GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA

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1 Project Editor John F. McCoy Editorial Mary Rose Bonk, Pamela A. Dear, Rachel J. Kain, Lynn U. Koch, Michael D. Lesniak, Nancy Matuszak, Michael T. Reade Imaging and Multimedia Randy Bassett, Christine O'Bryan, Barbara J. Yarrow Project Design Cindy Baldwin, Tracey Rowens Manufacturing Nekita McKee 2002 by Gale. Gale is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Gale and Design and Thomson Learning are trademarks used herein under license. For more information contact The Gale Group, Inc Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI Or you can visit our Internet site at ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means--graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems--without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department The Gale Group, Inc Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI Permissions Hotline: or ; ext Fax: or Cover photographs reproduced by permission of Digital Stock (Taj Mahal, center left), Digital Vision (Fall trees, top left; Waterfall, top right; Water carriers, center; City in smog, center right), and PhotoDisc (Pink buttes, top center; Mountains, bottom). All of the maps appearing in this book were created to order by XNR Productions, Inc., of Madison, WI. Maps are the property of Gale, 2002, all rights reserved. Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgements constitute an extension of this copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, The Gale Group, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. The Gale Group, Inc. accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Geo-data : the world geographical encyclopedia / John F. McCoy, project editor.-- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Gazetteers. I. McCoy, John, G103.5.G '.3--dc Printed in the United States of America

2 PREFACE Gale is pleased to present the third edition of Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia. This is the first new edition of Geo-Data since 1989, and it represents a complete revision and updating of that work. The purpose of the book remains unchanged: to provide the reader with the most detailed and comprehensive descriptions available for the physical geography of countries. Geo-Data s focus and design is unique. Many encyclopedias, atlases, and other books provide some information on geography, but it is usually secondary to history, current events, or other topics. In these sorts of references physical geography receives a few paragraphs of coverage per country at best, compared to pages in Geo- Data. Among the few books that can rival Geo-Data coverage, none can match its ease of use. There is no need to hunt from one end of a dictionary or gazetteer to another, searching for details on a country's many different features. In Geo-Data everything is presented in one place. Each of Geo-Data s entries gives the reader a complete portrait of a country's mountains, fields, forests, deserts, rivers, seas, wetlands, and other features, with additional information on population distribution and natural resources. Key facts and statistics are highlighted at the beginning of each entry. In addition to the country entries, Geo-Data features a World Rankings Appendix, listing the world's tallest mountains, longest rivers, deepest oceans, largest lakes, most populous countries, and other outstanding features. Selection Criteria Geo-Data features 207 entries, each describing a single country or dependency. Every entry includes a relief map depicting the country or dependency. There is a separate entry for each of the world s 192 countries, including the new nation of East Timor. In addition, the autonomous island of Taiwan and the continent of Antarctica have their own entries, as do 13 dependencies: Anguilla, Aruba, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, French Guiana, Greenland, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Smaller, less populated, and more remote dependencies, such as the Cook Islands, Palmyra Atoll, and Svalbard, are discussed in the entries of their parent states. Although all countries and dependencies are described in detail, entries can vary greatly in length. This is often due to the obvious reason that some countries are much larger than others. However, countries with particularly complicated geography, such as Nepal, may have longer entries than much larger countries with fewer outstanding features, such as Libya. Countries with a large number of dependencies, such as France or the United Kingdom, also have longer entries than comparably sized countries. Names and Measurements Geography is an imprecise science. Knowledgeable experts, most of whom have lived, worked, or studied extensively in the countries about which they wrote, prepared the entries for this new edition of Geo-Data. Gale editors have relied on authoritative sources such as Merriam Webster s Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., The World Factbook 2001 of the CIA, The Columbia Gazetteer of the World, and the statistics and geographic divisions of the United Nations and various countries to check our facts. However, the reader should be aware that it is difficult if not impossible to measure exactly such large and irregular features as mountains, lakes, and rivers. Even authoritative sources often vary slightly in their information. Population information can be even more difficult to determine accurately, as many countries do not mea- ix

3 Preface sure this scientifically and on a regular basis. While basic population statistics are present in every entry, detailed tables and other breakdowns are present only in those entries for which accurate and reasonably current information was available. It is common for a single geographical feature or country to be called by many different names, depending on the source and context. In Geo-Data we have attempted to use the names that will be most familiar to the majority of our readers. These are most commonly English-language names, but widely used names in other languages and names which have no English equivalent also appear frequently. In addition, the reader will often find alternative names for the same feature given in parentheses after it is first mentioned in the text. In the case of country and dependency names, the editors have again opted for using the most easily recognized versions of their names. Thus the reader will find Brazil under B, not under F for Federative Republic of Brazil or R for República Federative do Brasil. Full, formal, names are used with the two Congos and the two Koreas, but these countries still appear under C and K, respectively. When discussing geography it is impossible to avoid controversy. There are many regions around the world whose ownership is disputed, sometimes violently. Although Gale does not support or seek to legitimize the views of any of the parties of these disputes, for the sake of completeness it was necessary to include these disputed regions in one entry or another. The editors have chosen to discuss disputed regions within the entries of the countries that physically control them, while at the same time carefully noting in those entries that the region is claimed by other countries and its status is not determined. Thus the West Bank can be found under Israel, Jammu and Kashmir within the entries on India and Pakistan, and Taiwan in its own separate entry. How Each Profile is Organized Geo-Data s 207 entries are organized alphabetically. All entries follow the same basic structure, beginning with a collection of Key Facts. The purpose of the Key Facts is to gather together in one easy to find place the basic information about each country that readers most often need. These facts always include a country s: area (total and ranked relative to other entries), location relative to the rest of the world, coordinates, border length (overall and with individual countries), coastline length, territorial seas, highest point, lowest point, population (total and ranked relative to other entries), largest city, and capital city. When available and applicable, the longest distances across the country, its longest river, and its largest lake are also provided. Following the Key Facts are eight rubrics. First, the overall geography and geology of the country is described in the Overview. Next, Mountains and Hills describes the major elevations of the country. Inland Waterways then describes the country s lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The Coast, Islands, and the Ocean gives information on the bodies of water that border on the country, the country's coasts, and its major islands. Climate and Vegetation describes the country s temperature and rainfall patterns, as well as its forests, grasslands, deserts, and other ground cover. Human Population outlines the major concentrations of people in the country. Then Natural Resources identifies the most important resources found within the country. Finally, the Further Readings rubric gives an interested reader suggestions on where to find more information. All eight rubrics appear in every entry, in the order given above, making it easy to navigate within entries and to compare information across countries. Entries are written as a narrative, so the reader looking for the complete picture on a country should find the entire entry an enjoyable read. Rubrics are clearly denoted in the text, however, so a reader looking for specific information can find it easily. Throughout the text, major features are identified by name, and their height, length, or other dimensions are provided whenever possible, both in imperial and metric units. Sidebars highlight particularly unusual and interesting facts. Geo-Data s entries are greatly enhanced by their maps. Every entry in the book includes a relief map. These maps were created specifically for their entries and give the user an extremely detailed view of the geography they are reading about. Since they were created especially for Geo-Data, the reader can be assured that all but the smallest of features mentioned in the text also appear on the map. In addition to the maps, most entries feature one or two tables. These tables list the country's largest cities and their populations and the country's provinces, their capitals, area, and populations. Additional Features Readers looking for comparative information on the world's most remarkable features will find the World Rankings Appendix useful. The 19 tables in this section include lists of the world s tallest mountains by continent and country; the world s longest borders; the world s largest bays and gulfs; the world s tallest volcanoes; the world s deepest oceans; and much more. Geo-Data s exhaustive subject index can help the reader find more information in the text on these and other features. A glossary is also provided, for those readers who are unfamiliar with some of the terms used throughout the book. Acknowledgements Earlier edition of Geo-Data were produced by George Kurian and associates, and distributed by Gale. Gale x

4 Preface thanks Mr. Kurian entrusting us with Geo-Data and allowing us to continue his excellent work. Many assisted Gale in producing Geo-Data, for which Gale thank s them. Eastword Publications, Inc., of Cleveland, OH, contributed most of the research and writing required for the book s text and tables, as well as typesetting the book. Their many contributors are acknowledged below, but Gale would like to give special thanks to Eastword s Susan Gall. All maps appearing in Geo-Data were created by XNR Productions of Madison, WI (Tanya Buckingham, Jon Daugherity, Laura Exner, Paul Exner, Andy Grosvold, Cory Johnson, Rob McCaleb, and Paula Robbins). Copyediting support was provided by Cathy Dybiec Holm, John Krol, Christopher Rollo Romig, and Carrie Snyder. The index was prepared by Synapse Corporation of Franktown, CO. Contributors T. Anne Dabb Karen Ellicott Susan Gall Robert J. Groelsema, Ph.D. Jim Henry Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. Tara Hohne Hendrick Isengingo Sarah Kunz David H. Long Daniel Lucas John McCoy Edith Mirante Christine Sciulli Jeanne Marie Stumpf, Ph.D. Michelle Tackla Max White Rosalie Wieder We Welcome Your Suggestions Gale appreciates your comments and suggestions. Please direct all correspondence to: Editor Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia Gale Group Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI xi

