1 Università degli studi di Trento Tirocinio Formativo Attivo aa 2011/12 Chimica Organica Mod. II Ines Mancini Povo, 28 Febbraio2013
2 Contenuti Cos è la sintesi organica Scopi Un po di storia Concetti fondamentali tipi di reazioni strategie di sintesi: approccio retrosintetico sintesi convergenti Biocatalysis Green chemistry Metodi speciali Solventi Sintesi supportata in fase solida Irraggiamento a microonde Chimica Combinatoria La sintesi organica nello sviluppo di nuovi farmaci Click chemistry
4 K. Nicolau, Scripps Res.Inst., San Diego, CA
7 Natural and Synthetic Organic Compounds Natural All compounds coming from natral sources: animal and plant extracts secondary metabolites produced by fermentation (biotechnology) Natural-exactly alike Compounds equal to natural ones, ut produced by organic synthesis Artificial (unnatural) Synthetic compounds produced by chemical synthesis and not present in Nature
8 Why and When Organic Synthesis?
11 Natural products have always played an important role in medicine and they have increasingly become major players in recent drug discovery. More than 40% of therapeutic agents and 60% of antitumor drugs currently used are based on a natural molecules. The extremely scarce availability of biologically active substances represents a great drawback in terms of freely using the natural reservoir for bioassays and therapy. To overcome these difficulties chemical synthesis represents still one of the routes by choice. Synthetic organic chemistry is able to produce sufficient amounts for a broad biological screening and to provide access to synthetic unnatural analogs for structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies may be used to clarify natural processes at the molecular level through biomimetic approaches, to confirm the structures of natural compounds which are usually established relying only on spectral data, to develop new synthetic methods To produce compounds relevant for other areas of science and technology I.Mancini, Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 2007, 6, 17-48
17 Settori della sintesi organica
18 Synthesis Types Partial ( or semi-synthesis) when it is confined to chemical modifications on compounds from natural sources Total It is the complete chemical synthesis of organic molecues, also very complex, starting from simple, commercially available compounds (which are chemicals deriving from petrochemical, or natural precursors).
20 Functional group (FG) Definition: part of a molecule that results in characteristic features,responsible of physical chemical properties and giving a peculiar reactivity. This reactivity marginally depends from the carbon skeleton of the molecule, whereas it is common of the suitable functional group also present in different molecules, on condition that more functional groups are present far each other (the reactivity of two close FG is affected each other) FG within a molecule need to be identified when naming.
22 FG are centers of chemical reactivity The functional group approach "works" because the properties and reaction chemistry of a particular FG can be remarkably independent of environment. Therefore, it is only necessary to know about the chemistry of a few generic functions in order to predict the chemical behaviour of thousands of real organic chemicals. Chemical modifications are mainly related to functional group interconversion (see it below)
23 Strategy in Organic Synthesis
24 Approccio retrosintetico
27 Synthesis design E.J. Corey brought a more formal approach to synthesis design, based on retrosynthetic analysis, for which he won the Nobel prize for Chemistry in In this approach, the research is planned backwards from the product, using standard rules. The steps are shown using retrosynthetic arrows (drawn as =>), which in effect means "is made from". Computer programs have been written for designing a synthesis Corey, E. J; Cheng, X-M. (1995). The Logic of Chemical Synthesis. New York Wiley
28 In a synthetic sequence C-C bond must be built In a retrosynthetic sequence C-C bonds must be disconnected A generic C-C bond can be disconnected in 3 ways: 2 heterolytic (by formation of ionic species) and 1 homolytic ( by formation of radicals). The most used disconnections are the heterolytic ones [A] [B] Graphic formalism adopted for a disconnection Simbolo di disconnessione di legame Sintoni formali [A] [B] [A] [B] [A] [B] [A] [B] [A] [B] Freccia di retrosintesi Synthons are ideal fragments able to react together to produce a new C-C bond. Synthetic equivalents are the real reagents, whose pair corresponds to the synthon pair
