to improve safety. An action plan was defined in nd On August 22, an important release of iodine 131 occurred. As a result, e IRE activities were suspended by e FANC. Restart auorisation was submitted to deep analysis and a new action plan. The challenge of e new IRE management remains e increase of safety culture. The efforts to hire high quality staff in order to strengen e teams performing safety functions have to be continued. Integrated strategy for control Bel V is now a subsidiary of e FANC. An integrated strategy of inspection (by FANC) and control (by Bel V) is developed for

5 until ANNUAL REORT 2.2. OVERVIEW OF INSECTIONS IN Ns The regulations require permanent inspections during operation of e 7 Belgian nuclear units. The goal of e inspections is to verify compliance wi e license, as well as to assess e licensee s safety management and safety culture. In 2008, more an 350 inspections have been performed in e seven Belgian nuclear units. An overview of e main inspection activities by Bel V inspectors is given hereafter for each unit. In 2008, 7 events have been rated on e INES as level 1. Doel 1/2 A relatively large number of events occurred in Two events wi loss of defence in dep were classified as level 1 on e INES. In one event limiting conditions for operation for e safety injection system were violated by wrong planning of maintenance on a safety injection pump. In a second event two steam generator isolation valves were misaligned by human error. Five unplanned stops for corrective maintenance were necessary. One of ese was a lengy cold shutdown to replace degraded pressure retaining bolts of primary pumps. Many of ese events can be attributed to maintenance deficiencies in e remote past and/or plant aging. The primary system of Doel 1 was polluted wi resins because of a mechanical failure of an ion exchanger. An extensive cleaning program was applied on e primary system. Long term effects of e sulphate pollution are being examined and increased follow up for stress corrosion cracking might be necessary for certain components. Doel N site general view An event of uncontrolled level decrease in e primary circuit occurred during mid loop operation. Unreliable level measurements contributed to e human failure at caused e event. Doel 3 The unit was at nominal power during e whole year, except for: e refueling outage from June 20 nd July 22 ; a reactor trip following e manual shut down of a primary pump on August 7, followed by a cold shutdown to repair e pump seals; e cold shutdown at was extended until September 14, after having discovered weaknesses in e design of e seals of e shutdown-pumps. The design was modified. Two events have been rated as level 1 on e INES: Doel 4 e above mentioned weak design of e shutdown-pumps, combined wi insufficient maintenance of e pump coolers causing leaks of e pump seals; e unavailability of an emergency diesel generator due to a lack of cooling water. The unit was at nominal power during e whole year, except for: A reactor trip following a test of e differential protective system of e alternator, which caused de-energizing of e alternator on March 28. After e above mentioned reactor trip (a few hours before e planned stop) e licensee has decided not to bring e reactor back in critical condition and to cool down till cold shutdown - 3 -

6 due due (during due (at due till till before 2007 ANNUAL REORT for refueling. The refueling outage was ended on April 30, but due to several problems wi e replacement of e alternator s rotor, it took till May 19 e unit could be reconnected on e net. No event has been rated on e INES. Tihange 1 The unit was at nominal power during e whole year, except for: reactor trip on May 1 reactor trip on June 25 reactor trip on October 30 st to e spurious closure of main feedwater valves; to interferences during stormy weaer; st to a failure into non safety-related regulations processor; reactor trip on October 31 10% of nominal power) by forgetting to reset all protections at appeared during e above mentioned reactor trip; e refueling outage, from September 6 Two INES level 1 events took place: October 19. unavailability of a containment spray pump due to too high vibrations; unavailability of an exhaust fan of e annulus space, due to inappropriate maintenance. Tihange 2 The unit was at nominal power during e whole year, except for: e refueling outage, from February 10 April 18. a reactor trip on April 16 start-up after outage) at low power (6,5 %) generated by e intermediate range nuclear excore chains, due to a wrong set point setting (e adequate value is 25 % of nominal power); two reactor trips occurred on July 18 to: at full power, drop of 4 control rods in e core during a repairing operation in e electric board of ese rods, inducing a high flux variation detected by e power range nuclear excore chains; at low power, during start-up after e first transient, due to a spurious signal generated by one of e two nuclear source chains (wrongly indicating 10 times e value of e oer chain). No event rated higher an level 0 on e INES scale took place in Tihange N site general view Tihange 3 The unit was at nominal power during e whole year, except for: an outage in order to replace a damaged fuel assembly, from December st till January a power decrease to 50% nominal power at e beginning of March, due to e stop of one of bo circulation water pumps caused by a problem at e corresponding main circulation water filter. One oer event should be mentioned: - 4 -