5 WORLD RANKINGS APPENDIX Continents by area Rank Continent Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Asia 17,139,445 44,391,162 2 Africa 11,677,239 30,244,049 3 North America 9,361,791 24,247,039 4 South America 6,880,706 17,821,029 5 Antarctica 5,500,000 14,245,000 6 Europe 3,997,929 10,345,636 7 Australia 2,967,909 7,686,884 Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Greenland N. America Atlantic Ocean 840,000 2,175,600 2 New Guinea Oceania Pacific Ocean 305, ,000 3 Borneo Asia South China Sea 285, ,000 4 Madagascar Africa Indian Ocean 226, ,040 5 Baffin N. America Baffin Bay 196, ,000 6 Sumatra Asia Andaman Sea 164, ,000 7 Honshu Asia Pacific Ocean 88, ,000 8 Great Britain Europe North Sea 84, ,000 9 Victoria N. America Viscount Melville 83, ,000 Sound 10 Ellesmere N. America Arctic Ocean 75, , Sulawesi (Celebes) Asia Celebes Sea 67, , South Island (New Oceania Pacific Ocean 58, ,000 Zealand) 13 Java Asia Indian Ocean 50, , North Island (New Oceania Pacific Ocean 44, ,000 Zealand) 15 Newfoundland N. America Atlantic Ocean 42, , Cuba N. America Caribbean Sea 40, , Luzon Asia Pacific Ocean 40, , Iceland Europe Atlantic Ocean 39, , Mindanao Asia Pacific Ocean 36,500 94, Ireland Europe Atlantic Ocean 32,500 84, Hokkaido Asia Pacific Ocean 30,100 78, Sakhalin Asia Sea of Okhotsk 29,500 76, Hispaniola N. America Atlantic Ocean 29,200 75, Banks N. America Arctic Ocean 27,000 70, Sri Lanka Asia Indian Ocean 25,332 65, Tasmania Australia Indian Ocean 24,900 64, Devon N. America Baffin Bay 21,300 55, Novaya Zemlya Europe North Kara Sea 18,900 48, Grande de Tierra del S. America Atlantic Ocean 18,700 48,400 Fuego [continued] Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water 30 Marajo S. America Atlantic Ocean 18,500 48, Alexander Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 16,700 43, Axel Heiberg N. America Arctic Ocean 16,700 43, Melville N. America Viscount Melville 16,300 42,100 Sound 34 Southampton N. America Husdon Bay 15,900 41, West Spitsbergen Europe Arctic Ocean 15,300 39, New Britain Oceania Bismarck Sea 14,600 37, Taiwan Asia Pacific Ocean 13,892 35, Kyushu Asia Pacific Ocean 13,800 35, Hainan Asia South China Sea 13,100 34, Prince of Wales N. America Viscount Melville 12,900 33,300 Sound 41 Novaya Zemlya Europe Barents Sea 12,800 33, Vancouver N. America Pacific Ocean 12,100 31, Timor Asia Timor Sea 10,200 26, Sicily Europe Mediterranean 9,810 25, Somerset N. America Lancaster Sound 9,570 24, Sardinia Europe Mediterranean 9,190 23, Bananal S. America Araguaia River 7,720 20, Halmahera Asia Molucca Sea 6,950 18, Shikoku Asia Pacific Ocean 6,860 17, Ceram Asia Banda Sea 6,620 17, New Caledonia Oceania Coral Sea 6,470 16, Bathurst N. America Viscount Melville 6,190 16,000 Sound 53 Prince Patrick N. America Arctic Ocean 6,120 15, North East Land Europe Barents Sea 5,790 15, Flores Asia Flores Sea 5,520 14, Oktyabrskoy Asia Arctic Ocean 5,470 14,170 Revolyutsii 57 Sumbawa Asia Indian Ocean 5,160 13, King William N. America Queen Maud Gulf 5,060 13, Samar Asia Pacific Ocean 5,050 13, Negros Asia Sulu Sea 4,900 12, Palawan Asia South China Sea 4,550 11, Kotelnyy Asia Arctic Ocean 4,500 11, Panay Asia Sulu Sea 4,450 11, Bangka Asia Java Sea 4,370 11, Ellef Ringnes N. America Arctic Ocean 4,360 11, Bolshevik Asia Arctic Ocean 4,350 11, Sumba Asia Indian Ocean 4,310 11, Bylot N. America Baffin Bay 4,270 11, Jamaica N. America Caribbean Sea 4,243 10, Dolak Asia Arafura Sea 4,160 10, Hawaii Oceania Pacific Ocean 4,040 10, Viti Levu Oceania Pacific Ocean 4,010 10, Cape Breton N. America Atlantic Ocean 3,980 10,300 [continued] Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 613

6 World Rankings Appendix Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water 74 Bougainville Oceania Pacific Ocean 3,880 10, Mindoro Asia South China Sea 3,760 9, Prince Charles N. America Foxe Basin 3,680 9, Kodiak N. America Pacific Ocean 3,670 9, Cyprus Asia Mediterranean 3,571 9, Komsomolets Asia Arctic Ocean 3,480 9, Buru Asia Banda Sea 3,470 9, Corsica Europe Mediterranean 3,370 8, Puerto Rico N. America Atlantic Ocean 3,350 8, New Ireland Oceania Pacific Ocean 3,340 8, Disco N. America Davis Strait 3,310 8, Chiloe S. America Pacific Ocean 3,240 8, Crete Europe Mediterranean 3,190 8, Anticosti N. America Gulf of St. Lawrence 3,070 7, Wrangel Asia Chukchi Sea 2,820 7, Leyte Asia Visayan Sea 2,780 7, Zealand Europe Baltic Sea 2,710 7, Cornwallis N. America Barrow Strait 2,700 7, Wellington S. America Trinidad Gulf 2,610 6, Iturup (Etorofu) Asia Pacific Ocean 2,600 6, Prince of Wales N. America Pacific Ocean 2,590 6, Graham N. America Pacific Ocean 2,460 6, East Falkland S. America Atlantic Ocean 2,440 6, Melville Asia Timor Sea 2,400 6, Novaya Sibir Asia East Siberian Sea 2,390 6, Kerguelen Antarctica Indian Ocean 2,320 6, Andros N. America Grand Bahama Bank 2,300 5, Prince Edward N. America Gulf of St. Lawrence 2,180 5,660 Island 102 Bali Asia Indian Ocean 2,170 5, Guadalcanal Oceania Solomon Sea 2,170 5, Vanua Levu Oceania Pacific Ocean 2,140 5, Coats N. America Hudson Bay 2,120 5, Santa Ines S. America Pacific Ocean 2,120 5, Lombok Asia Indian Ocean 2,100 5, Chicagof N. America Gulf of Alaska 2,080 5, Madura Asia Java Sea 2,040 5, Amund Ringnes N. America Peary Channel 2,030 5, MacKenzie King N. America Hazen Strait 1,950 5,050 Island 112 Edge Europe Barents Sea 1,940 5, Faddeyevskiy Asia Arctic Ocean 1,930 5, Espiritu Santo Asia Coral Sea 1,930 5, Caviana S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,920 4, Grande de Gurupa S. America Amazon River 1,880 4, Vendsyssel -Thy Europe Skagerrak 1,810 4, Malaita Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,750 4, Long N. America Atlantic Ocean 1,723 4, Kangaroo Australia Indian Ocean 1,680 4, West Falkland S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,680 4, Hoste S. America Pacific Ocean 1,590 4, Santa Isabel Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,550 4, Berkner Antarctica Weddell Sea 1,500 3, Isabela S. America Pacific Ocean 1,450 3, South Georgia S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,450 3, Euboea Europe Aegean Sea 1,410 3, Majorca Europe Mediterranean 1,400 3, Makira (San Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,350 3,500 Cristóbal) 130 Vaygach Europe Kara Sea 1,310 3, Adelaide Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 1,270 3, Waigeo Asia Pacific Ocean 1,250 3, Kolguyev Europe Barents Sea 1,240 3, Riesco S. America Strait of Magellan 1,200 3, Gotland Europe Baltic Sea 1,160 3, Fyn Europe Baltic Sea 1,150 2, Zemlya Georga Europe Barents Sea 1,120 2, Zemlya Aleksandry Europe Barents Sea 1,080 2, Manitoulin N. America Lake Huron 1,068 2, Sarema Europe Baltic Sea 1,030 2, Magdalena S. America Moraleda Channel 998 2, Reunion Africa Indian Ocean 970 2, Navarino S. America Nassau Bay 955 2, Ross Antarctica Ross Sea 888 2, Clarence S. America Strait of Magellan 863 2, Hinn Europe Norwegian Sea 849 2, Bioko Africa Bight of Bonny 779 2, Charcot Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 772 2,000 [continued] Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water 149 Tenerife Africa Atlantic Ocean 745 1, Mauritius Africa Indian Ocean 720 1, Skye Europe Sea of the Hebrides 643 1, Fuerte Ventura Africa Atlantic Ocean 642 1, Zanzibar Africa Indian Ocean 640 1, Lesbos Europe Aegean Sea 629 1, Gran Canaria Africa Atlantic Ocean 592 1, Mexiana S. America Atlantic Ocean 592 1, Sao Luis S. America Atlantic Ocean 465 1, Grande Comore Africa Indian Ocean 443 1, Sao Tiago Africa Atlantic Ocean Pemba Africa Indian Ocean Santa Cruz S. America Pacific Ocean Margarita S. America Pacific Ocean Dahlac Africa Red Sea São Tomé Africa Gulf of Guinea Lanzarote Africa Atlantic Ocean Santo Antao Africa Atlantic Ocean Madeira Africa Atlantic Ocean La Palma Africa Atlantic Ocean Fernandina S. America Pacific Ocean Boa Vista Africa Atlantic Ocean San Salvador S. America Pacific Ocean Djerba Africa Gulf of Gabes San Cristobal S. America Pacific Ocean Fogo Africa Atlantic Ocean Nzwani Africa Mozambique Channel 176 Mayotte Africa Mozambique Channel Oceans and seas by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Pacific Ocean 60,060, ,557,000 2 Atlantic Ocean 29,638,000 76,762,000 3 Indian Ocean 26,469,000 68,556,000 4 Southern Ocean 7,848,000 20,327,000 5 Arctic Ocean 5,427,000 14,056,000 6 Coral Sea 1,850,000 4,791,000 7 Arabian Sea 1,492,000 3,864,000 8 South China Sea (Nan Hai) 1,423,000 3,685,000 9 Weddell Sea 1,080,000 2,796, Caribbean Sea 1,063,000 2,753, Mediterranean Sea 971,000 2,515, Tasman Sea 900,000 2,331, Bering Sea 890,000 2,305, Bay of Bengal 839,000 2,173, Sea of Okhotsk 614,000 1,590, Gulf of Mexico 596,000 1,544, Gulf of Guinea 592,000 1,533, Barents Sea 542,000 1,405, Norwegian Sea 534,000 1,383, Gulf of Alaska 512,000 1,327, Hudson Bay 476,000 1,233, Greenland Sea 465,000 1,205, Bellinghausen Sea 430,000 1,110, Amundsen Sea 400,000 1,036, Arafura Sea 400,000 1,036, Philippine Sea 400,000 1,036, Sea of Japan 378, , Mozambique Channel 376, , Ross Sea 370, , East Siberian Sea 361, , Scotia Sea 347, , Kara Sea 341, , Labrador Sea 309, , East China Sea (Dong Hai / Tung Hai) 290, , Solomon Sea 278, , Laptev Sea 270, ,000 [continued] Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 614

