1 A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF HEROIN ADDICTION RECOVERY, IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE William A. Cloud, Ph.D. Director of Social Work Program LeMoyne-Owen College Memphis, Tennessee Introduction This study was developed with the intention of making a small contribution to the resolution of a continually growing problem faced in social work praotice -- drug addiction. Specifically, the study examined heroin addiction recovery. The overall goal of the study was to provide an improved understanding of the recovery process so that treatment options would improve. This was achieved by pursuing primary and secondary research objectives. The first objective was to produce information about the recovery process that would add to that which was already known. The secondary objective was to use that information to add to the theory base on heroin addiction recovery. The theory of heroin addiction recovery most often cited is Winick's (1962) "maturing out" theory. Winick concluded that heroin addicts matured out of their addictions by assuming adult roles. According to him, this usually occurred in their mid-thirties. He also characterized the postponement of maturation as a disease running its course. Winick's maturing out theory has been subjected to more scrutiny than other theories of heroin addiction recovery. Perhaps the second most discussed theory in this area is the "hitting rock bottom" theory presented by Brill (1972) and Waldorf (1973). They discovered that recovery was initiated by the onset of numerous problems from which the only rational solution was a renunciation of heroin use. For example, the addict may have simultaneously found himself homeless, facing imprisonment, abandoned by wife or family, or confronted with a variety of other serious personal problems. A number of other researchers have also discovered that recovery began for many heroin
2 60 addicts unde. simila. ci.cumstances. Bess, Janus, and Rifkin (1972).eferred to this phenomenon as the "end of the road synd.ome." The same condition was.epo.ted by Coleman (1978) and was refe.red to by him as the "existential c.isis." Othe esea.che.s (e.g., Jo.quez, 1983) recognize the value oc the ove.all concept and simply use Waldo.c and 8.ill s te.m oc hitting rock bottom to rece. to this phenomenon. Vaillant's (1966, 1973) cindings that regula. employment and coming crom an intact camily prio. to using he.oin we.e related to successcul.ecovery eccorts have also been cited by many drug abuse resee.chers. Similarly, the "situational addict" theory based on Robins (1973) cinding that a number oc Vietnam vete.ans who had been heroin addicts in Vietnam suddenly quit using the drug upon returning to the United States is also a wellknown cinding within drug abuse resea.ch. In 1880, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) attempted to b.ing together a va.iety oc dive.se theo.ies on drug addiction recove.y by collecting them f.om wellknown d.ug abuse theo.ists th.oughout the United States. This compendium oc q3 theo.etical perspectives on 5 components oc d.ug abuse, edited by Lettie.i, 5aye.s, and Pearson (1980), outlines a va.iety of theories on he.oin addiction recovery and has become a valuable resou.ce co. substance abuse researchers. Below are several theories that were especially relevant cor unde.standing he.oin addiction recove.y. Chein (1880) p.esented a "dis.uptive envi.onment" theo.y. Acco.ding to Chein, some corm oc outside help is needed if.ecove.y is to be.ealized. He st.essed the need fo. a therapeutic relationship and help cor a long pe.iod oc time. His theo.y emphasized the importance oc motivation and the need to change envi.onments. The "d.ug subcultu.e" theory submitted by Johnson (1980) hypothesized that the addict is committed to values of a subcultu.e. Acco.ding to him, the addict will begin to recover when commitments to those values decline. Changing reference g.oups o. assuming adult roles we.e reported to provide oppo.tunities for developing new and healthie. values. Lindesmith (1980) occered a "general addiction" theo.y that can be divided into two distinct components.