29 DEFINITIONS TARGET MOLECULE (TM) RETROSYNTHETIC ANALYSIS what you need to make the process of deconstructing the TM by breaking it into simpler molecules until you get to a recognisable SM STARTING MATERIAL (SM) an available chemical that you can arrive at by retrosynthetic analysis and thus probably convert into the target molecule DISCONNECTION FUNCTIONAL GROUP INTERCONVERSION (FGI) taking apart a bond in the TM to see if it gives a pair of reagents changing a group in the TM into a different one to see if it gives an accessible intermediate SYNTHON conceptual fragments that arise from disconnection SYNTHETIC EQUIVALENT chemical that reacts as if it was a synthon
30 A Simple Example of Retrosynthetic Analysis Target Molecule OH A DISCONNECT B A and B are two heterolytic disconnections OH OH SYNTHONS SYNTHONS O REAGENTS?? PhMgBr H REAGENTS Synthetic equivalents
31 from I. Mancini, Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 2007, 6, 17-48
32 Classification of Chemical Reactions Involved in a Synthesis 1. Functional group interconversion (FGI) 2. C-C bond building 3. Extra-steps (e.g. protective/deprotective reactions)
33 2. C-C bond building These reactions are able to build the carbon skeleton of a molecule C-C is an apolar bondand it is usually formed by the reaction between a nucleophile C and an electrophile C Electrophile; (= affinity for electrons) atom or centre poor of electrons C with a positive charge (carbocation) or partial charge, because linked to an electronegative atom ( e.g. X= halogen) Nucleophile: (=affinity for nucleus) atom or centre rich of electrons C with a negative charge (carbaion) or partial negative charge, because linked to an electropositive atom ( e.g. metal) C-Met C-X C-C
34 Organometallics General structures of the three common organometallic reagents: Experimental conditions: dry solvent, inert atmosphere
35 Since both Li and Mg are very electropositive metals, organolithium (RLi) and organomagnesium (RMgX) reagents contain very polar carbon metal bonds and are therefore very reactive reagents. Organomagnesium reagents are called Grignard reagents. In organometallic reagents, carbon bears a - charge. The same species can act as a base or as a nucleophile Definition: A species rich of electrons able to react with an acid proton is a base, if reacts with an electrophile C is a nucleophile Organometallic reagents are strong nucleophiles that react with electrophilic carbon atoms to form new carbon carbon bonds. These reactions are very valuable in forming the carbon skeletons of complex organic molecules.
36 Nucleophile, electrophile and reaction mechanisms The typycal reactivity can be summarized as: ADDITION (reagent wth sp 2 C gives a product with sp 3 C) SUBSTITUTION (the ibridization of C atom is unchanged) REARRAGEMENT (or TRANSPOSITION) Electrophilic addition : alkene Electrophilic substitution: benzene Nucleophilic addition : aldehyde and ketone Nucleophilic substitution: halogenoalkane
37 3. Extra-steps They are steps not strictly necessary in the synthesis of the organic target molecule. Extra-steps include: purification and isolation of the synthetic intermediates functional groups protections, introduced to improve the selectivity and control of the synthesis Protecting groups It is an extra-step useful when a reactive is not chemoselective, that is when it is uncompatible with another FG present in the molecule. Requirements for a protective group. It must be: easily inserted (by simple a reaction and high yield) able to protect a FG from a specific class of reactions easily removed ( by a simple reaction and high yield) An ideal efficient synthesis must use no protecting groups and it is given only by C-C bond building reactions. The lowest number of protecting/ deprotecting steps has to be planned.
38 Examples in Using Protecting Groups Addition of organometallic reagents cannot be used with molecules that contain both a carbonyl group (C=O) and N H or O H bonds. Carbonyl compounds that also contain N H or O H bonds undergo an acid-base reaction with organometallic reagents, not nucleophilic addition. 38
39 Solving this problem requires a three-step strategy:  Convert the OH group into another functional group that does not interfere with the desired reaction. This new blocking group is called a protecting group, and the reaction that creates it is called protection.  Carry out the desired reaction.  Remove the protecting group. This reaction is called deprotection. A common OH protecting group is a silyl ether.