7 World Rankings Appendix Oceans and seas by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 37 Baffin Bay 268, , Banda Sea 268, , Drake Passage 240, , Timor Sea 237, , Andaman Sea 232, , North Sea 232, , Davis Strait 230, , Chukchi Sea 225, , Great Australian Bight 187, , Beaufort Sea 184, , Celebes Sea 182, , Black Sea 178, , Red Sea 175, , Java Sea 167, , Sulu Sea 162, , Yellow Sea (Huang Hai) 161, , Baltic Sea 147, , Gulf of Carpentaria 120, , Molucca Sea 119, , Persian Gulf 93, , Gulf of Thailand 92, , Gulf of St. Lawrence 92, , Bismarck Sea 87, , Gulf of Aden 85, , Makassar Strait 75, , Ceram Sea 72, ,000 Ocean trenches by depth Rank Name Ocean Depth (ft) Depth (m) 6 Kuril Trench Pacific 34,678 10,577 7 New Britain Trench Pacific 31,657 9,655 8 Puerto Rico Trench Atlantic 31,037 9,466 9 Bonin Trench Pacific 29,816 9, Japan Trench Pacific 29,157 8, South Sandwich Trench Atlantic 28,406 8, Palau Trench Pacific 27,972 8, Peru-Chile Trench Pacific 27,687 8, Yap Trench Pacific 27,552 8, Aleutian Trench Pacific 26,775 8, Roanche Gap Atlantic 26,542 8, Cayman Trench Atlantic 26,519 8, New Hebrides Trench Pacific 25,971 7, Ryukyu Trench Pacific 25,597 7, Java Trench Indian 24,744 7, Diamantina Trench Indian 24,249 7, Mid America Trench Pacific 22,297 6, Brazil Basin Atlantic 22,274 6, Ob Trench Indian 21,785 6, Vema Trench Indian 19,482 5, Agulhas Basin Indian 19,380 5, Ionian Basin Mediterranean 17,306 5, Eurasia Basin Arctic 16,122 4,917 Rivers by length All measurements are approximate World Rankings Bays, gulfs, inlets and passages by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Bay of Bengal Asia India/Myanmar/Sri 839,000 2,173,000 Lanka 2 Gulf of Mexico N. America U.S.A./Cuba/Mexico 596,000 1,544,000 3 Gulf of Guinea Africa Cameroon/Nigeria/ 592,000 1,533,000 Equatorial Guinea 4 Gulf of Alaska N. America U.S.A./Canada 512,000 1,327,000 5 Hudson Bay N. America Canada 476,000 1,233,000 6 Baffin Bay N. America Greenland/Canada 268, ,000 7 Great Australia Australia Australia 187, ,000 Bight 8 Gulf of Australia Australia 120, ,000 Carpentaria 9 Persian Gulf Asia Bahrain/Iran/Qatar/ 93, ,000 Saudi Arabia/U.A.E. 10 Gulf of St. N. America Canada 93, ,000 Lawrence 11 Gulf of Thailand Asia Cambodia/Thailand 92, , Gulf of Aden Asia and Africa Somalia/Yemen 85, , Gulf of Oman Asia Iran/U.A.E/Oman 70, , Gulf of California N. America Mexico 62, , Gulf of Tonkin Asia Vietnam/China 45, , Gulf of Bothnia Europe Finland/Sweden 45, , Bight of Benin Africa Benin 26,000 67, Strait of Malacca Asia Malaysia/Indonesia 25,000 65, Gulf of Boothia N. America Canada 23,000 60, Amundsen Gulf N. America Canada 23,000 60, Gulf of Finland Europe Finland/Estonia 12,000 30,000 Ocean trenches by depth Rank Name Ocean Depth (ft) Depth (m) 1 Mariana Trench Pacific 38,635 11,784 2 Philippine Trench Pacific 37,720 11,505 3 Tonga Trench Pacific 37,166 11,336 4 Izu Trench Pacific 36,850 11,239 5 Kermadec Trench Pacific 34,728 10,592 [continued] Rank Name Continent Country Length (mi) Length (km) 1 Nile Africa Egypt, Sudan, Uganda 4,160 6,693 2 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, 3,900 6,280 Venezuela 3 Mississippi- N. America U.S.A. 3,860 6,211 Missouri 4 Chang Jiang Asia China 3,434 5,525 (Yangtze or Yangtse) 5 Ob'-Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 3,335 5,380 6 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 3,030 4,870 7 Huang He Asia China 2,903 4,671 (Huang-ho or Yellow) 8 Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 2,760 4,441 9 Lena Asia Russia 2,734 4, Amur Asia China, Russia 2,719 4, Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the 2,700 4,344 Congo, Rep. of the Congo 12 Mackenzie N. America Canada 2,635 4, Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, Laos, 2,600 4,200 Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 14 Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, 2,594 4,184 Nigeria 15 Yenisey Asia Russia 2,566 4, Missouri N. America U.S.A. 2,466 3, Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 2,348 3, Volga Europe Russia 2,293 3, Ob' Asia Russia 2,270 3, Euphrates Asia Iraq, Syria, Turkey 2,235 3, Purus S. America Brazil, Peru 2,100 3, Madeira S. America Brazil 2,013 3, Lower Asia Russia 2,000 3,220 Tunguska 24 Indus Asia Pakistan 1,988 3, São Francisco S. America Brazil 1,988 3, Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,980 3, Rio Grande N. America Mexico, U.S.A. 1,885 3, Brahmaputra Asia Bangladesh, China, India 1,800 2,900 (Jamuna) 29 Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, 1,775 2,857 Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 30 Salween Asia China, Myanmar 1,770 2,849 [continued] 615