3 61 The first component states that membership in the addict population becomes distasteful, and results in attempts to quit. As the addict grows older, and periods of abstinence grow longer, the probability of lasting recovery increases. The second component suggests that the decision to quit is augmented by a growing disillusionment which results from the difficulty of reaching a desired state of euphoria. Spotts and Shontz' (1980) "life theme" theory identified a series of conditions that could result in recovery. They noted the importance of the availability of the drug of choice. They also discussed conditions such as aging, increased maturity, and burning out. Finally, they identified the dissatisfaction with the drug addict lifestyle and the finding of a new source of power (e.g., a counselor, a parent, a wife, a religious figure, or a rehabilitation program) as potent conditinns for recovery. Winick, the original developer of the maturing out theory, was asked by NIDA to submit his theory on recovery. Winick's (1980) more recent explanation is subsumed under the heading of "role" t.heory, and contains several components. The theory suggests that recovery is fostered when access to the drug declines, negative attitudes to their use become salient, and role strain and/or deprivation are less prevalent. He continued to cite the value of his maturing out theory, and added that influences such as gender, ethnicity, residence, and other conditions should be considered, In 1986, NIDA collected and published "state of the art" papers on "relapse and recovery," edited by Tims and Leukefeld. Essentially, the relevant contributions supported the various explanations submitted in 1980 and the findings of formal research beyond the Lettieri, et al. project. The only striking. difference was Wesson, Hevassy, and Smith's (1986) emphasis on the potential value of the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) 12-step model for beginning and maintaining recovery for the drug addict. This 1986 observation appears to be particularly useful since many of the recovered addicts in this study were members of Narcotics Anonymous (NA), and were interviewed in the latter part of These theories and research represent both divergent and convergent explanations of heroin addiction recovery. The divergency is useful in the sense that the process of
4 62,ecove,y is likely to be influenced by many va,ying dynamics. Each,ecove,y situation beings with it its awn unique and complex phenomenological,eality. The,easons fo, beginning he,oin use, individual cha.acte.istics of the use., socia-political climate of the times, and othe. facto.s make unde.standing the.ecove.y p.ocess of each individual addict difficult. To conclude that the.e is one and only one path to.ecove.y would be naive at best. Nonetheless, a numbe, of the explanations and findings p.esented by these theo.ies and.esea.che.s do conve.ge into cammon themes. These explanations can be beneficial if viewed as having same explanato.y powe. fa. unde,standing same, but nat all,.ecove.y situations. Ove,all Design Resea.ch Method This.esea.ch was an explo.ato.y-desc.iptive study which utilized a snowball sampling st.ategy to access 32.ecove.ed he.oin addicts th.oughout the state of Tennessee in the latte. pa.t of App.oximately eight ex-addicts we.e located in each of the fou. majo. met.opolitan a.eas of the state -- Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga. In-depth, tape-.eco.ded inte.views we.e conducted with them to find out exactly how they ove'came thei. addictions. All of the respondents had been ch.onically addicted to he.oin fa. a pe.iod of at least th,ee yea.s, and had been.ecove.ed fo. at least th.ee yea.s. The sample included 19 males and 13 females. Of these 32, 20 we.e white, and 12 we.e black. Ke'-y' Te.ms The key te.ms in this study we.e "he.oin addict" and ".ecove.ed he,oin addict." He.oin addict.efe ed to an individual who had became psychologically and physically habituated to the daily int,avenous injection of he.oin. Although he.oin was the focal d.ug, habituation to intake of othe. powe.ful opiates (e.g., hyd,omo.phine, mepe.idine, methadone, etc.) when he.oin was not available was an acceptable alte.native condition. Fa. the pu,pose of this study, a minimum of th.ee yea.s of habituation was the c.ite.ion. This c.ite.ion was established with.ecognition that pe.iodically daily intake of he.oin is sometimes inte upted, even foe the mast.esou.ceful he.oin addict.