40 The use of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) ether as a protecting group makes possible the synthesis of 4-methyl-1,4- pentanediol (1) by a three-step sequence. (1)
41 General strategy for using a protecting group for OH functionality Each FG has got its own protective groups In order to work as protecting/deprotecting group, a reaction must be reversible
42 Analysis of a synthetic sequence The synthesis of a molecule (TM, Target Material) consists of a series of synthetic steps, starting from commercially available compounds (SMs, Starting Materials). A syntehtic sequence is the set of all synthetic steps (reactions). It can be : linear Reaction 1 convergent (formed by more than one linear sequences)
43 Yields and conversion Weight of the product Expected theoric weight mols of obtained product mols of used reagent yield Global yield of a synthetic sequence Comparison for a 5-step sequence Linear convergent
44 Taxol It is used in the therapeutic treatment of some tumors (Paclitaxel ) (studied in the inhibition of ovarian tumor in 1989 and approved against breast tumor in 1994) Until 1995 it was extracted in a low amount from the bark of Taxus brevifolia. For the treatment of a single patient six 100-year old trees are necessary! Leaves of the European Taxus (Taxus baccata) contain a similar molecule, baccatin III, from where taxol could be obtained by semi-synthesis. Currently taxol is produced by total synthesis.
45 Retrosynthetic analysis The taxol synthesis by Nicolau taxol It is a good example of convergent synthesis because the molecule is assembled from 3 pre-assembled synthons. Nicolaou, KC; et al, Nature 1994,
46 Example 2
47 Asymmetric Synthesis It is an important method by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained
48 Asymmetric synthesis It is an organic synthesis which introduces one or more new and desired elements of chirality. Definitions SPECIFICITY = HIGHLY SELECTIVITY CHEMOSELECTIVITY: preferential reaction of a reagent for a specific functional group e.g. reaction on aldehyde in the presence of an alcohol REGIOSELECTIVITY A regioselective reaction is one in which one direction of bond making or breaking occurs preferentially over all other possible direction e.g. attack on a C of the two C in the epoxide group STEREOSELECTIVITY The preferential formation in a chemical reaction of one stereoisomer over another. Enanatioselectivity = When the stereisomers are enantiomers
49 Approaches There are three main approaches to asymmetric synthesis: 1. Chiral pool synthesis 2. Asymmetric induction 3. Asymmetric catalysis Chirality must be introduced to the substance first. Then, it must be maintained. Example: A S N 1 substitution reaction converts a molecule that is chiral by merit of non-planarity into a planar molecule, which has no handedness. In a S N 2 substituttion reaction on the other hand the chirality inverts.
50 1. Chiral pool synthesis A chiral starting material (SM) is manipulated through successive reactions using achiral reagents which retain its chirality to obtain the desired target molecule. SM can be naturally occurring building block (e.g. sugar, amino acids). This approach requires a stoichiometric amount of the enantiopure SM, which may be rather expensive, whereas chiral catalysis requires only a catalytic amount of chiral material
51 2. Asymmetric induction The aim is to make enantiomers into diasteroisomers, since the latter ones have different reactivity, but enantiomers do not. Example of asymmetry induced by steric reasons: Nu attacks preferentially from the opposite side of R
52 3. Asymmetric catalysis Small amounts of chiral, enantiomerically pure catalysts promote reactions and lead to the formation of large amounts of enantiomerically pure Different kinds of chiral catalysts : Metal ligand complexes derived from chiral ligands chiral organocatalysts biocatalyst The first methods of asymmetric catalysis were pioneered by R. Noyori.
54 Biocatalysis It was employed to do chemical modifications on non-natural organic compounds and the last 30 years have seen a substantial increase in the application of biocatalysis to produce fine chemicals, especially for the pharmaceutical industry. It makes use of enzymes to effect chemical reagents stereoselectively. Advantages High selectivity which is necessary to obtain a high yield of a specific product.