8 World Rankings Appendix Rivers by length All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Length (mi) Length (km) 31 Darling Australia Australia 1,702 2, Tocantins S. America Brazil 1,677 2, Nelson N. America Canada 1,660 2, Vilyuy Asia Russia 1,650 2, Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 1,650 2, Murray Australia Australia 1,609 2, Paraguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 1,584 2, Amu Dar'ya Asia Afghanistan, Tajikistan, 1,580 2,540 Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan 39 Kolyma Asia Russia 1,562 2, Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India 1,560 2, Ishim Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,520 2, Ural Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,510 2, Japurá S. America Brazil, Colombia 1,500 2, Arkansas N. America U.S.A. 1,460 2, Colorado N. America U.S.A. 1,450 2, Dnieper Europe Belarus, Russia, Ukraine 1,420 2, Negro S. America Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela 1,400 2, Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., Dem. 1,400 2,253 Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 49 Aldan Asia Russia 1,390 2, Columbia- N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,390 2,240 Snake 51 Syr Dar'ya Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, 1,370 2,200 Uzbekistan 52 Araguaia S. America Brazil 1,366 2, Olenek Asia Russia 1,350 2, Irrawaddy Asia Myanmar 1,350 2, Kasai Africa Angola, Dem. Rep of the 1,338 2,153 Congo 56 Ohio- N. America U.S.A. 1,310 2,109 Allegheny 57 Tarim Asia China 1,300 2, Orange Africa Lesotho, Namibia, South 1,300 2,090 Africa 59 Orinoco S. America Venezuela 1,281 2, Shabeelle Africa Ethiopia, Somalia 1,250 2, Xingu S. America Brazil 1,230 1, Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,214 1, Mamoré S. America Bolivia 1,200 1, Tigris Asia Iraq, Turkey 1,180 1, Northern Europe Russia 1,160 1,870 Dvina 66 Don Europe Russia 1,153 1, Angara Asia Russia 1,151 1, Kama Europe Russia 1,120 1, Indigirka Asia Russia 1,112 1, Pechora Europe Russia 1,112 1, Limpopo Africa Botswana, South Africa, 1,100 1,770 Mozambique 72 Salado S. America Argentina 1,110 1, Guaporé S. America Bolivia, Brazil 1,087 1, Tobol Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,042 1, Snake N. America U.S.A. 1,038 1, Red N. America U.S.A. 1,018 1, Sénégal Africa Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, 1,015 1,663 Senegal 78 Churchill N. America Canada 1,000 1, Jubba Africa Ethiopia, Somalia 1,000 1, Okavango Africa Angola, Botswana 1,000 1, Pilcomayo S. America Argentina, Bolivia, 1,000 1,613 Paraguay 82 Uruguay S. America Uruguay 1,000 1, Volta Africa Burkina Faso, Ghana 992 1,600 Rivers by drainage area In thousands of sq mi and sq km. All measurements are approximate Drainage Drainage Rank Name Continent Country basin (sq mi) basin (sq km) 1 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, 2,375 6,150 Venezuela 2 Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of 1,476 3,822 the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 3 Nile Africa Egypt, Sudan 1,293 3,349 4 Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 1,247 3,230 5 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil 1,197 3,100 Paraguay 6 Ob'-Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,154 2,990 7 Yenisey Asia Russia 996 2,580 8 Lena Asia Russia 961 2,490 9 Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, 808 2,092 Niger, Nigeria 10 Amur (Hei-lung Asia China, Russia 716 1,855 chiang or Heilong Jiang) 11 Chang Jiang Asia China 705 1,827 (Yangtze or Yangtse) 12 Mackenzie N. America Canada 690 1, Saint Lawrence N. America Canada, U.S.A , Volga Europe Russia 525 1, Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, 514 1,331 Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 16 Madeira S. America Brazil 463 1, Indus Asia Pakistan 450 1, Nelson N. America Canada 437 1, Shatt al-arab* Asia Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey 427 1, Paraguay S. America Argentina, Paraguay 425 1, Murray Australia Australia 408 1, Negro (Guainía) S. America Brazil 386 1, Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India Kasai Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 25 Orinoco S. America Venezuela Orange Africa Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa 27 Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A Para S. America Brazil Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 30 Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 32 Okavango Africa Angola, Botswana Salado N. America Argentina Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 34 Huang He (Huangho Asia China or Yellow) 35 Ob' Asia Russia Aldan Asia Russia Shari Africa Cameroon, Chad Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A Kolyma Asia Russia Colorado N. America Mexico, U.S.A São Francisco S. America Brazil Guapore (Iténez) S. America Bolivia, Brazil Brahmaputra Asia Bangladesh Panjnad Asia India, Pakistan Ohio-Allegheny N. America U.S.A Sungari Asia China Kama Europe Russia Dnieper Europe Belarus, Russia, Ukraine Lower Tunguska Asia Russia Tapajós S. America Brazil Volta Africa Burkina Faso, Ghana 52 Northern Dvina Europe Russia *The Shatt al-arab is the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. 616

9 World Rankings Appendix Rivers by discharge rate All measurements are approximate Rate River Continent Country Discharge rate (cu ft per sec) Discharge rate (cu m per sec) 1 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, 6,180, ,000 Venezuela 2 Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of 1,377,000 39,000 the Congo 3 Negro (Guainía) S. America Brazil 1,236,000 35,000 4 Chang Jiang Asia China 1,137,000 32,190 (Yangtze or Yangtse) 5 Orinoco S. America Venezuela 890,000 25,200 6 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil, 809,000 22,900 Paraguay 7 Madeira S. America Brazil 770,000 21,800 8 Brahmaputra Asia Bangladesh, China, 678,000 19,200 India 9 Yenisey Asia Russia 622,000 17, Lena Asia Russia 586,000 16, Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 531,000 15, Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, 501,000 14,200 Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 13 Irrawaddy Asia Myanmar 447,000 12, Zhu (Pearl) Asia China 441,000 12, Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India 440,000 12, Ob'-Irtysh Asia Russia 438,000 12, St. Lawrence N. America Canada, U.S.A. 355,000 10, Salween Asia Myanmar 353,000 10, Kasai Africa Rep. of the Congo, 351,000 9,951 Dem. Rep. of the Congo 20 Amur (Hei-lung Asia China, Russia 349,000 9,860 chiang or Heilong Jiang) 21 Mackenzie N. America Canada 316,000 8, Para S. America Brazil 305,000 8, Volga Europe Russia 285,000 8, Magdalena S. America Colombia 283,000 8, Ohio N. America U.S.A. 272,000 7, Solo Asia Indonesia 268,000 7, Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., 265,000 7,500 Rep. of the Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 28 Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, 250,000 7,070 Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 29 Caqueta S. America Brazil 247,000 7, Indus Asia Pakistan 235,000 6, Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A. 223,000 6, Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, 221,000 6,250 Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 34 Araguaia S. America Brazil 217,000 6, Tapajos-Juruena S. America Brazil 212,000 6, Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, 201,000 5,700 Niger, Nigeria 37 Uruguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, 194,000 5,490 Uruguay 38 Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A. 194,000 5, Branco S. America Brazil 191,000 5, Aldan Asia Russia 177,000 5, Putumayo S. America Brazil 177,000 5, Ob Asia Russia 174,000 4, Atrato S. America Colombia 173,000 4, Caroni S. America Venezuela 168,000 4, Ogooue Africa Gabon 165,000 4, Fly Asia Papua New Guinea 157,000 4, Paraguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, 155,000 4,400 Paraguay 48 Chindwin Asia Myanmar 141,000 4, Jurua S. America Brazil 141,000 4, Pechora Europe Russia 141,000 4, Northern Dvina Europe Russia 120,000 3, Fraser N. America Canada 120,000 3, Lower Tunguska Asia Russia 117,000 3, Kama Europe Russia 99,000 2,800 Lakes by area All measurements are approximate Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Rank Name Continent Country 1 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, 143, ,000 Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 2 Superior N. America Canada, U.S.A. 31,820 82,732 3 Victoria Africa Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya 26,828 69,484 4 Aral Sea Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan 24,900 64,500 5 Huron N. America Canada, U.S.A. 23,000 59,570 6 Michigan N. America U.S.A. 22,400 58,020 7 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Dem. Republic 12,700 32,020 of the Congo, Tanzania, Zambia 8 Baikal Asia Russia 12,160 31,500 9 Great Bear N. America Canada 12,095 31, Great Slave N. America Canada 11,030 28, Erie N. America Canada, U.S.A. 9,920 25, Winnipeg N. America Canada 9,420 24, Malawi Africa Malawi, Mozambique, 8,680 22,490 Tanzania, 14 Ontario N. America Canada, U.S.A. 7,440 19, Balkhash Asia Kazakhstan 7,030 18, Ladoga Russia Russia 7,000 18, Maracaibo S. America Venezuela 5,020 13, Chad Africa Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria 4,000 10,000 10,360 25, Embalse del Río S. America Uruguay 4,000 10,360 Negro 20 Patos S. America Brazil 3,920 10, Onega Europe Russia 3,750 9, Eyre Australia Australia 3,668 9, Volta Africa Ghana 3,276 8, Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru 3,200 8, Nicaragua S. America Nicaragua 3,150 8, Athabasca N. America Canada 3,060 7, Reindeer N. America Canada 2,570 6, Smallwood N. America Canada 2,500 6,460 Reservoir 29 Turkana (Rudolf) Africa Ethiopia, Kenya 2,473 6, Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 2,360 6, Torrens Australia Australia 2,230 5, Albert Africa Dem. Republic of the 2,160 5,590 Congo, Uganda 33 Vanern Europe Sweden 2,160 5, Netilling N. America Canada 2,140 5, Winnipegosis N. America Canada 2,070 5, Nasser Africa Egypt, Sudan 2,026 5, Bangweulu Africa Zambia 1,930 5, Chott el Djerid Africa Tunisia 1,930 5, Urmia Asia Iran 1,879 4, Nipigon N. America Canada 1,870 4, Gairdner Australia Australia 1,840 4, Manitoba N. America Canada 1,800 4, Kyoga Africa Uganda 1,710 4, Khanka Asia China, Russia 1,700 4, Saimaa Europe Finland 1,700 4, Mweru Africa Dem. Republic of the 1,680 4,350 Congo 47 Great Salt N. America U.S.A. 1,680 4, Qinghai (Koko) Asia China 1,625 4, Woods N. America Canada 1,580 4, Taymyr Asia Russia 1,540 3, Nasser Africa Egypt 1,522 3, Orumiyeh Asia Iran 1,500 3, Dubawnt N. America Canada 1,480 3, Van Asia Turkey 1,430 3, Tana Africa Ethiopia 1,390 3, Peipus Europe Estonia, Russia 1,386 3, Uvs Asia Mongolia 1,300 3,366 World Rankings 617