5 63 A recovered heroin addict referred to an individual who had arrested his/her habitual use of heroin and/or other opiates. The person was expected to be free of habitual daily use of all mind-altering drugs (including alcohol). Oata Analysis There were two distinct procedures used to'analyze the data from the interviews. They were descriptive analysis and select principles of the grounded theory approach. Oescriptive analysis essentially produces very detailed descriptions of various phenomena and is most widely associated with the field of anthropology_ The detailed descriptions within this study were focused on meaningful phenomena that emerged from the data. The import of these phenomena was determined by the relative absence of discussions on these phenomena in the professional and scholarly literature, and the relevance that such a discussion could hold for an improved understanding of heroin addiction recovery. Content analysis was the primary method used to organize the data for both the descriptive analysis and the modified grounded theory approach. Basically, the grounded theory approach to research is a method by which theory can be developed. This strategy brings together existing commonalities among the data, and illustrates those commonalities by developing theoretical propositions. These propositions, in turn, serve as a source by which an integrated theory can emerge to explain those commonalities. Once the theory has been developed, it stands as a statement to be tested through other research techniques (e.g., hypothesis-testing). These grounded theory principles essentially guided the theory formulation component of this study. Data Validity Issues Maddux and Desmond (1975) and Stephens (1972) conducted research especially geared toward responding to issues around self reports of drug addicts. Surprisingly, they found that heroin addicts, even those still actively using heroin, were honest about details of their lives when they were participants in research. Jorquez (1980, p. lq9) concluded that truth telling or lying by the
6 64 addict as well as othe.s was a Function of a pa.ticula. situation. Hence, addicts we.e found to be telling the t.uth in these studies because they.eally had nothing to gain o. lose by not doing so. It should also be kept in mind that these ex-addicts we.e not simply inte.viewed because they we.e available. These.espondents we.e.efe ed to the.esea.che. by someone, and in some cases by seve.al people, who knew of their.ecove.y and oftentimes had been acquainted with them when they we.e addicted. Some aspects of thei. situations we.e inadve.tently co obo.ated by the individual who had.efe ed them to the.esea.che.. Othe. aspects we.e cor.oborated by obse.vations that the.esea.che. made while making the initial contact fa. the inte.view and while conducting the actual inte.view. And, in no instance did the.esea.che. make obse.vations that we.e inconsistent with what was stated by the pe.son in the inte.view. The second issue that warrants brief attention surrounds the accu.acy of data that were transferred f.om the tape recordings to ca.ds used For the content analysis. The effects of the transfe. p.ocess were tested by asking an independent drug addiction expert to also transfer the relevant content From the recordings. Since it took the researcher a considerable amount of time to transfer the content of even one recording to the cards, a decision was made to ask him to randomly salect five of the reco.dings and transfer the relevant mate.ial to the cards. Upon comparing his transfer of the material with the identical transfers of the researcher, it was decided that the rasearche. did, indeed, transfe. the relevant material from the tape recordings to the content analysis cards. Findings Ua~ ~tics Anonymous Perhaps the most surprising discovery to emerge From this study was the extent of the role that NA played in the recovery of these ex-addicts. One-half of the 32 respondents reported that becoming a member of NA and continuing to be an ective participant in the organization played the most important role in their maintaining their recovery.
7 65 NA is a national network of self-help groups of recovering drug addicts which meet regularl~ to help each other sta~ off drugs. The group, Dr fellowship as it is referred to b~ its members, was formed in Jul~ of 1953 (NA, 1983, p.11), and is an offshoot of AA. NA, like AA, is commonly rererred to as a "12-step" program. These "steps," or principles that promote recovery for the addicts, were borrowed from the 12 principles developed by AA to help the alcoholic seeking recover~. (See AA, 1955, p. 59, for original 12 steps.) Beyond a doubt, the most important activity of these NA members was attending NA meetings. For the most part, recover~ for these ex-addicts both began and continued to be nourished at an NA meeting. The network of non-using friends was developed there, and the overall NA culture, of which these addicts have become integral members, was introduced to them there. Although all of the respondents interviewed had been recovered for at least three years, most of them still attended several meetings per week. Man~ of them pointed out that NA meetings and related activities had begun to pla~ a dominant role in their overall private and social lives. Man~ of the respondents in the study (both NA and non-na members) discussed the critical importance of using leisure time in a manner that was fulfilling and rewarding. The researcher was reminded that being a heroin addict, though sometimes frightening and unpredictable, was exciting and adventurous. Maintaining a heroin habit, for some of these ex-addicts, required an extensive effort, and kept them bus~ developing and implementing schemes to raise money. Consequentl~, being bus~ and involved with meaningful activities during recovery was discovered to pla~ a major role in the life of practically all of the respondents. Several of them stated directl~ that keeping bus~, particularl~ with work and other activities that they felt were fulrilling, pla~ed the most important role in maintaining their recover~. Several respondents who were parents recalled becoming deeply involved in famil~ activities, particularly activities that involved their children. Other respondents stated that since recovering rrom their addiction, they had become "workaholics, and were continually involved in work-related activities.