56 The best synthesis Total Biomimetic Chiral Efficient (high yield and e.e., reduced number of steps) Catalyzed Eco-friendly
57 Green chemistry It is a new technological philosophy. The term was coined by P. Anastas in The main concepts are: the design of processes to maximize the amount of raw material that ends up in the product the use of safe, environment-benign substances, including solvents the design of energy efficient processes the best form of waste disposal: not to create it in the first place
60 In Summary:
62 Typical values of E-Factor in pharmaceutical industry are: Bulk chemistry : < 0.1 Kg of waste/kg of product Fine chemicals: 5.50 Kg of waste / Kg of product Pharmaceutical processes: Kg of waste/ Kg of product Low values of E-Factor implies green processes Biocatalysis and E-Factor Using biocatalysis is in favour of a green E- factor, because: It reduce waste, being a catalyst It minimizes the use of protective / deprotective steps, being selective
65 More on Atom Efficiency (AE) This idea is due to Barry Trost, Stanford University winner of the Presidential Green Chemistry Challange Award in How many atoms present in the reagent molecules are incorporated in the final product ( and not in by-products) and how many are instead lost? EXAMPLE of calculation of AE In the reaction of 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol: CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH + NaBr + H 2 SO 4 = CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Br + NaHSO 4 + H 2 O By the sum of the atoms present in the product: 4C + 9H + 1Br = 137 uma The sum of all the atoms in the reagents: 4C + 12H + 5O + 1Br + 1Na + 1S = 275 uma. % EA = 137 : 275 x 100 = 50% The value indicates that for this reaction only 50% of the reagent atoms are found in the product.
66 Biocatalysis and Green Chemistry J.M. Woodley, Cell Press, 2008 Environmental E-factor calculation is defined by the ratio of the mass of waste per unit of product: E-factor = total waste (kg) / product (kg)
67 Metodi speciali in sintesi organica
68 Solvents in Organic Synthesis Classification The role of solvents Water Ionic liquids SC-CO 2 Solvent-free conditions
70 The role of solvents: as a reaction medium Used to bring reactants together at suitable concentrations, usually in batch processes Energy control Endothermic reactions require energy heat can be supplied by heating solution (Figure) Exothermic reactions solvent acts as a heat sink preventing runaway reactions. Heat can be removed by allowing solvent to boil. Efficient mixing and stirring Addition of solid reagents as a solution
71 Solvent replacement in synthetic chemistry Can be very difficult to replace solvents. As reaction media: Solvents have a substantial effect on a reaction, allowing a degree of control not possible in its absence Can affect: Rates of reaction Chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity e.g. different mechanism S N 1/S N 2 by changing solvent (S N 1 in polar solvent stabilizing carbocation intermediate species) Outcome of reaction may not work at all, or may do something totally different! If can be exploited then may give extra incentive for adoption of new technology.
72 Strategies of solvent replacement Avoid or minimise solvents in first place Use less toxic solvents Use renewable solvents (not derived from petrochemicals) Avoid VOC s solvents with low vapour pressure / high boiling points may be preferable as long as this does not lead to other complications. VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds
73 Some current approaches to solvent replacement in synthetic chemistry Water Ionic liquids Carbon dioxide No solvent All have advantages and disadvantages which need to be considered when assessing suitability for replacement
75 Some current approaches to solvent replacement in synthetic chemistry Water Ionic liquids Carbon dioxide No solvent
77 Oxidation in water Water as Solvent in Organic Reactions Example 1 CD = cyclodextrin NBS = N-Bromo succinimide Example 2 Using a chemoenzymic oxidation methodology, water-soluble (81-93% yield) and lipophilic alkenes (60-99% yield) were successfully epoxidised. Commercial Glucose Oxidase (GOx) is used to produce in situ hydrogen peroxide via the enzymic oxidation of glucose. The addition of catalytic amounts of sodium bicarbonate/manganese sulphate increases the rate and the yield of the process. In the case of lipophilic alkenes, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as a surfactant. a) water-soluble alkenes: Glucose (0.2 M), GOx (175 units/ml), O 2, NaHCO 3 (0.5 M), MnSO 4 (0.1 mol%), ph 7.0 phosphate sol.; b) water-insoluble soluble alkenes: same conditions plus SDS (5 mm).