7 on January 24, e activity of e reactor coolant increased wi several orders of magnitude, indicating e occurrence of fuel cladding damage. One event has been rated as level 1 on e INES: e switch of a safety air compressor has been found in e off position. Tihange Common activities During e whole year CNT implemented its action plan in order to improve e areas where e IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) of international experts gave recommendations and suggestions during its mission in May Solutions and results are to be given during e follow-up mission foreseen in January An important effort is made for training, revision of procedures, organisation and quality of works, housekeeping, control of contamination, human performance, An exercise of global evacuation of e site has been done, as recommended. The inspection program on e site was furer implemented as follows: Follow-up of e action plan for e OSART follow-up mission; Meeting wi e managers of different Departments (Maintenance, Operations, Care, Engineering Support, rocess erformance Management) and services, in order to evaluate eir organisation and e management of different processes related to nuclear safety or radiation protection; More attention is devoted to human factors and human performance, housekeeping, resolution of minor deficiencies,..., having in mind e importance of permanence for e actions of improvement OVERVIEW OF INSECTIONS IN OTHER NUCLEAR FACILITIES In 2008, about 330 inspections have been performed in e nuclear facilities oer an Ns. The significant activities and events in ose facilities are summarised below. 4 events have been rated as level 1 on e INES and one event as level 3. Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) The working regime of BR2 during 2008 consisted of 3 cycles of 3 weeks and 2 cycles of 4 weeks. Before cycle 04/2008, a crack was observed in e primary circuit, at e bend of a pipe at e entry of e pre-heater of e pressurizer. The crack has been temporarily repaired. A more orough inspection of e primary circuit piping as well as an investigation of e part where e crack was observed have been planned. In September 2008, e construction work required for e Guinevere experience at e VENUS reactor has started. Concerning e audit on e safety culture at was initiated in 2007, e action plan resulting from e audit has been approved. On May 15, a transport of scrap iron took place from SCK CEN to Studsvik. On arrival of e transport, it has been observed at e dose rate exceeded e value for excepted packages. The event was classified on level 1 of INES. Belgoprocess The decommissioning of e Eurochemic plant (former pilot reprocessing plant for spent nuclear fuel) has started in 1990, and it is scheduled at e complete plant will be demolished in The demolition of Eurochemic occurs in ree phases. The plant has been subdivided since 2004 in an eastern, a western and a Belgoprocess Storage building

8 + of + ANNUAL REORT central part. On Friday 20 June 2008 an official ceremony gave e starting shot and ree days rd later - on June 23, e actual demolition has started. Wi e demolition of is part in September 2008, 35% of e total concrete inventory of e Eurochemic plant was demolished. During is demolition e decommissioning work of e central part is still continuing. Belgoprocess continued in 2008 e visual inspection programme of e intermediate level waste drums in e Eurostorage building. The visual inspection programme of e low level waste drums in building 151 has been completed in Among e operational incidents, ree incidents INES 1 are to be mentioned in 2008: two of ese incidents are due to non-conformities in e follow-up of e waste stream and e ird one is a start of fire in a cutting-cell. The causes of ese incidents have been oroughly studied in order to take e necessary measures to avoid is kind of incidents in e future. Belgonucleaire In March 2008 was issued e Royal Decree granting e decommissioning license to Belgonucleaire. Before starting e decommissioning activities, BN still had to select subcontractors in compliance wi well-established criteria, approved by Bel V and FANC and e initial Safety File for approval was still to be submitted to Bel V and FANC. Apart from e Safety report for application of e decommissioning license, is Safety File consists of Exploitation ermits ( Uitbatingstoelatingen ), describing e different safety systems and eir working conditions for e dismantling operations. Those have to be approved subsequently by Bel V and FANC. The Initial Safety File was approved by FANC by September At e end of 2008, e selection procedure for subcontractors is still on-going. In e mean time, Belgonucleaire carried out safety improvements to its facility, by e.g. removal of equipment and reduction of fire risk. rior to clearance during dismantling, Belgonucleaire has to obtain approval for its proposed clearance meods from Bel V. This work is in progress. Research reactor of e University of Ghent (Thetis) The facility is in operational stand-by since e end of 2003 pending e final removal of e fuel assemblies and e decommissioning of e facility. Operational activities at e facility are limited to maintenance and testing of safety systems at need to be operational in accordance wi e safety case. A call for tenders was organised in 2008 for e defueling of e reactor and e final removal of e fissile material from e site. This operation is expected to be carried out in 2009 on e basis of a specific safety case at needs to be approved by Bel V. The application for decommissioning of e facility is still in preparation. No significant events are to be mentioned for Institute of Radionuclides (IRE) and related facilities (Nordion, Sterigenics, IBA) IRE Many safety concerns have been raised by e nuclear safety control auorities (AVN/Bel V and FANC) since 2005 at IRE. Action plans were set up in order to correct e situation. These action plans were followed by IRE wi a lot of difficulties and delays in 2007 and Only a few actions were effectively implemented by e IRE management. nd On August 22, an unplanned release of iodine-131 started at IRE. An unexpected chemical reaction occurred in a tank (2700 litres) collecting e liquid wastes of e shielded isotope production cells. Because e liquid wastes were not correctly separated between ese cells, a peroxide solution came into contact wi a solution of iodide (I-). An oxydo redox reaction most probably started in e waste tank : HB2BOB2B 2I- + 2H+ IB2B 2HB2BO. During 4 days, about 45 GBq of iodine-131 were released. Various corrective actions and urgent modifications to e installation (filtering) eventually allowed stopping e iodine release to e environment. This event was rated at level 3 on e international INES scale. This incident also clearly shows important gaps in e safety culture of IRE