8 66 WorkiD.fl in Or.!,!f[ 6b LJ. Treatment Environment One of the means by which many of these recovered addicts became deeply involved in a fulfilling activity was through employment in a drug abuse treatment facility. At least one-half (16) of them were employed in such facilities at the time of the interviews. These treatment facilities were basically in-patient care units, and included, for example, therapeutic communities, rehabilitation units in hospitals, and private residential care facilitias. Most of these respondents served as counselors and aides, while others carried out more administrative responsibilities. This kind of work proved to be particularly beneficial for these respondents maintaining their recovery. Several key dynamics, all yielding significant therapeutic benefits for the recovered addict, were discovered to be operating in such settings. They were the nature of the work, the status that is achieved by the exaddict among his or her drug addict peers and the larger community, and the constant reminder/negative reinforcement that the ex-addict receives on almost a daily basis. An excerpt from the response of a 35-yearold, white female illustrates the value bf this experience to the recovered addict. She stated: The Job that 1 have is helpful in maintaining that [recoveryj. It helps me to see sick people. I see cocaine addicts all the time. I see opiate addicts. I see alcoholics. And they "roll" in here all the time. And they're sick and they're suffering. And they're in denial. And they're Just like I was. There is hardly a person who comes in, and I admit most of them because of the shifts that I work, that I don't [identify withj. I'll be sitting there filling out the papers and talking to them and think, "Jesus, God, he's Just like 1 was!" You see this time after time after time, and it's helpful. It reinforces that in my head [thatj, "1 don't want that again." Health issues among recovering female ex-addicts appear to be the only issues that have received adequate
9 67 attention b~ researchers. Other pertinent conditions that impactcemale recover~ have, at best, received onl~ modest attention and, at worst, none. These conditions in this stud~ cell under three broad heedings: issues surrounding female acculturation that impact the recover~ process; issues surrounding treatment; and issues surrounding interpersonal relationships as cemales attempt to recover. The problem most reported was the exaggerated feeling oc "sheme and guilt." Once the females had detoxified and changed their lifest~les, some of them were concronted with severe shame and guilt issues -- issues not ordinaril~ faced by their male counterparts. Issues relative to prostitution, stealing, and other deviant behaviors were often identified. Being in and out oc jails and "serving time" in prison were cited. Neglect of children, temporary loss oc children, and permanent loss oc children were also identified as major sources of shame and guilt. The existence oc this exaggerated sense of shame and guilt among females was reported by both male and female respondents to be the result oc societal "double standards." A 33-~ear-old, white female articulated the nature oc this problem quite well. She stated: There's a lot of issues with women that have not reall~ been addressed. There's a lot more guilt in women, a lot more shame. Because it is so much more shameful. It's okay cor a man to go up to a woman in a bar and proposition her - that's "macho,» that's being a man. Ic a woman goes up to a guy in a bar and propositions him, she's considered not very much oc a lad~ (laughs), to sa~ the least! So, there's a real double standard. It's oka~ cor a man to go out and drink and drive cast and get a DUI. It's real degrading cor a woman to go out and drink and drive fast and get a DUI. There's just a lot of double standards that make it real difficult for women because we hid it more. We know it is not okay, you know. And we get put down a lot. Issues surrounding treatment programs primaril~ geared toward treating males has been noted in the literature (e.g., Cuskey and Wathe~, 1982), however, the responses of these ex-addicts suggest that the problem is more pervasive than previously recognized. These
10 68 complaints fell into three areas. The first was that females were often treated as less than equals. The second complaint was that specific female needs resulting from having been a hardcore female heroin addict received little attention in treatment. Issues surrounding lass of children, having been a prostitute, health issues, and other pressing problems were nat appropriately addressed. More specifically, extremely sensitive issues, e.g., sexual issues and abuse issues, received even less, or no, attention. The last issue relative to treatment was that often male staff members' personal interest in some females, particularly the attractive ones, impaired effective treatment. Conversely, some of the females were able to manipulate these staff members, hence, further complicating treatment efforts. Finally, regarding relationships, more than one-half of the female respondents indicated that they had had problems developing friendships with females upon initiating their recovery. The reported reason for this was that during their addicted life, most of their friendships were with males, and they rarely had female friends. In fact, other females who used heroin were viewed as rivals. This attitude of rivalry carried over into their recovering lives, and seriously impaired their ability to develop much needed friendships with the only group of individuals who had shared similar experiences. "Sense of Purpose"?nd "Unconditional R-elat.ion.!?b.iP..::' Theories There were two substantive theories (specifically focused on heroin addiction recovery) that emanated from the data gathered in this study. They were the sense of purpose theory and the unconditional relationship theory. As previously mentioned, it was observed that at least one-half of all the ex-addicts who qualified for this study were employed in drug abuse treatment facilities. It was also observed that employment within these settings carried significantly more meaning for them than employment typically carries for the average person employed in other settings. In fact, employment in these treatment settings was often credited with helping sustain the ex-addict's recovery. In other words, these jobs were not simply a means for earning a living, but were means by which ongoing therapeutic benefits were derived.