80 Some current approaches to solvent replacement in synthetic chemistry Water Ionic liquids Carbon dioxide No solvent
82 Structures of Ionic Liquids
85 Examples of application
86 Some current approaches to solvent replacement in synthetic chemistry Water Ionic liquids Carbon dioxide No solvent
87 Tc (31.1 C) ; Pc (72.9 atm/7.39 MPa), Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) It is a stable fluid; if T is higher than critcal point, the properties are the ones beteween a gas and a liquid It expands as a gas, but with a density similar to a liquid
88 SCFs are intermediate between liquids and gases Solid Liquid Supercritical Fluid Gas
89 Carbon Dioxide-1 Similar advantages to water Natural, cheap Available in >99.9% pure form By-product of brewing, ammonia synthesis, combustion Already being adopted in a variety of commercial processes Non-toxic and properties well understood BUT asphyxiant at high concentrations Easily removed and recycled, and can be disposed of with no net increase in global CO 2 Simple product isolation by evaporation, to 100% dryness. No solvent effluent Potential for product processing (extraction, particle formation, chromatography etc.)
90 Carbon Dioxide- 2 Supercritical CO 2 is becoming an important commercial and industrial solvent due to its role in chemical extraction. Hydrophobic substrates offer good solubility to SC-CO 2 Separation of the reaction components from the starting material is much simpler than with traditional organic solvents In addition to its low toxicity and environmental impact. The relatively low temperature of the process and the stability of CO 2 also allows most compounds to be extracted with little damage or denaturing. It is seen as a promising green solvent because it is non-toxic, and a byproduct of other industrial processes.. It is an attractive medium for industrial application because it is of natural origin, inexpensive, non-toxic, non-flammable, and environmentally acceptable; also, it causes no problem of residual solvents.
91 Other advantages of SC-CO 2 High compressibility Large change in solvent properties for relatively small change in pressure infinite range of solvent properties available Ability to tune solvent to favour a particular reaction pathway simply by optimising temperature or pressure Small amounts of co-solvents can further modify solvent properties High diffusion rates offer potential for increased reaction rates. Potential for homogeneous catalytic processes. High solubility of light gases, some catalysts and substrates; bring all together in single homogeneous phase Inert to oxidation; resistant to reduction Excellent medium for oxidation and reduction reactions.
92 Solid supported synthesis
93 Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis General principles Merrifield in 1959 : the peptide is bound to an insoluble support then any unreacted reagents left at the end of any synthetic step can be removed by a simple wash procedure, greatly decreasing the time required for synthesis. Automation This is only valid, however, if the individual synthetic steps occur with essentially quantitative yields.
94 Solid polymeric supports
95 Polymeric supports are considered a sort of protective group for the molecule of reagent the final product is obtaind free from solid dupport ata the end Unsoluble solid supports allow an easy workup, by simple filtration.
97 Disadventages of solid phase synthesis Analytical techniques applied to follow the conversion during the reaction time It is not possible to use TLC and any other techniques for the analysis of solutions Used techniques: IR spectroscopy, Solid state NMR
100 Reagents useful in oxidation and reduction reaction are commercilly available as supported on solid phase Example: borohydride reductive reagent supported on polymers
105 Microwave are electromagnetic radiation with MHz frequencies, corresponding to energy able to act on molecular rotational levels. Instruments used in the lab. generally work with a frequency generator (magnetron) at 2450 MHz (λ=12.2 cm). Microwaves are formed by ana electric and a magnetic oscillant fields. Only the electric field isa able to transfer energy to the sample.
106 In conventional organic synthesis the trasfer of heat is by conduction, through ana oil bath (slow and of low efficacy) (Figure, left). Mechanism of MW heating Thermic MW effect is different : there is a fast heating localized on molecules able to absorb MW, by dipole rotation, or by ionic conductivity. Dipole rotation : Polar molecules have an electrical dipole moment and they can align themselves in an electromagnetic field. If the field is oscillating (as it is in an electromagnetic wave or in a rapidlyoscillating electric field), these molecules rotate to continuously align with it.. As the field alternates, the molecules reverse direction. Rotating molecules collide with other molecules distributing the energy to adjacent molecules and causing heating heat Figure Molecules with permament dipoles (as reagents or solvent) are necessary.
108 This mechanism is able to explain the efficient transfer of thermal energy, so that this is the reason why MW induced reactions are faster than conventional heating MW do not change activation energy (Figure), but are able to tranfer this energy faster than traditional heating.