9 exercise ANNUAL REORT The plant operation was stopped by FANC on August 26. The request for e restarting auorisation was submitted to a deep analysis of e event by IRE and e identification and implementation of short term corrective actions. Start-up of e isotope production was allowed by a FANC decree dated November 3rd (under conditions to be fulfilled wiin mid-term deadlines). A new auorisation was presented to e Scientific Council of e FANC in December The new IRE management developed a mid term action plan in order to rapidly upgrade e safety culture wiin e company. MDS Nordion The responsible person for e heal physics service left in October and his task was subcontracted to AVC. In 2008, a lot of incidents occurred in MDS Nordion which incited FANC to take actions. The production of one department was blocked by FANC during one week following an incident. On e oer hand, e iodine-131 release of IRE also affected e production of MDS Nordion because e ventilation system is common to bo companies. MDS Nordion also has to increase its safety culture. IBA-ri A Class II expert has been appointed by IBA. A new auorisation regulates e new IBA-ri activities. Sterigenics The safety culture in is company continues to improve slowly. A major problem has been solved in 2008: it consisted in e removal wiout incident of 48 old Co60 sources EMERGENCY REAREDNESS AND RESONSE Emergency response exercises In 2008, ree emergency preparedness and response exercises were organized under e supervision of e General Directorate Crisis Centre of e Ministry of e Interior: in May for e Belgonucleaire nuclear site: partial exercise limited to e interaction between e emergency crisis cell of e licensee (on-site) and e evaluation cell CELEVAL (off-site). in June for e Tihange N: partial exercise wi participation of local auorities and rescue services in addition to federal cells and committees (coordination committee, evaluation/information/measurement cells). This exercise was directed by controllers and included a simulation of media pressure. Real meteorological conditions were used for is exercise. in September for e Doel N: partial exercise limited to e interaction between e emergency crisis cell of e licensee (on-site) and e evaluation cell CELEVAL (off-site). A 4 for e IRE site was initially planned in December 2008 but it was cancelled as a result of e real incident at took place at e end of August. This event led to e first real activation of e Belgian nuclear and radiological emergency plan between 28/08 and 12/09/2008. Bel V was deeply involved in e follow-up of is incident and participated in e work and actions of e evaluation cell. All ese exercises were prepared, conducted and evaluated according to a new Belgian meodology for preparation, execution and evaluation of emergency preparedness and response exercises. Bel V was largely involved in ese exercises, as participating organization but also as controller and evaluator, especially for e exercise for e Tihange N. Bel V participated wiin e evaluation cell in e international exercise organised by e IAEA (ConvEx-3, Mexico) in July. In addition, Bel V participated, as observer, in e French emergency response exercise for e Nogent N in May The main objective was to observe e implementation and working of e local coordination centre and e sorting & decontamination centre