11 69 Essentially, these ex-addicts, through their involvement with helping drug addicts and combatting a major social problem, have found life to be satisfying, challenging, meaningful, and filled with other intrinsic rewards that suddenly produced a powerful sense of purpose for them. In essence, their Jobs have made it possible to meet their survival needs for food, shelter, etc., but have also hurled them into a situation where the opportunity to meet higher human needs is constantly present. The unconditional relationship theory grew out of the fact that a majority of the respondents in this study had had a special therapeutic relationship with someone during recovery attempts. Fifteen of the 16 NA members reported having such a relationship with their sponsor (fellow member of NA serving as mentor), while others reported having such a relationship with a counselor, a friend, or a relative. Although these relationships, in some cases, spanned many years, they were reported to be particularly valuable during the early phase of recovery or during problem periods. These relationships were often characterizad as unconditional, completely accepting, and as other "ho strings attached" kinds of relationships. Another quality of these relationships was the informal nature of them. Even when such a relationship was with a counselor in a treatment facility, the relationship had a friendship quality about it. The counselor and the recovering addict spent time together outside of the treatment facility, and did so as friends rather than as client and counselor. Essentially, the kind of relationship being referred to is one that not only is therapeutic in that it provides guidance and support to the addict attempting to recover, but is also one that is perceived by the addict as a genuine, unconditional friendship. Implications for Social Work Practice The various findings, when viewed together, perhaps illustrate a very important point when considering developing a strategy for an addict seeking recovery. That is, it seems helpful to keep in mind that each addict comes to treatment with experiences common to other addicts, but more importantly, each situation is very different in many respects. The reasons for initiating and sustaining use of drugs, the individual background of
12 70 each addict, and the environment in which the person maintained his or her addiction are often very different. Hence, to approach treatment of each addict using the same strategy is likely to be counterproductive; treatment should vary to meet the unique situation of each addictclient. One of the most disturbing findings to come from this study surrounds the disparity between the recovery experiences of males and females. It became quite clear that females attempting to recover were confronted with substantially more obstacles than their male counterparts. The expectations associated with appropriate female behavior in this society and the repercussions experienced by females who violate those expectations proved to be exceptionally harsh for the female heroin addict -- even when she decided to correct her addiction problem. Shame and guilt issues, self-esteem problems, problems with new male and female relationships, and, of course, health issues represent but a few of the problem areas that may need special attention if treatment is to be successful. A basic barrier to effective and comprehensive treatment of female heroin addiction appears to be the proliferation of traatment programs that are primarily geared toward treating the male addict. Such modalities, by their very nature, tend to be insensitive to the special needs of women, and in some instances, may be promoting counterproductive treatment. The conventional practice of group therapy in these settings may require critical examination. The findings indicate that females were not able to effectively address some of their fundamental problems in these mixed groups. Embarrassment, potential ridicule by male addicts, and the overall lack of empathy by male addicts and staff members prevented females from fully participating in such groups; thus, preventing them from reaping the curative benefits typically associated with participating in group therapy. Not only should groups directed toward special female needs be increased, but the overall practice of coed group therapy, at least as it is conventionally conducted, should be carefully examined.