10 World Rankings Appendix Lakes by depth Rank Lake Continent Country Depth (ft) Depth (m) 1 Baikal Asia Russia 5,315 1,621 2 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Tanzania, Dem. 4,825 1,471 Republic of the Congo, Zambia 3 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, 3,363 1,025 Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 4 Malawi Africa Malawi, Tanzania, 2, Mozambique 5 Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 2, Great Slave N. America Canada 2, Matana Asia Indonesia 1, Crater N. America U.S.A. 1, Toba Asia Indonesia 1, Hornindals Europe Norway 1, Sarez Asia Tajikistan 1, Tahoe N. America U.S.A. 1, Chelan N. America U.S.A. 1, Kivu Africa Rwanda, Dem. Republic of 1, the Congo 15 Quesnel N. America Canada 1, Sals Europe Norway 1, Adams N. America Canada 1, Mjøsa Europe Norway 1, Manapuri Oceania New Zealand 1, Poso Asia Indonesia 1, Nahuel Huapi S. America Argentina 1, Dead Sea Asia Israel, Jordan 1, Tazawa Asia Japan 1, Great Bear N. America Canada 1, Como Europe Italy 1, Superior N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1, Hawea Asia New Zealand 1, Wakatipu Asia New Zealand 1, Suldals Europe Norway 1, Maggiore Europe Italy, Switzerland 1, Fyres Europe Norway 1, Chilko N. America Canada 1, Pend Oreille N. America U.S.A. 1, Shikotsu Asia Japan 1, Powell N. America Canada 1, Llanquihue S. America Chile 1, Garda Europe Italy 1, Towada Asia Japan 1, Wanaka Asia New Zealand 1, Bandak Europe Norway 1, Telestskoya Asia Russia 1, Eutsuk N. America Canada 1, Atitlan N. America Guatemala 1, Lunde Europe Norway 1, Geneva Europe France, Switzerland 1, Morar Europe Scotland 1, Kurile Asia Russia 1, Walker N. America U.S.A. 1, Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru Argentino S. America Argentina Iliamna N. America U.S.A Tyrifjorden Europe Norway Lugano Europe Italy, Switzerland Takla N. America Canada Ohrid Europe Albania, Yugoslavia Atlin N. America Canada Nuyakuk N. America U.S.A Michigan N. America U.S.A Harrison N. America Canada Te Anau Oceania New Zealand Lakes by volume Rank Lake Continent Country Volume (cu mi) Volume (cu km) 1 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, 18,882 78,707 Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 2 Baikal Asia Russia 5,517 22,995 3 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Tanzania, 4,391 18,304 Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 4 Superior N. America Canada, USA 2,921 12,174 5 Malawi Africa Malawi, Tanzania, 1,473 6,140 Mozambique 6 Michigan N. America USA 1,169 4,874 7 Huron N. America Canada, USA 858 3,575 8 Victoria Africa Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 604 2,518 9 Great Bear N. America Canada 550 2, Great Slave N. America Canada 542 2, Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 420 1, Ontario N. America Canada, USA 369 1, Aral Sea Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan 348 1, Ladoga Russia Russia Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru Erie N. America Canada, USA Winnipeg N. America Canada Hovsgol Asia Mongolia Kivu Africa Rwanda Congo, Dem Republic of 20 Onega Europe Russia Maracaibo S. America Venezuela Glaciers, ice shelves, and related features, by area Only named features are included in this list. All measurements are approximate. Also note that glaciers and similar features can vary in size over time. Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Antarctic Ice Shelf* Antarctica Antarctica 3,805,235 4,619,957 9,855,570 11,965,700 2 Greenland N. America Greenland 659,087 1,707,038 Ice Sheet 3 Novaya Zemlya Ice Sheet Asia Russia 8,301 9,112 21,500 23,600 4 Prince of Wales Ice N. America Canada 7,247 18,770 Field 5 Mer de Glace Europe Switzerland 6,216 16,100 Agassiz 6 Devon Island N. America Canada 5,019 13,000 Ice Cap 7 Southern Patagonian S. America Argentina-Chile 5,019 13,000 Ice Field 8 Bering Glacier N. America U.S.A. 3,800 9,800 9 Austfonna Ice Cap Europe Svalbard 3,248 8,413 (dependency of Norway) 10 Vatnajökull Ice Cap Europe Iceland 3,166 3,297 8,200 8, Akaioa Ice Cap N. America Canada 2,799 7, Malaspina Glacier** N. America U.S.A ,089 2,195 8, Barnes Ice Cap N. America Canada 2,292 5, Bering Glacier N. America Canada-U.S.A. 2,008 5, Axel Heiberg Island N. America Canada 1,969 5,100 Ice Cap 16 Northern Patagonian S. America Argentina-Chile 1,622 4,200 Ice Field 17 Hubbard Glacier N. America U.S.A. 1,313 3, Olav V Land Europe Svalbard 1,158 3,000 Ice Field (Norway) 19 Kallstenius Ice Field N. America Greenland 1,050 2, Vestfonna Ice Cap Europe Svalbard 967 2,505 (Norway) 21 Juneau Icefield N. America U.S.A , Skeidararjökull Europe Iceland 665 1, Asgardfonna Europe Svalbard 635 1,645 Ice Cap (Norway) 24 Edgeoyjokulen Ice Cap Europe Svalbard (Norway) 512 1,300 [continued] 618

11 World Rankings Appendix Glaciers, ice shelves, and related features, by area Only named features are included in this list. All measurements are approximate. Also note that glaciers and similar features can vary in size over time. Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 25 Breidamerkurujökull Europe Iceland 489 1, Glacier Bruggen S. America Argentina-Chile 488 1,265 (Pio XI) 27 Hinlopenbreen Europe Svalbard ,248 1,250 (Norway) 28 Negribreen Europe Svalbard 456 1,180 (Norway) 29 Brasvellbreen Europe Svalbard 448 1,160 (Norway) 30 Etonbreen Europe Svalbard ,070 1,140 (Norway) 31 Columbia Glacier N. America U.S.A ,093 1, Siachen Glacier Asia India-Pakistan 386 1, Langjökull Europe Iceland Leighbreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 35 Holtedahlfonna and Europe Svalbard Isachsenfonna (Norway) 36 Fedchenko Glacier Asia Tajikistan Nabesna Glacier N. America U.S.A Jostedalsbreen Europe Norway Kvitoyjokulen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 40 Stonebreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 41 Myrdals Glacier Europe Iceland Kronebreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 43 Taku Glacier Europe Svalbard (Norway) 44 Hochstetterbreen Europe Svalbard Glacier (Norway) 45 Kahiltna Glacier N. America U.S.A Barentsjokulen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 47 Kennicott Glacier N. America U.S.A Shokalsky Glacier Asia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan 49 Balderfonna Europe Svalbard (Norway) 50 Baird Glacier N. America U.S.A Muldrow Glacier N. America U.S.A Baltoro Glacier Asia Pakistan Aletsch Glacier Europe Switzerland * Antarctic glaciers are difficult, if not impossible, to list by their surface area, because Antarctica is an effectively continuous ice mass and there is no easy way to determine the boundaries of a given glacier. ** Scientists do not agree on the size of this glacier; area measurements reported reflect the range of research findings as of Deserts by area All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Sahara Africa Algeria, Chad, Egypt, 3,475,000 9,000,000 Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, and Tunisia 2 Arabian* Asia Saudi Arabia, 900,000 2,330,000 Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, Iraq 3 Gobi Asia China, Mongolia 500,000 1,300,000 4 Kalahari Africa Botswana, Namibia, 360, ,000 South Africa 5 Great Victoria Australia Australia 134, ,750 6 Taklimakan Asia China 125, ,000 (Takla Makan) 7 Sonoran N. America United States of 120, ,000 America, Mexico 8 Kara-Kum Asia Kazakhstan, 115, ,000 Turkmenistan 9 Kyzyl Kum Asia Kazakhstan, 115, ,850 Uzbekistan 10 Namib Africa Namibia, South 110, ,000 Africa 11 Great Sandy Australia Australia 103, , Somali Africa Somalia 100, , Thar Asia India, Pakistan 90, , Tanami Australia Australia 71, , Atacama S. America Chile, Peru 70, , Simpson Australia Australia 68, , Gibson Australia Australia 60, , Little Sandy Australia Australia 43, ,500 * Two deserts are commonly referred to by this name. This entry refers to the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and not the Arabian Desert of Egypt, which is part of the Sahara. Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Elevation Elevation Rank Name Country (ft) (m) Africa 1 Kibo (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Tanzania 19,340 5,895 2 Mawensi (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Tanzania 17,100 5,210 3 Batian (Mt. Kenya) Kenya 17,058 5,203 4 Nelion (Mt. Kenya) Kenya 17,020 5,190 5 Margherita Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo, 16,756 5,110 Uganda 6 Alexandra Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo, 16,700 5,094 Uganda 7 Albert Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 16,690 5,090 8 Savoia Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,330 4,981 9 Elena Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,300 4, Elizabeth Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,170 4, Phillip Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,140 4, Moebius Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,130 4, Vittorio Emanuele (Mt. Speke) Uganda 16,040 4, Ensonga (Mt. Speke) Uganda 15,960 4, Johnston (Mt. Speke) Uganda 15,860 4, Edward (Mt. Baker) Uganda 15,890 4, Umberto (Mt. Emin) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,740 4, Semper (Mt. Baker) Uganda 15,730 4, Kraepelin (Mt. Emin) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,720 4, Iolanda (Mt. Gessi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,470 4, Bottego (Mt. Gesi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,418 4, Sella (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,178 4, Ras Deshen Ethiopia 15,157 4, Weismann (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,157 4, Okusoma (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,020 4,578 World Rankings [continued] 619