10 Oer related activities Emergency response exercise in France (May 2008) Bel V continued to actively contribute to e working-group on Emergency Intervention Zones set up by e General Directorate Crisis Centre of e Ministry of Internal Affairs. This working group, composed of radiological experts, representatives of e federal and provincial auorities and representatives of e police and civil protection, aims to elaborate principles and guidelines for e setting up of intervention zones, such as key-hole approach, definition of sectors and operational slicing. The Bel V representative in is group was in charge to work out e working document to be discussed in e group. Bel V togeer wi e Federal Agency for Nuclear Control initiated a working-group aiming to completely review e information exchange forms used by e utilities in e case of a nuclear or radiological emergency. This WG started wi representatives of Electrabel (Doel & Tihange Ns, Corporate) but at a later stage it is expected to apply e results and outcomes of is WG to all concerned installations (SCK CEN, BN, B, IRE). Bel V took part in a reading committee put in place by e Federal Agency for Nuclear Control in e frame of e development of a basic training course on radiological protection. Improvement of Bel V s role In order to improve e Belgian emergency preparedness and response in case of a nuclear emergency and especially e role of Bel V herein: Bel V staff participated in e Belgian emergency preparedness and response exercises, which, besides e response activities, implied a lot of preparation, observation and evaluation of e response by e Bel V crisis team, by e licensee and by oer involved parties (evaluation cell of e governmental crisis centre); unannounced emergency activation tests were organized. These tests allow to check e availability of e roles of duty of Bel V in different conditions; participation of Bel V representatives in a Workshop on radioactive measurements in e environment (FANC, 10/10/2008); participation of a Bel V representative in an international workshop on Learning from e Chernobyl legacy (Kiev, 22-23/09/2008) togeer wi Belgian colleagues (from Ministry of Internal Affairs, FANC, local auorities ). International collaboration The close collaboration wi e French counterparts (IRSN) in e Emergency reparedness & Response area has been continued by regular contacts and exchanges between experts from e two organizations. In at context, an IRSN representative participated, as an observer, in a ematic inspection dedicated to e on-site emergency response plan in November at e Tihange N. It is expected at next year Bel V will participate in a similar inspection in France. Bel V was also active in e discussion between French and Belgian competent auorities (nuclear safety auorities, ministry of e Interior, TSOs) aiming to elaborate a bilateral agreement on preparation, alert, information exchange and assistance relative to radiological emergencies

11 CHATER 3 SAFETY ASSESSMENTS AND NATIONAL ROJECTS 3.1. OWER URATING & SG RELACEMENT AT DOEL 1 A steam-generator replacement for e Doel 1 N is planned by e end of 2009, togeer wi a power uprating of about 10% (i.e. up to a ermal power of about 1310 MW). The same modifications were introduced for e Doel 2 N in They did not lead to any difficulty and took place as expected. After ese modifications, e Doel 1 and Doel 2 N will be identical again (same kind of steam generators, same operating parameters). Most safety studies were received in The review by Bel V concentrated on e differences wi e sister project at Doel 2. These differences are mainly related to some mechanical aspects and to e impact of e power uprating on e capacity of e shared safety systems (Doel 1&2 are twin units). No major problems were identified up to now MONTHS EXTENDED CYCLES FOR DOEL 4 Since 1996 (Steam Generators Replacement), Doel 4 is auorized to operate wi 16 mons equivalent full power cycles, as opposed to Tihange 3 which operates wi 18 mons cycles. An extension to 18 mons cycles for Doel 4 has been decided by e Utilities in 2007 wi e wish to start e first real 18 mons cycle in September 2009 (cycle 24). The programme of studies and e justifications for non-reanalyses, for assessment, as well as a planning for e studies to be provided were received. Bel V performed e safety assessment of e project, what did not lead to any difficulty. The formal licensing is expected early in ROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT Development and Review of SA In 2008, e Licensee (Electrabel) and its architect engineer (Tractebel Engineering) continued e update of e plant specific SA analyses for e Belgian nuclear power plants. Consequently, also Bel V continued its review activities of ese updated analyses. As in e past, Bel V performs an online review of ese SA updates. In 2008, e activities were mainly devoted to SA level 1. Bel V has also completed e review of e updated SA of e BR2 research reactor. Given at in e future e scope of e SAs will be extended to include fire and flooding SA, a first meeting has taken place wi Electrabel and Tractebel Engineering to discuss e meodology at ey intend to apply for e fire SA. Also in 2008, and as a part of e Belgian action plan to meet WENRA Reference Levels on SA, Electrabel has presented e result of e action plan for some SA-related issues, for instance on e use of insights gained from SA for training of staff members. Bel V reviewed is work and concluded at it responds in a satisfactory way to e objectives of e WENRA Reference Level. In 2008, Bel V did not perform SA-based Event Analyses (SAEA) for events in e Belgian nuclear power plants. For Bel V s participation in e eleven international Technical Meeting on Risk-based recursor Analysis, see section 6.2. For e R&D activities undertaken in view of (existing or future) SA applications and for SA activities undertaken in an international framework (OECD, IAEA), see section 6.2 and related annex of is report on Research and Development