13 71 Several of the female respondents reported that at some point before or during their ordeal with heroin, they had become single parents. This new role as sale head of a household and supporter of a child or of children created a host of problems that were not addressed in treatment. The need for appropriate child care while in treatment, the guilt created by being an absent parent and possibly recognized as a drug addict by their children, and the shame of having lost custody of their children through the courts, created additional problems for some of these females. Complicating this situation was the fact that even if treatment were successfully completed, these females were often ill-prepared to attain a level of employment that would produce sufficient income to take care of a small family. Overall, the findings relative to these serious issues of female addicts seeking recovery indicated that a separate and fundamentally different approach to heroin addiction of females needs to be advanced. Service providers in these settings need to be made aware of the distinctions between the needs of females and males in treatment. Policy makers, administrators of these programs, and others who can impact these conditions also need to be made aware of these differences. JE_~ersion ~nto Alternative Activity This finding is extremely valuable because it lends itself to immediate implementation into a treatment strategy. A potential problem, of course, will be matching a particular client with a fulfilling activity or combination of activities that will serve the desired purpose. Many of the addicts that practitioners work with are fixated in a value system that has prevented them from enjoying activities beyond those of the addict lifestyle, In such cases, it might take an extensive period of work to develop new values about, and a firsthand appreciation of, the satisfactions that can be derived from alternate activities. Regardless of the nature of the proposed activity or set of activities, it appears to be important that the person at least keep busy. This seems especially important in the beginning of recovery. Idle time was described by several of the respondents as "the enemy," Many recovering addicts may need help in identifying and
14 1! 72 developing potential leisu,e time activities to fill some of the void c,eated by idle time. Essentially, the findings indicate that a successful effo,t at,ecove,y is much mo,e an active p,ocess than it is a passive one. T,eatment pe,sonnel need to be acutely awa,e of this. Social worke,s and othe, helping p,ofessionals who see these clients on an individual basis should be,eminded that "talking therapies," without active engagement in alte,native activity, a,e mo,e likely to fail than st,ategies that include such activities. Wo,kinli in D,ug Addiction T,eatment Envi,onment Employment within a facility designed to add,ess d,ug abuse problems qualified as one of those activities that we,e fulfilling. There were also a number of othe, benefits for the newly recove,ing addict and the completely,ecovered addict. The findings ove,whelmingly support this contention, and one of the discussions on theo,y fu,ther cla,ifies some of the therapeutic dynamics that may be operating under these conditions. This impo,tant finding has definite implications fo, adding to treatment options. If working in a treatment facility can be the critical condition that tu,ns a tentative,ecove,y into a permanent,ecovery, p,og,am planners should take advantage of this. Basically, this finding suggests that as many drug abuse p,ograms as possible should conside, hiring exaddicts whenever it is p,actical to do so. Hiring them as aides and technicians, and training them to serve as counselors, ace excellent opportunities to meet staffing needs. Of cou,se, ca,eful screening of candidates for these jobs and the pe,sonal attributes of these candidates should playa major,ole in such hiring p,actices. Application of :ense of Purpose Theory The theory, formulated to explain why working in a drug t,eatment facility was the,apeutic, was,eferred to as the sense of purpose theo,y. Essentially, it proposes that recovering as well as recove,ed addicts de,ive important therapeutic benefits from working in drug abuse treatment facilities; and, the aggregate results produce a feeling of having a sense of purpose in one's life.
15 73 When these individuals complete their various treatment regimens, they are often confronted with having to seek employment with limited skills or professional training. At this juncture, decisions about what kind of employment to seek, what training to take, or some combination of work and training are critical. Mundane and repatitive work should be avoided if possible. If such employment is all that there is available to the addict attempting to achieve lasting recovery, that kind of employment should be viewed as temporary until another position can be found or until training produces desired employment. Even in cases where the addict can return to a job after completing treatment, careful consideration should be given before returning to that job permanently. Although employment in a treatment program was used to formulate and illustrate the sense of purpose theory, the theory does hold other explanatory value. Perhaps most obvious is the relationship between the theory and the value of the addict finding an alternate fulfilling activity. Not all, but some, of these activities certainly provided the ex-addict with a sense of purpose. Increased commitment to family and increased activity with family members, particularly with children, can result in this feeling about oneself. A spiritual awakening and involvement with related activities also constitutes a source. And, becoming a sponsor in NA can provide some ex-addicts with a sense of purpose. Any number of activities have the potential of providing the ex-addict with a sense of purpose. The task for treatment personnel is to work with the addict to discover what those activities might be. Application of Unconditional Relationship Theory This finding could lead to fairly straightforward application. Treatment personnel should attempt to encourage such a relationship, and help develop them whenever possible. Counselors in treatment settings are in an ideal position to provide such a relationship, and perhaps can effectively do so in some instances. However, given the caseloads that same of these counselors have and the already understaffing that is inherent in these settings, it would be unrealistic to think that each counselor could provide the kind of ongoing relationship to which this theory refers. In fact, most professional education discourages such a relationship with a client.