12 World Rankings Appendix Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Rank Name Country Antarctica 1 Vinson Antarctica 16,860 5,142 2 Tyree Antarctica 16,290 4,968 3 Shinn Antarctica 15,750 4,800 4 Gardner Antarctica 15,370 4,690 5 Epperly Antarctica 15,100 4,600 Asia 1 Everest (Zhumulangma Feng) Nepal, China 29,030 8,850 2 K2 China, Pakistan 28,251 8,611 3 Kanchenjunga India, Nepal 28,169 8,586 4 Lhotse China, Nepal 27,890 8,500 5 Makalu China, Nepal 27,824 8,481 6 Kanchenjunga, south peak India, Nepal 27,800 8,479 7 Kanchenjunga, west peak India, Nepal 27,620 8,424 8 Lhotse Shar China, Nepal 27,500 8,388 9 Dhaulagiri Nepal 26,813 8, Manslu Nepal 26,775 8, Cho Oyu China, Nepal 26,750 8, Nanga Parbat I Pakistan 26,660 8, Masherbrum I Pakistan 26,610 7, Annapurna I Nepal 26,500 8, Gasherbrum I Pakistan 26,470 8, Broad, highest peak Pakistan 26,400 8, Gasherbrum II Pakistan 26,360 8, Gosainthan China 26,290 8, Broad, middle peak Pakistan 26,250 8, Gasherbrum III Pakistan 26,090 7, Annapurna II Nepal 26,040 7, Gasherbrum IV Pakistan 26,000 7, Gyachung Kang China, Nepal 25,990 7, Nanga Parbat II Pakistan 25,950 7, Kangbachen India, Nepal 25,930 7, Manslu, east pinnacle Nepal 25,900 7, Distaghil Sar Pakistan 25,870 7, Nuptse Nepal 25,850 7, Himachuh Nepal 25,800 7, Khiangyang Kish Pakistan 25,760 7, Ngojumba Ri China, Nepal 25,720 7, Dakura Nepal 25,710 7, Masherbrum II Pakistan 25,660 7, Nanda Devi, west peak India 25,650 7, Nanga Parbat III Pakistan 25,650 7, Rakaposhi Pakistan 25,550 7, Batura Mustagh I Pakistan 25,540 7, GasherbrumV Pakistan 25,500 7, Kamet China, India 25,440 7,760 Europe 1 El'brus (Elborus), west peak Russia 18,481 5,633 2 El'brus (Elborus), east peak Russia 18,360 5,590 3 Shkhara Georgia, Russia 17,064 5,205 4 Dykh, west peak Russia 17,050 5,200 5 Dykh, east peak Russia 16,900 5,150 6 Koshtan Russia 16,880 5,148 7 Pushkina Russia 16,730 5,100 8 Kazbek, east peak Georgia 16,526 5,040 9 Dzhangi Georgia 16,520 5, Katyn Georgia, Russia 16,310 4, Shota Rustaveli Georgia, Russia 16,270 4, Mizhirgi, west peak Russia 16,170 4, Mizhirgi, east peak Russia 16,140 4, Kundyum-Mizhirgi Russia 16,010 4, Gestola Georgia, Russia 15,930 4, Tetnuld Georgia, Russia 15,920 4, Mont Blanc, main peak France, Italy 15,772 4, Dzhimariy Georgia 15,680 4, Adish Georgia, Russia 15,570 4, Courmayer (Mont Blanc) France, Italy 15,577 4, Ushba Georgia 15,450 4,710 North America 1 McKinley (Denali), south peak U.S.A. 20,323 6,194 2 Logan, central peak Canada 19,550 5,959 3 Logan, west peak Canada 19,470 5,930 4 McKinley (Denali), north peak U.S.A. 19,470 5,930 5 Logan, east peak Canada 19,420 5,920 6 Pico de Orizaba Mexico 18,701 5,700 [continued] Elevation Elevation (ft) (m) Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Elevation Elevation Rank Name Country (ft) (m) 7 Logan, north peak Canada 18,270 5,570 8 Saint Elias U.S.A., Canada 18,010 5,490 9 Popocatepetl Mexico 17,887 5, Foraker U.S.A. 17,400 5, Ixtacihuatl Mexico 17,342 5, Queen Canada 17,300 5, Lucania Canada 17,150 5, King Canada 16,970 5, Steele Canada 16,640 5, Bona U.S.A. 16,500 5, Blackburn, highest peak U.S.A. 16,390 5, Blackburn, southeast peak U.S.A. 16,290 4, Sanford U.S.A. 16,240 4, Wood Canada 15,880 4,840 Oceania 1 Puncak Jaya Indonesia 16,503 5,033 2 Daam Indonesia 16,150 4,926 3 Pilimsit Indonesia 15,750 4,800 4 Trikora Indonesia 15,580 4,752 5 Mandala Indonesia 15,420 4,700 6 Wisnumurti Indonesia 15,080 4,590 7 Yamin Indonesia 14,860 4,530 8 Wilhelm Papua New Guinea 14,793 4,509 9 Kubor Papua New Guinea 14,300 4, Herbert Papua New Guinea 14,000 4,270 South America 1 Aconcagua Argentina 22,835 6,960 2 Ojos del Salado, southeast peak Argentina, Chile 22,573 6,880 3 Bonete Argentina 22,550 6,870 4 Pissis Argentina 22,240 6,780 5 Mercedario Argentina 22,210 6,770 6 Huascarán, south peak Peru 22,204 6,768 7 Llullaillaco Argentina, Chile 22,100 6,730 8 Libertador Argentina 22,050 6,720 9 Ojos del Salado, northwest peak Argentina, Chile 22,050 6, Tupungato Argentina, Chile 21,900 6, Gonzalez, highest peak Argentina, Chile 21,850 6, Huascarán, north peak Peru 21,840 6, Muerto Argentina, Chile 21,820 6, Yerupaja, north peak Peru 21,760 6, Incahuasi Argentina, Chile 21,700 6, Galan Argentina 21,650 6, Tres Cruces Argentina, Chile 21,540 6, Gonzalez, north peak Argentina, Chile 21,490 6, Sajama Bolivia 21,463 6, Yerupaja, south peak Peru 21,380 6, Chimborazo Ecuador 20,681 6,267 Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) 1 Tupungato S. America Chile 22,310 6,800 2 Tipas S. America Argentina 21,845 6,660 3 Cerro el Condor S. America Argentina 21,425 6,532 4 Antofallo S. America Argentina 20,008 6,100 5 Guallatiri S. America Chile 19,882 6,060 6 Lascar S. America Chile 19,652 5,990 7 Cotopaxi S. America Ecuador 19,344 5,896 8 Kilimanjaro Africa Tanzania 19,341 5,895 9 El Misti S. America Peru 19,031 5, Pico de Orizaba N. America Mexico 18,702 5, Tolima S. America Colombia 18,425 5, Popocatépetl N. America Mexico 17,887 5, Yucamani S. America Peru 17,860 5, Sangay S. America Ecuador 17,159 5, Tungurahua S. America Ecuador 16,684 5, Cotacachi S. America Ecuador 16,250 4, Purace S. America Colombia 15,604 4,756 [continued] 620