109 Chemical reaction has been carried out in domestic MW oven ( multimode system), but they are not good for safety reason ( solvents or reagents can be flammable) Specific monomode MW has been used for scientific application, where the electromagnetic wave produced by magnetron is addressed to a toroidal cavity surrounding the sampel to be irradiated. In this way a good focus of the waves on the sample is possible. There are then sensors for T and pressure. MW reactor Scheme of a MW monomode system
110 As known, reaction rate depends form the reagent concentration. MW irradiation allows to do reaction under solvent-free conditions, if one reagent is liquid or with a low melting point. Example Synthesis of a polymeric natural product with bioactivities ( antibacterial, inhibition of AChE, anti-fouling) Structure of polymeric alkylpyridinium metabolites 1 (Poly-APS) from the sponge Reniera sarai.
111 Conventional iterative synthesis ( by using protective/deprotecive steps) Mancini et. al, Org. Biomol. Chem Microwave assisted synthesis (under solvent-free conditions) Di-substituted pyridinium polymers and synthesis thereof. Jaspars M; HoussenW; Lu Z; Scott R; Edrada-Ebel R; Mancini I. (University Court of the University of Aberdeen, UK). PCT Int. Appl. (2010)
112 Combinatorial Chemistry
114 1 synthetic method 1 scaffold n sets of substituents Building of a library of compounds
115 Figure. Combinatorial materials science and HTS discovery cycle.
116 Reduction of 33% of reactions
117 Organic Synthesis in Modern Drug Delivery Modern drug development: drug design by docking calculations Biomimetic approach based on natural products Combinatorial chemistry
118 Docking Calculation Results
119 Example 3D-Structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in the complex with DNA (PDB code: 3KJV) HIV-1 RT with binding site for NRTIs/NtRTIs and the binding site NNRTIs
120 Considerations The use of computational methods gives a rational approach in drug discovery It allows to increase the development rate of new bioactive scaffolds In particular AutoDock is a free software, which gives good score results
121 Click Chemistry
122 History Click chemistry is a concept introduced by K. Barry Sharpless in 2001 and describes chemistry tailored to generate substances quickly and reliably by joining small units together as nature does. 122 In biochemistry, proteins are made from repeating amino acid units and sugars are made from repeating monosaccharide units. The connecting units are based on carbon - hetero atom bonds C-X-C rather than carbon - carbon bonds. In addition, enzymes ensure that chemical processes can overcome large enthalpy hurdles by division into a series of reactions each with a small energy step. Mimicking nature in organic synthesis of new pharmaceuticals is essential given the large number of possible structures.
123 Definitions Click Chemistry is a general term that identifies a class of chemical transformations with a number of attaractive features including excellent functionalgroup tolerance, high yields and good selectivity under mild experimental conditions. 123 As defined by K. B. Sharpless Click chemistry a set of powerful, virtually 100% reliable, selective reactions for the rapid synthesis of new compounds via heteroatom links (C-X-C) Click chemistry is integral now to all research within the Sharpless Lab. Borman, S. C & En. 2002, 80(6), 29.
124 B Sharpless, 2004
125 Classes of Click Reactions Nucleophilic opening of highly strained rings SN2 ring opening reactions Epoxides, aziridines, cyclic sulfates, cyclic sulfamidates, aziridinium ions Protecting Group Reactions Reversible carbonyl chemistry Acetals, ketals and their aza-analogs Cycloaddition Reactions Hetero Diels-Alder, 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions involving heteroatoms
126 Why Click Chemistry? Functional group tolerance Aqueous conditions Shorter reaction time High yield High purity Regiospecificity
127 Regioselectivity of Click Chemistry Addition of Cu(I)-catalyst the champion click process
128 Click Chemistry Using a Solid Support Solid Phase Organic Synthesis (SPOS) Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS)
129 Click Chemistry in Biology Construction of fluorescent Oligonucleotides for DNA sequencing Introducing additional functional groups in DNA Biological Inhibitors ( e.g. HIV-1 protease, AChE) In-situ Click approach
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CHM220 Nucleophilic Substitution Lab Studying S N 1 and S N 2 Reactions: Nucloephilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon* Purpose: To convert a primary alcohol to an alkyl bromide using an S N 2 reaction
Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons
Guide to Reverse Phase SpinColumns Chromatography for Sample Prep www.harvardapparatus.com Contents Introduction...2-3 Modes of Separation...4-6 Spin Column Efficiency...7-8 Fast Protein Analysis...9 Specifications...10
Suggested Solutions to student questions(soap) 1. How do you explain the cleansing action of soap? The ionic part of the soap molecule is water-soluble while the non-polar hydrocarbon part is soluble in
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and itriles Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: There are really only four things to worry about under this heading; acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides. We ll start with
Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule
Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute
Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including
hemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 ARB SKELETS arbon has a unique role in the cell because of its ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. Thus carbon atoms can join to form chains.
Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.
EXPERIMENT 3 (Organic Chemistry II) Nitration of Aromatic Compounds: Preparation of methyl-m-nitrobenzoate Pahlavan/Cherif Purpose a) Study electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction (EAS) b) Study regioselectivity
Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity
Chapter 13 - Solutions 13-1 Types of Mixtures I. Solutions A. Soluble 1. Capable of being dissolved B. Solution 1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase C. Solvent 1. The dissolving
Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions, Course Notes Archive, 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions An organic reaction in which an electrophile substitutes a hydrogen atom in an aromatic
Catalysis by Enzymes Enzyme A protein that acts as a catalyst for a biochemical reaction. Enzymatic Reaction Specificity Enzyme Cofactors Many enzymes are conjugated proteins that require nonprotein portions
EXPERIMENT 5: DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT Pre-Lab Questions: None. 64 I. Background Information DIPEPTIDE RESEARCH PROJECT Methods developed by organic chemists for the synthesis of biopolymers have had
Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide 2.1 Introduction In order to appreciate the impact of the properties of liquid sulphur dioxide and liquid sulphur trioxide
An alcohol has an OH bonded to an alkyl group; a phenol has an OH bonded directly to an aromatic ring; and an ether has an O bonded to two organic groups. Chapter Fourteen 1 Ethyl alcohol, dimethyl ether,
Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound The analysis of the outcome of a reaction requires that we know the full structure of the products as well as the reactants In the 19 th and early 20 th
Studying an Organic Reaction How do we know if a reaction can occur? And if a reaction can occur what do we know about the reaction? Information we want to know: How much heat is generated? How fast is
Lab 5: The Aldol Reaction Solventless vs Traditional Reactions: (Melting Point Study & Recrystallization) (adapted from Doxsee, K.M. and Hutchison, J.E., Green Organic Chemistry and John Thompson; Lane
Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an
Aromatic compounds GE 1 BENZENE Structure Primary analysis revealed benzene had an... empirical formula of and a molecular formula of 6 6 Q.1 Draw out some suitable structures which fit the molecular formula
arboxylic Acids arboxylic acids have one property that distinguishes them from most other organic compounds they re acidic. Now not as acidic as fuming sulfuric acid, but still pretty darned acidic. The
9.8 Substituent effects in the electrophilic substitution of an aromatic ring Substituents affect the reactivity of the aromatic ring Some substituents activate the ring, making it more reactive than benzene
IB/SL Chemistry Name ANSWERS Test; Past Chemistry Regents Exams Most Frequently Missed Questions 1. 1. A HIGH PROBABLITY OF FINDING AN ELECTRON 2. 3. +8 (every atom of oxygen in the universe) 3. 2. LOW
Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction
Alkynes An alkyne is a hydrocarbon that contain a Carbon carbon triple bond. Acetylene, the simplest alkyne, widely used in industry for the synthesis of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl chloride O O H
Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. R Carboxylic acids are classified according to the substituent
13 C NMR Spectroscopy Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool available for structural determination. A nucleus with an odd number of protons, an odd number
Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The
Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) Theory and Interpretation of IR spectra ASSIGNED READINGS Introduction to technique 25 (p. 833-834 in lab textbook) Uses of the Infrared Spectrum (p. 847-853) Look over pages
CH101 Course Outline with Learning Outcomes Staff: Dr. Fawaz Aldabbagh, Dr. David Cheung, Dr. Paul Kavanagh, Dr. Luca Ronconi (Coordinator) Module overview and general aims This Module lays a broad foundation
Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonds have played an incredibly important role in the history of structural biology. Both the structure of DNA and of protein a-helices and b-sheets were predicted based largely