16 74 The policies of many such a relationship. treatment facilities also discourage These policies are designed ordinarily to serve a positive purpose; they ere intended to protect the worker from being exploited by the program, prevent burn-out, and, in general, are designed to prevent unrealistic demands being made of the worker. These are reasonable policies, and should not be challenged. Nevertheless, the obvious value of such a relationship should be taken advantage of in some manner. A deliberate effort needs to be made to see to it that such a relationship is available to the newly recovering addict for an extended period of time. Implications of Narcotics Anonymous-Related FindiQ~ Unquestionably, being a member of NA helped at least one-half of the respondents in this study achieve and maintain their recovery. This model, however, has received a considerable amount of criticism, both inside and outside of the community of substance abuse treatment. Given the apparent success of the organization as reflected in this study, one might decide to use the NA model without heeding the warnings that accompany some of the criticisms. Observations made while conducting this study indicated that before a social worker, administrator, or other treatment personnel make a decision to refer a client to an NA group or incorporate such a group into their particular treatment program, the pros and cons of the NA model should be carefully examined. The various criticisms that such 12-step programs receive are usually directed toward two related assumptions that frame the program's practices. The assumption that receives the most criticism is the belief that the person's addiction to heroin or other drugs is the manifestation of an organic disease. The principal drawback of this belief is that it relieves the addict of personal responsibility for his or her recovery, and denies the existence of free will and self-determination. Abdication of free will and self-determination is particularly problematic for professional social workers, since empowering people to be self-determining is a fundamental goal of the profession.
17 75 The fundamental assumption that,ecovery of the addict has to be turned ave, to a higher powe, has also received substantial criticism. This assumption,equi,es the addict to embrace the idea that this power takes an active interest in his a, her pe,sonal affai,s, particula,ly his or her addiction to d,ugs. Again, selfdete,mination Cas apposed to determination outside of one's self) is assumed to be nan-existent, and a mo,e passive attitude toward recove,y and ather important life events can result. These twa related assumptions appear to be the sources of mast of the c,iticism directed at NA. Primarily they are attacked because they appear to faster helplessness rather than self-dete,mination. On the ather hand, the diminution of drug use among individuals who continue to be active membe,s of NA cannot be ove,looked. Many of the NA members inte,viewed stated that they had attempted to,ecove, by using othe, t,eatment methods or by attempting on thei, awn, and had failed. They said that becoming a membe, of NA is what finally eventuated into,ecove,y for them. Rega,dless of the legitimacy of the criticism that NA,eceives, without question, same of its p,actices p,ovide a numbe, of therapeutic benefits foe the addict seeking,ecove,y. The access to an alternate fulfilling activity, the,elationship Coften unconditional) p,ovided by the NA sponso" and othe, positive activities, rende, a va,iety of the,apeutic benefits -- all at no moneta,y cost. Howeve" a decision to use NA principles or to,efe, a client to NA for afte,care is a decision that should be given the utmost conside'ation. Bath the st,engths and weaknesses of these p,og,ams should be extensively discussed. In making a collabo,ative decision with the,ecove,ing addict, the special conditions or his 0, he, ci,cumstances should be conside'ed. For instance, the circumstances of an addict who has a lang histo,y of addiction and has failed at a va,iety of,ecovery attempts, including known attempts at suicide, should be viewed in light of that particular personal histo,y. Conve,sely, a teenager who has been addicted to he,oin fa, six months should be p,esented with t,eatment a' afte,ca,e options consistent with his/he, needs and long-te,m best interest.