13 World Rankings Appendix Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country 18 Klyuchevskaya Asia Russia 15,584 4, Kronotskaya Asia Russia 15,580 4, Shiveluch Asia Russia 15,580 4, Pichincha S. America Ecuador 15,173 4, Karasimbi Africa Dem. Rep. of 14,873 4,507 the Congo 23 Rainier N. America USA 14,410 4, Wrangell N. America USA (Alaska) 14,163 4, Colima N. America Mexico 13,993 4, Tajumulco N. America Guatemala 13,845 4, Mauna Kea Oceania USA (Hawaii) 13,796 4, Mauna Loa Oceania USA (Hawaii) 13,680 4, Cameroon Africa Cameroon 13,353 4, Tacana N. America Guatemala 13,300 4, Kerintji Asia Indonesia 12,483 3, Erebus Antarctica Antarctica 12,448 3, Fuji Asia Japan 12,388 3, Fuego N. America Guatemala 12,346 3, Agua N. America Guatemala 12,307 3, Rindjani Asia Indonesia 12,224 3, Pico de Teide Africa Spain (Canary 12,198 3,718 Is.) 38 Tolbachik Asia Russia 12,077 3, Semeru Asia Indonesia 12,060 3, Ichinskaya Asia Russia 11,800 3, Atitlan N. America Guatemala 11,650 3, Torbert N. America USA (Alaska) 11,450 3, Nyirangongo Africa Dem. Rep. of 11,365 3,465 the Congo 44 Kroyakskaya Asia Russia 11,336 3, Irazu S. America Costa Rica 11,260 3, Slamet Asia Indonesia 11,247 3, Spurr N. America USA (Alaska) 11,137 3, Lautaro S. America Chile 11,120 3, Sumbing Asia Indonesia 11,060 3, Raung Asia Indonesia 10,932 3, Etna Europe Italy 10,902 3, Baker N. America USA 10,778 3, Lassen N. America USA 10,492 3, Dempo Asia Indonesia 10,390 3, Sundoro Asia Indonesia 10,367 3, Agung Asia Indonesia 10,337 3, Prahu Asia Indonesia 10,285 3, Llaima S. America Chile 10,245 3, Redoubt N. America USA (Alaska) 10,197 3, Tjiremai Asia Indonesia 10,098 3, One-Take Asia Japan 10,056 3, Nyamulagira Africa Dem. Rep. of 10,026 3,056 the Congo 63 Iliamna N. America USA (Alaska) 10,016 3, Ardjuno-Welirang Asia Indonesia 9,968 3, San Pedro N. America Guatemala 9,902 3, Gede Asia Indonesia 9,705 2, Zhupanovsky Asia Russia 9,705 2, Apo Asia Philippines 9,692 2, Merapi Asia Indonesia 9,551 2, Marapi Asia Indonesia 9,479 2, Geureudong Asia Indonesia 9,459 2, Bezymianny Asia Russia 9,449 2, Shishaldin N. America USA (Alaska) 9,372 2, Tambora Asia Indonesia 9,350 2, Villarrica S. America Chile 9,318 2, Fogo Africa Cape Verde 9,281 2, Ruapehu Oceania New Zealand 9,175 2, Peuetsagoe Asia Indonesia 9,115 2, Paricutin N. America Mexico 9,100 2, Big Ben Antarctica Heard Island 9,006 2,745 (dependency of Australia) 81 Balbi Oceania Papua New 8,999 2,743 Guinea 82 Avachinskaya Asia Russia 8,987 2, Melbourne Antarctica Antarctica 8,957 2, Poas N. America Costa Rica 8,872 2, Papandajan Asia Indonesia 8,744 2, Piton de la Faournaise [continued] Africa Reunion (dependency of France) Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) 8,626 2,631 Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country 87 Pacaya N. America Guatemala 8,367 2, Mt. St. Helens N. America USA 8,366 2, Asama Asia Japan 8,300 2, Pavlof N. America USA (Alaska) 8,261 2, Veniaminof N. America USA (Alaska) 8,220 2, Mayon Asia Philippines 8,077 2, Sinabung Asia Indonesia 8,066 2, Yake Dake Asia Japan 8,049 2, Tandikat Asia Indonesia 7,993 2, Canalaon Asia Philippines 7,984 2, Shoshuenco S. America Chile 7,941 2, Idjen Asia Indonesia 7,823 2, Izalco N. America El Salvador 7,828 2, Karthala Africa Comoros 7,746 2, Alaid Asia Russia 7,669 2, Bromo Asia Indonesia 7,636 2, Griggs N. America USA (Alaska) 7,597 2, Ulawun Oceania Papua New 7,546 2,300 Guinea 105 Sibajak Asia Indonesia 7,541 2, Ngauruhoe Oceania New Zealand 7,515 2, Beerenberg Europe Jan Mayen Is. 7,470 2,277 (dependency of Norway) 108 Guntur Asia Indonesia 7,377 2, Bamus Oceania Papua New 7,338 2,248 Guinea 110 Puyehue S. America Chile 7,331 2, Chokai Asia Japan 7,314 2, Butak Petarangan Asia Indonesia 7,285 2, Galunggung Asia Indonesia 7,113 2, Mageik N. America USA (Alaska) 7,098 2, Douglas N. America USA (Alaska) 7,016 2, Amburombu Asia Indonesia 6,964 2, San Miguel N. America El Salvador 6,957 2, Tokachi Asia Japan 6,814 2, Chiginagak N. America USA (Alaska) 6,777 2, Azuma Asia Japan 6,775 2, Queen Mary's Peak Africa Tristan da Cunha (dependency of the United Kingdom) 6,760 2, Katmai N. America USA (Alaska) 6,715 2, Kukak N. America USA (Alaska) 6,688 2, Makushin N. America USA (Alaska) 6,678 2, Calbuco S. America Chile 6,567 2, Pogromni N. America USA (Alaska) 6,564 2, Niigata Yakeyama Asia Japan 6,557 2, Tongariro Oceania New Zealand 6,516 1, Zheltovskaya Asia Russia 6,403 1, Kaba Asia Indonesia 6,400 1, Sangeang Api Asia Indonesia 6,390 1, Nasu Asia Japan 6,289 1, Rincon de la Vieja S. America Costa Rica 6,282 1, Hudson S. America Chile 6,246 1, Trident N. America USA (Alaska) 6,111 1, Awu Asia Indonesia 6,102 1, Martin N. America USA (Alaska) 6,098 1, Soputan Asia Indonesia 5,994 1, Tiatia Asia Russia 5,964 1, Manam Oceania Papua New 5,925 1,807 Guinea 141 Tanaga N. America USA (Alaska) 5,921 1, Siau Asia Indonesia 5,830 1, El Viejo (San N. America Nicaragua 5,721 1,745 Cristobal) 144 Great Sitkin N. America USA (Alaska) 5,705 1, Kelud Asia Indonesia 5,679 1, Cleveland N. America USA (Alaska) 5,672 1, Batur Asia Indonesia 5,630 1, Askja Europe Iceland 4,954 1, La Soufriere N. America Guadeloupe 4,813 1,467 (dependency of France) 150 Lopevi Oceania Vanuatu 4,744 1, Pelée N. America Martinique (dependency of France) 4,583 1,397 [continued] Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) World Rankings 621

14 World Rankings Appendix Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country 152 Catarman Asia Philippines 4,367 1, Vesuvius Europe Italy 4,190 1, Soufrière S. America St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4,048 1,234 Waterfalls by height All measurements are approximate. If a waterfall has multiple cascades they are listed separately. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Height (ft) Elevation (m) Height (m) 1 Angel (upper falls) S. America Venezuela 2, Utigord Europe Norway 2, Monge Europe Norway 2, Mtarazi (Mutarazi) Africa Mozambique, 2, Zimbabwe 5 Itatinga S. America Brazil 2, Cuquenán (Kukenaam) S. America Guyana, Venezuela 2, Kahiwa N. America U.S.A. (Hawaii) 1, Tysse (Tusse) Europe Norway 1, Maradalsfos Europe Norway 1, Ribbon N. America U.S.A. 1, Roraima S. America Guyana 1, Della N. America Canada 1, Yosemite, Upper N. America U.S.A. 1, Gavarnie Europe France 1, Tugela (highest falls Africa South Africa 1, in chain) 16 Krimml Europe Austria 1, Silver Strand N. America U.S.A. 1, Basaseachic N. America Mexico 1, Staubbach Europe Switzerland Vettis Europe Norway King George VI S. America Guyana Wallaman Oceania Australia Takakkaw N. America Canada Hunlen N. America Canada Jog (Gersoppa) Asia India Skykje Europe Norway Sutherland, Upper Oceania New Zealand Sutherland, Middle Oceania New Zealand Kaieteur S. America Guyana Wollomombi Oceania Australia Kalambo Africa Tanzania, Zambia Fairy N. America U.S.A Feather N. America U.S.A Maletsunyane Africa Lesotho Bridalveil N. America U.S.A Multnomah N. America U.S.A Panther N. America Canada Voringfoss Europe Norway Nevada N. America U.S.A Angel, Lower S. America Venezuela Augrabies Africa South Africa (Aughrabies) 42 Tully Oceania Australia Helmcken N. America Canada Nachi Asia Japan Tequendama S. America Colombia Bridal Veil N. America Canada Illilouette N. America U.S.A Yosemite, Lower N. America U.S.A Twin N. America Canada Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Percent of Area world land (sq km) area 1 Russia Asia/Europe 6,592,735 17,075, Antarctica Antarctica 5,405,000 14,000, Canada N. America 3,851,788 9,976, U.S.A. N. America 3,717,792 9,629, China Asia 3,705,386 9,596, Brazil S. America 3,286,470 8,511, Australia Australia 2,967,893 7,686, India Asia 1,269,338 3,287, Argentina S. America 1,072,157 2,776, Kazakhstan Asia 1,049,150 2,717, Sudan Africa 967,493 2,505, Algeria Africa 919,590 2,381, Congo, Dem. Rep. Africa 905,563 2,345, of the 14 Greenland N. America 840,000 2,175, Mexico N. America 761,606 1,972, Saudi Arabia Asia 756,984 1,960, Indonesia Asia 741,096 1,919, Libya Africa 679,358 1,759, Iran Asia 636,293 1,648, Mongolia Asia 604,247 1,565, Peru S. America 496,223 1,285, Chad Africa 495,755 1,284, Niger Africa 489,189 1,267, Angola Africa 481,350 1,246, Mali Africa 478,764 1,240, South Africa Africa 471,008 1,219, Colombia S. America 439,733 1,138, Ethiopia Africa 435,184 1,127, Bolivia S. America 424,162 1,098, Mauritania Africa 397,953 1,030, Egypt Africa 386,660 1,001, Tanzania Africa 364, , Nigeria Africa 356, , Venezuela S. America 352, , Namibia Africa 318, , Pakistan Asia 310, , Mozambique Africa 309, , Turkey Asia 301, , Chile S. America 292, , Zambia Africa 290, , Myanmar Asia 261, , Afghanistan Asia 250, , Somalia Africa 246, , Central African Africa 240, , Republic 45 Ukraine Europe 233, , Botswana Africa 231, , Madagascar Africa 226, , Kenya Africa 224, , France Europe 211, , Yemen Asia 203, , Thailand Asia 198, , Spain Europe 194, , Turkmenistan Asia 188, , Cameroon Africa 183, , Papua New Guinea Oceania 178, , Sweden Europe 173, , Uzbekistan Asia 172, , Morocco Africa 172, , Iraq Asia 168, , Paraguay S. America 157, , Zimbabwe Africa 150, , Japan Asia 145, , Germany Europe 137, , Congo, Rep. of Africa 132, , Finland Europe 130, , Malaysia Asia 127, , Vietnam Asia 127, , Norway Europe 125, , Côte d Ivoire Africa 124, , Poland Europe 120, , Italy Europe 116, , Philippines Asia 115, , Ecuador S. America 109, , Burkina Faso Africa 105, , New Zealand Oceania 103, , Gabon Africa 103, , [continued] 622