12 1 2 Common Common ANNUAL REORT 3.4. ERIODIC SAFETY REASSESSMENTS (SR) st SRs The first ree units (Doel 1/2 and Tihange 1) are currently submitted to eir ird periodic safety review while for e oer Belgian units e second SR is ongoing. More precisely, implementation studies and corrective actions are performed according to e SR reports which were transmitted to e FANC in respectively 2002, 2003 and The FANC has been kept informed of e progress of e current SRs a.o. rough e Contact Commission meetings and specific progress meetings. All meodological documents were reviewed by Bel V. Some questions are still pending. The studies of most of e subjects of ese joint periodic safety reviews are underway. The available conclusions of various subjects were summarized in a previous annual report. Some additional elements are drawn hereafter. Generally, ese conclusions are still under review by Bel V. The protection of e site against flooding is still under review. Measures to protect e site in case of flood are being studied. nd SRs A project group has prepared a scope and meodology document according to e guidelines of e FANC. Those guidelines rely on e application of IAEA Safety Guide NS-2.10 eriodic Safety Review of Nuclear ower lants GENERIC STUDIES (common to all nuclear power plants) Sump Clogging during e Recirculation hase (Follow-up of e Barsebäck event) The objective is to evaluate e potential of sump clogging during e re-circulation phase of an accident, and if necessary to define adequate solutions to is issue. Wiout waiting for complete sump evaluation guidance, TE/EBL have already started a campaign of strainers enlargements. All e Belgian units have already enlarged strainers. In parallel, TE and EBL have defined improvements to e procedures after an accident (done for Tihange, in progress for Doel). An approach to assess e re-circulation function is now chosen and is inspired by e solution adopted in Swedish WRs. It combines analyses and tests in order to justify e performance of e existing passive strainers (possibly enlarged), togeer wi to be installed self-cleaning strainers. A test program for e self-cleaning strainers was scheduled and performed in 2008 wi Vattenfall. In December 2008, Laborelec introduced to Bel V e chosen approach to assess e coatings and paintings located wiin e reactor building. Future developments are expected in SAFETY-RELATED COMUTER-BASED SYSTEMS FOR N New emergency diesel generators are needed for e Doel 1 and 2 units. In view of eir qualification, e suppliers of e software of e engine digital controllers (MTU and Vector) were audited by Bel V. The architecture of e computer system and e design of system and application software were some of e main points of discussion. The qualification process should be continued in Besides, a replacement of e memory cards and an upgrade of e programming tools used to develop and implement e software of e Doel 1/2 protection system was felt appropriate by KCD and TE. The replacement and upgrade procedure was discussed wi Bel V. The implementation of ese changes will take place in e first half of 2009 and will be followed by Bel V. Likewise, KCD decided to replace e old ISKAMATIC electronic technology by new digital processors and supervision screens for e hot and cold zones and for e radio monitoring of e gaseous, liquid and solid waste processing building of e Doel site. Bel V was kept informed and commented e Fabricom-Cegelec study related to is project

13 TE and Bel V are also involved in discussions on future I&C safety related system architectures. This prospective study is expected to produce a synesis of e main issues to be considered when new safety related I&C systems need to be installed. A meeting should be organized in 2009 to close e subject. Two oer important equipment renewal projects require a software qualification. The isolation and ventilation system of e Doel 1/2 control room for which e Siemens Teleperm logic is to be replaced. And e Nuclear Instrumentation system (SIN) on e four last units (CNT2/3 and KCD 3/4) for which classified and non-classified parts will be replaced. A first meeting was organised to prepare e software pre-audits regarding ese projects at will take place before mid A generic project aiming at consolidating e licensing approach to be followed in Belgium for softwarebased systems is ongoing. There has been no real progress in 2008; is project will be continued in 2009 wi TE. Oer I&C replacements by digital technology are already planned: e radiation monitoring system in Tihange 2, e 6kV high speed transfer devices and e 6kV relays in D1/2. The study of ese replacements will be pursued in

14 CHATER 4 INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND ROJECTS 4.1. OECD ACTIVITIES Bel V participated in e activities of e following Committees, Working Groups or meetings: e Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA); e Committee on e Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI); e Nuclear Science Committee (NSC); e CNRA Working Group on Inspection ractices (WGI); e CNRA Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE); e CNRA Working Group on ublic Communication (WGC); e CSNI Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety (WGFCS); e CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK); e CSNI Working Group on e Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA); e CSNI Working Group on e Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (IAGE), and its subgroups on e integrity of metal components and structures, and on e ageing of concrete structures; e CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF); e CSNI Working Group on Fuel Safety Margins (WGFSM); various OECD projects (see also section 6.2); e Incident Reporting System coordinators activities IAEA ACTIVITIES Bel V participated in e Committee on nuclear safety standards (NUSSC). Bel V experts also participated in e following meetings: Technical Meeting on Lessons Learned in Large Modernization rojects in Nuclear ower lant (N) Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Systems, from 6 to 9 May 2008, Vienna, Austria; Technical Meeting of e FaSa project (International roject on Use of Safety Assessment Results in e lanning and Implementation of Decommissioning), from 17 to 21 November 2008, Vienna, Austria; Technical Meeting on Training for Regulatory Bodies in countries wi Nuclear ower lants, from 2 to 4 December 2008, Vienna, Austria