18 76 Conclusion This was an exploratory descriptive study. Obviously, the findings emanating from it should be subjected to more rigorous research. Nonetheless, issues surrounding female recovery, potential problems that accompany the 12 step models, and other findings could hold immediate interest for social workers working with this population. However, until hypothesis-testing research further clarifies these findings they are presented as potentially invaluable.
19 77 REFERENCES Alcoholics Anonymous Publishing. (1855), Anonymous. New YorK: Author. Bess, B., Janus, S., & RifKin, A. (1872). Factors in successful narcotics renunciation. American Journa~ of Psychiatry, ~~(7), Brill, L. (1872). The de-addiction 2rocess. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Chein, I. (1980). Disruptive environment theory. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, & H. W. Pearson CEds.), Theories QD drug abuse: Selected contemporar~ ~er~ct~y-es. NIDA Research Monograph, 30, Coleman, W.J. (1978). The dynamics of narcotic abstinence: An interactionist theory. Th_~ 2oc~010gical Quarter~, 19, ~. CusKey, W.R., & Wathey, R.B. (1882). Femal ~9di~tion. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath. Johnson, B. D. C1980). Drug subcultures theory. In D. J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, & H. W. Pearson CEds.), Theo~~~~ QD. dc'dq abuse: 2.~-lected contemporary persrec~iv~2' NIDA Research Monograph, 3Q, Jorquez, J.S. (1880). The retirement phase pf h~,oin using career~. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International. Jorquez, J.S. (1980). The retirement phase of heroin using careers. The Journal Q Drug Issues, l~(2), 3B-365. Lettieri, D.J., Sayers, M. & Pearson, H.W. CEds.). Theories on drug abuse: Selected Qonte~o~~~~ Q rspectives. NIDA Research Monograph, 30, 389. Lindesmith, A.R. Cl880). General addiction theory. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, & H.W. Pearson CEds.), Theories on drug!"buse:_ 2. lj.j=cteq contem~g.±ar:.y. pers~ective~. NIDA Research Monograph, 3Q, 389.
20 78 Maddux, J. F., & Desmond, D. P. (1975). Reliabil i tbl and va1iditbl of information from chronic heroin users. Journal.of p...2.bi.chiatric. R'2... arch. 12, Narcotics Anonblmous, World Service Office. (1983). Narcotics 8nonymous. Van NUblS, ea: Author. Robins, L.N. (1973). The ~;etnam drug (Special Action Office' Monograph). U.S. Government Printing Office. ijs!?i. E?tu_J;:!l?. Washington, DC: Stephens, R. (1972). The truthfulness of addict respondents in research projects. The Inte~_!l~tiona~ JourQPI ~[ the Addictions, Z(3), 5~ spotts, J.V., & Shontz, F.e. (1980). Lifetime theory. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sablers, & H. W. Pearson (Eds.), Theories lj dru.,g: abuse: Selected S9JJj::em.Qgr,!EY. perspectives. NIDA Research Monograph, 30, Tims, F. M., & Leukefeld, e. G. (Eds.). (1986). F_'21..~:P2.i? and recove!.di.in drug abuse. NIDA Research Monograph, 72. Vaillant, G.E. (1966). A twelve-year follow-up of New York narcotic addicts: IV. some characteristics and determinants of abstinence. American Journal ~[ Psychiatry, 123(5), Vaillant, G. E. (1973) narcotic addicts. 29, 237-2'±1. A 20-blear follow-up of New York Archives of General E2Y.gh~_at:I".JJ., Waldorf, D. (1983). Natural recoverbl from opiate addiction: Some social-psychological processes of untreated recoverbl. Journal. (Jf Drug Issues, 1::l.( 10), Wesson, D.R., Havassebl, B.E., & Smith, D.E. (1986). Theories of relapse and recoverbl and their implications for drug abuse treatment. In F.M. Tims & e. G. Leukefeld (Eds.), Relapse and re_<:e.q::'elijd JD<::l.f:.iJ.g. abu~~. NIDA Research Monograph, 72, Winick. e. (1962). Maturing out of addiction. 12.'d.Ui?!:in on Narcotics, 1~(11), 1-7.
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