15 4.3. COOERATION WITH WESTERN SAFETY AUTHORITIES Franco-Belgian Working Group on nuclear safety This working group, originally created in e frame of e construction of e Chooz B N, is composed of e regulatory organizations (ASN, IRSN, FANC, Bel V). Two meetings are organized each year, one in aris and e oer in Brussels (Bel V Office). The working group covers a large range of subjects on nuclear safety, such as cross-inspections, inspection practices and information exchange related to e N operation. The working group can also initiate specific studies like SA-studies comparison. The following main topics were discussed during e two 2008 meetings: status of e Chooz N, crossinspections, feedback on emergency response Technical visit of Chooz N (March 08) exercises, exchange on e integration process of e WENRA Reference Levels in e legal framework, exchange on e containment sump filters clogging, experience feedback of events (irradiation accident in ONERA/Toulouse, ), review of e Terms of Reference of e group. Cooperation wi IRSN Since 2003, a cooperation agreement existed between IRSN and AVN in order to promote e cooperation on nuclear safety and radiation protection between e two organizations. An equivalent cooperation agreement has been signed in 2008 between IRSN and Bel V. This agreement covers e.g. e exchange of information on a voluntary basis wi no payment between e parties, each of em making available its own expertise to e oer. In is framework, different areas of cooperation have been defined in separate documents called specific eme of cooperation. In 2009, it is foreseen to evaluate e status of e different collaboration emes and to re-launch some of em, where appropriate. Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) and Bel V represent Belgium in WENRA. UWENRA meetings Bel V representatives participated, in support to e FANC representatives, in e spring and autumn meetings of WENRA. At ese meetings, e work progress of e two subgroups (see hereafter) was discussed. Also interfaces wi oer international fora were discussed at ese WENRA meetings. URHWG (Reactor Harmonization Working Group) In 2008, several meetings were organized involving FANC, Bel V, Electrabel and Tractebel Engineering wi e aim to ensure e follow-up of e Belgian Action lan. Some actions concerning e implementation of e WENRA Reference Levels in e nuclear power plants could be declared closed. A Bel V representative participated in e ree RHWG meetings organised in UWGWD (Working Group on Waste and Decommissioning) During e first half of 2008, Bel V performed a self-assessment concerning e Implementation side on e Safety Reference Levels (SRL) related to e storage facilities for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Bel V carried out is self-assessment for a selection of representative storage facilities in Belgium (7 different facilities on e Belgoprocess site and on e N sites of Doel and Tihange)

16 Bel V participated in e WGWD-meeting, held in June. The achievements of is meeting were mainly e accomplishment (in several sub-groups of WENRA countries) of benchmarking concerning e "Implementation Side" of e SRL for e storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. During ese benchmarking exercises Bel V and FANC presented e results of e Belgian self-assessments. In September 2008, Bel V participated in a coordination meeting wi NIRAS/ONDRAF organized by e FANC to discuss e future developments regarding e Belgian regulation as a consequence of e self-assessment concerning e Legal side on e SRL related to decommissioning and e selfassessments concerning e Legal side and e Implementation side on e SRL related to e storage facilities. UTask Force on Safety Critical Software The Task force has pursued its activities wi experts from e Belgian (Bel V), Finnish, German, Spanish and British regulators. Their report on e harmonization of licensing practices for nuclear safety critical software made publicly available in 2007 over internet on behalf of e auor/participating countries received favourable comments and has been reviewed and maintained at e light of e experience and comments received. The task force met twice in 2008 and decided to complement e report wi additional common positions on specific issues for which some urgency is felt: digital systems inspection meods, software common mode failures and SMART/COTS equipment are among ose. Bel V contributed wi a first proposal to deal wi e latter issue. An invitation to participate in e task force activities was sent to e US NRC and accepted. After almost 15 years of Belgian (AVN) chairmanship, e chair was handed over to NII (UK). European TSO Network (ETSON) The ETSON Assembly met in Brussels (February), Garching (August) and aris (November). After e transfer of regulatory activities from AVN to Bel V, Bel V became e Belgian member organisation in ETSON. At e November meeting, ETSON was extended wi 2 new members: UJV (Czech Republic) and VTT (Finland). The network substantially contributes to all activities wiin e framework of e EUROSAFE approach, which are e Forum, Tribune and e public website, as well as to e work to strengen e scientific and technical partnership. This work area applies to general or specific issues directly linked to e convergence of scientific and technical safety practices in Europe. ETSON members representatives In August, ETSON organised (wi high involvement of e ETSON Junior Staff rogramme) its first Summer School. The event was organised at e GRS site in Garching. The main focus was on reactor safety and 3 representatives of Bel V lectured at is Summer School. Several young staff members of Bel V participated in e Summer School. Some young staff members of Bel V continued eir involvement in e ETSON Junior Staff rogramme. EUROSAFE Forum After e transfer of regulatory activities from AVN to Bel V, Bel V became e Belgian member organisation in EUROSAFE. The rogramme Committee met in aris (February), Cologne (June) and aris (November), amongst oers to prepare e EUROSAFE Forum which took place in aris in November. Bel V presented several papers in e technical sessions of e Forum

17 For e activities performed in e framework of e EUROSAFE Co-operation rogramme (containing 3 work packages on Nuclear Safety Assessment Guide, Identification of Research Needs and Knowledge Management), we refer to Chapter 6.2 Research and development, under e item Nuclear Safety Assessment ASSISTANCE ROJECT TO THE NUCLEAR REGULATORS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROE ractically all ese projects are financed by e TACIS programme of e European Commission. Armenia Bel V is co-operating wi e Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (ANRA) rough TACIS-financed projects: support in regulatory matters, such as emergency plan, pyramid of regulatory documents, inspection practices, training, quality system, radioactive sources and review of e SAR; project AR/RA/03 ended in April 2008 while project AR/RA/04 started in December enhancement of e safety assessment capabilities of e ANRA for licensing of Medzamor 2 safety improvements and of decommissioning activities, in particular assessment of design and operational safety aspects of e AN; project AR/TS/06 started in August 2007 and was extended by one year wi an end date in August One senior expert of Bel V is e technical project leader for all ese EC-funded projects. Furer, Bel V is e country coordinator for Armenia and maintains regular contacts wi oer donors like USNRC, IAEA, SÚJB and e UK in order to have a coherent and non-overlapping approach. Ukraine Bel V continued its support to e SNRCU wiin e TACIS project UK/TS/35 (licensing related safety evaluations of e decommissioning facilities of e Chernobyl N). Bel V was e task leader for e safety evaluation of e engineered near surface disposal facility. Bel V assisted e SNRCU to develop furer its own quality management system, to manage e international assistance projects and to develop its improvement plan in e framework of a longer development programme (UK/RA/06). Bel V is also participating in projects to support e licensing of plant improvements in Zaparozhye N (I&C modernisation) and in e development of commissioning procedures and related inspections (UK/TS/32). Russian Federation Bel V cooperated wi oer western colleagues in e analysis of e emergency centre of e nuclear auority in view of proposing improvements in hardware and software (RF/RA/07). Bel V participated in a project related to waste storage in FGU Murmansk Specialized Combines RADON (RF/TS/51) as well as in a project to provide support to Rostechnadzor in licensing of decommissioning activities (RF/TS/50) of e heavy water research reactor at e Institute of Theoretical and Experimental hysics (ITEF). Liuania Bel V participated in e two projects to support VATESI and e RC in e framework of decommissioning of e Ignalina N, in cooperation wi IRSN, GRS, SKI, STUK, CEN, SSI, ITER- Consult, SERCO Assurance and some Liuanian organizations. Belarus Bel V was involved in support to e Nuclear Auorities of Belarus in e area of radwaste management and emergency planning and preparedness (BE/RA/03)

18 Georgia Bel V supported e Nuclear Auorities of Georgia in e area of legislation, radwaste management and inspection activities (GE/RA/01). Regulatory Assistance Management For e majority of its EC-funded projects, Bel V is participating in projects managed by Riskaudit. Bel V continued its participation in e Regulatory Assistance Management Group and in e INSC (International Nuclear Safety Cooperation) and IA (Instrument for re-accession Assistance) Committee of e European Commission. In relation wi e new financing instrument of e EC (INSC) Bel V underlined e need for optimization of e impact on licensing and institutional areas of e regulatory auorities COOERATION WITH OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS FRAREG In 2008, no FRAREG meetings were organised. There were some separate contacts wi oer FRAREG member organisations. Japanese organisations In April, a delegation of JNES, e Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, visited Bel V. JNES has a role in Japan which is similar to Bel V s role in Belgium, bo organisations being e TSO of e Safety Auorities. JNES was especially interested in Bel V s activities in ETSON (e European TSO Network), e way Bel V performs safety review work, e involvement of Bel V in European activities, and e prospect of new plants to be built by e Belgian Licensee. In September, a delegation of about 20 engineers and scientists of e JSME (Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers) visited Bel V. The delegation was especially interested in Bel V s organisation and functioning, e way Bel V performs its inspections of operating nuclear power plants, e competence and training of regulatory inspectors, and e periodic safety Visit of JSME (September 08) reviews and ageing management projects for e Belgian nuclear power plants. NERS A Bel V representative participated in e Eleven NERS meeting (rague, April 2008), hosted by e State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) of e Czech Republic. The main points on e agenda were: developments in regulatory issues in e NERS member countries, e issue of power uprates of nuclear power plants, and operating experience feedback. Bel V accepted to host e twelf meeting of NERS in USNRC In June, several Bel V representatives participated, in support to e FANC, in a bilateral meeting between e Belgian regulatory organisations (FANC and Bel V) and e United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The main topics on e agenda were related to long term operation of nuclear power plants, safety culture, lessons learned from e Forsmark incident, e sump clogging issue, safety analysis of digital I&C, and some safety issues in installations oer an nuclear power plants. In December, at e occasion of e OECD/NEA/CNRA International Workshop on Taking Account of Feedback on Sump Clogging a Bel V representative, togeer wi a representative of e FANC,

19 participated in a bilateral meeting wi USNRC prior to e workshop. This meeting gave to e representatives e opportunity to share approaches and knowledge on e topic. The USNRC highlighted some recent observed issues and e status of e GSI in e US. Bel V discussed for e Belgian units e current activities in is field

20 CHATER 5 OTHER TECHNICAL SUORT ACTIVITIES 5.1. ADVISORY ROLE A SA expert of Bel V contributed to a scientific evaluation of e SA activities at IRSN. This consisted in an evaluation made by external auditors about e question wheer a balanced and efficient approach is followed for development of SA studies, review of e SA studies made by utilities and oer organisations (e.g., as part of eriodic Safety Reviews), use of SA models and results, and oer SA related activities (training, research and development) DOMESTIC EXERIENCE FEEDBACK Each year, Bel V performs a systematic screening of events in e Belgian Ns and oer nuclear installations, as well as an in-dep analysis of a selected number of events wi emphasis on lessons learned and corrective actions. For e year 2008, 28 event-reporting forms have been established (15 forms for e 7 Ns (Doel and Tihange) and 13 forms for oer nuclear installations). Corrective actions related to ese events and e licensee s operating experience feedback process have been evaluated during e inspections of Ns and oer nuclear installations. More detailed event analyses and identification of lessons learned, for a selection of events, have not been performed in is period FOREIGN EXERIENCE FEEDBACK WRs Operating Experience in perspective At e end of 2008, e 7 Belgian power reactors have reached 201,8 reactor-years since eir first criticality. Their average age is us 28,8 years (min 23,6 - max 34,5 years). The two-loop Beznau 1 is currently e oldest operating WR (39,5 years). 13 WRs have reached criticality more an 35 years ago, and are still operating. We estimate e operating experience of e 297 WRs/VVERs (power reactors greater an 50 MWe, including an estimate for 33 shutdown units) at e level of 7069 reactor-years. No new reactor was connected to e grid. Bohunice 2 (408 MWe, VVER in Slovakia) was closed on 31 December, The ARIANE program The number of records in e ARIANE database till end of December 2008 has reached 1708 (11 new entries). A more significant indicator is e number of Screening Cards - one screening card is written for each incoming, original document considered to have merit for an in-dep analysis - written in e same period: 25. For e perspective, 117 documents have been considered wor registration in e database (6118 since its inception). NRC BULLETINS and GENERIC LETTERS The USNRC issues Bulletins (or Generic Letters) for serious events or concerns requiring a licensee response. It may also directly impose a License Modification by an Order. No Bulletin has been issued in One Generic Letter has been issued in 2008: Managing gas accumulation in ECCS, Decay Heat Removal, and Containment Spray systems. This GL requests reactor licensees to submit information to demonstrate at e subject systems are in compliance wi e current licensing and design bases and applicable regulatory requirements, and at suitable design, operational, and testing control measures are in place for maintaining is compliance

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