15 World Rankings Appendix Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Percent of Area world land (sq km) area 77 Guinea Africa 94, , United Kingdom Europe 94, , Ghana Africa 92, , Romania Europe 91, , Laos Asia 91, , Uganda Africa 91, , Guyana S. America 83, , Oman Asia 82, , Belarus Europe 80, , Kyrgyzstan Asia 76, , Senegal Africa 75, , Syria Asia 71, , Cambodia Asia 69, , Uruguay S. America 68, , Tunisia Africa 63, , Suriname S. America 63, , Bangladesh Asia 55, , Tajikistan Asia 55, , Nepal Asia 54, , Greece Europe 50, , Nicaragua N. America 49, , Eritrea Africa 46, , Korea, North Asia 46, , (Democratic People s Republic of) 100 Malawi Africa 45, , Benin Africa 43, , Honduras N. America 43, , Liberia Africa 43, , Bulgaria Europe 42, , Cuba N. America 42, , Guatemala N. America 42, , Iceland Europe 39, , Yugoslavia Europe 39, , Korea, South Asia 38,023 98, (Republic of) 110 Hungary Europe 35,919 93, Portugal Europe 35,672 92, Jordan Asia 35,637 92, French Guiana S. America 35,135 91, Azerbaijan Asia 33,436 86, Austria Europe 32,378 83, United Arab Asia 32,000 82, Emirates 117 Czech Republic Europe 30,450 78, Panama N. America 30,193 78, Sierra Leone Africa 27,699 71, Ireland Europe 27,135 70, Georgia Asia 26,911 69, Sri Lanka Asia 25,332 65, Lithuania Europe 25,174 65, Latvia Europe 24,938 64, Togo Africa 21,925 56, Croatia Europe 21,831 56, Bosnia and Europe 19,741 51, Herzegovina 128 Costa Rica N. America 19,730 51, Slovakia Europe 18,859 48, Dominican N. America 18,815 48, Republic 131 Bhutan Asia 18,147 47, Estonia Europe 17,462 45, Denmark Europe 16,638 43, Netherlands Europe 16,033 41, Switzerland Europe 15,942 41, Guinea-Bissau Africa 13,946 36, Taiwan Asia 13,892 35, Moldova Europe 13,067 33, Belgium Europe 11,780 30, Lesotho Africa 11,720 30, Armenia Asia 11,506 29, Albania Europe 11,100 28, Solomon Islands Asia 10,985 28, Equatorial Guinea Africa 10,831 28, Burundi Africa 10,745 27, Haiti N. America 10,714 27, Rwanda Africa 10,169 26, Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Percent of Area world land (sq km) area 148 Macedonia Europe 9,781 25, Belize N. America 8,867 22, Djibouti Africa 8,494 22, El Salvador N. America 8,124 21, Israel Asia 8,019 20, Slovenia Europe 7,820 20, Fiji Oceania 7,054 18, Kuwait Asia 6,880 17, Swaziland Africa 6,704 17, East Timor Asia 5,640 14, Bahamas N. America 5,382 13, Vanuatu Oceania 4,710 12, Qatar Asia 4,416 11, Gambia, The Africa 4,363 11, Jamaica N. America 4,243 10, Lebanon Asia 4,015 10, Cyprus Asia 3,571 9, Puerto Rico N. America 3,515 9, Brunei Asia 2,228 5, Trinidad and S. America 1,980 5, Tobago 168 Cape Verde Africa 1,557 4, Samoa Oceania 1,104 2, Luxembourg Europe 998 2, Comoros Africa 838 2, Mauritius Africa 718 1, Guadeloupe N. America 687 1, Martinique N. America 425 1, São Tomé and Africa 386 1, Príncipe 176 Netherlands Antilles N. America Dominica N. America Tonga Oceania Kiribati Oceania Micronesia Oceania Singapore Asia Bahrain Asia St. Lucia N. America Andorra Europe Palau Oceania Seychelles Africa Antigua and N. America Barbuda 188 Barbados N. America Turks & Caicos N. America Islands 190 Saint Vincent and N. America the Grenadines 191 Virgin Islands N. America Grenada N. America Malta Europe Maldives Asia St. Kitts and Nevis N. America Cayman Islands N. America Aruba S. America Marshall Islands Oceania Liechtenstein Europe British Virgin N. America Islands 201 Anguilla N. America San Marino Europe Bermuda N. America Tuvalu Oceania Nauru Oceania Monaco Europe Vatican City Europe World Rankings [continued] 623

16 World Rankings Appendix Countries and selected dependencies, by population Rank Country Continent Population (July 2001) 1 China Asia 1,273,111,290 2 India Asia 1,029,991,145 3 U.S.A. N. America 278,058,881 4 Indonesia Asia 228,437,870 5 Brazil S. America 174,468,575 6 Russia Asia/Europe 145,470,197 7 Pakistan Asia 144,616,639 8 Bangladesh Asia 131,269,860 9 Japan Asia 126,771, Nigeria Africa 126,635, Mexico N. America 101,879, Germany Europe 83,029, Philippines Asia 82,841, Vietnam Asia 79,939, Egypt Africa 69,536, Turkey Asia 66,493, Iran Asia 66,128, Ethiopia Africa 65,891, Thailand Asia 61,797, United Kingdom Europe 59,647, France Europe 59,551, Italy Europe 57,679, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Africa 53,624,718 (Zaire) 24 Ukraine Europe 48,760, Korea, Republic of (South Korea) Asia 47,904, South Africa Africa 43,586, Myanmar Asia 41,994, Colombia S. America 40,349, Spain Europe 40,037, Poland Europe 38,633, Argentina S. America 37,384, Tanzania Africa 36,232, Sudan Africa 36,080, Algeria Africa 31,736, Canada N. America 31,592, Kenya Africa 30,765, Morocco Africa 30,645, Peru S. America 27,483, Afghanistan Asia 26,813, Nepal Asia 25,284, Uzbekistan Asia 25,155, Uganda Africa 23,985, Venezuela S. America 23,916, Iraq Asia 23,331, Saudi Arabia Asia 22,757, Taiwan Asia 22,370, Romania Europe 22,364, Malaysia Asia 22,229, Korea, Democratic People s Asia 21,968,228 Republic of (North Korea) 50 Ghana Africa 19,894, Sri Lanka Asia 19,408, Mozambique Africa 19,371, Australia Australia 19,357, Yemen Asia 18,078, Kazakstan Asia 16,731, Syria Asia 16,728, Côte d Ivoire Africa 16,393, Madagascar Africa 15,982, Netherlands Europe 15,981, Cameroon Africa 15,906, Chile S. America 15,328, Ecuador S. America 13,183, Guatemala N. America 12,974, Cambodia Asia 12,491, Burkina Faso Africa 12,272, Zimbabwe Africa 11,365, Cuba N. America 11,184, Mali Africa 11,008, Yugoslavia Europe 10,677, Greece Europe 10,623, Malawi Africa 10,548, Angola Africa 10,366, Niger Africa 10,355, Belarus Europe 10,350, Senegal Africa 10,284, Czech Republic Europe 10,264, Belgium Europe 10,258,762 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by population Population Rank Country Continent (July 2001) 78 Hungary Europe 10,106, Portugal Europe 10,066, Zambia Africa 9,770, Tunisia Africa 9,705, Sweden Europe 8,875, Dominican Republic N. America 8,581, Bolivia S. America 8,300, Austria Europe 8,150, Azerbaijan Asia 7,771, Bulgaria Europe 7,707, Guinea Africa 7,613, Somalia Africa 7,488, Rwanda Africa 7,312, Switzerland Europe 7,283, Chad Africa 7,114, Haiti N. America 6,964, Benin Africa 6,590, Tajikistan Asia 6,578, Honduras N. America 6,406, El Salvador N. America 6,237, Burundi Africa 6,223, Israel Asia 5,938, Paraguay S. America 5,734, Laos Asia 5,635, Sierra Leone Africa 5,426, Slovakia Europe 5,414, Denmark Europe 5,252, Libya Africa 5,240, Finland Europe 5,175, Jordan Asia 5,153, Togo Africa 5,153, Papua New Guinea Oceania 5,049, Georgia Asia 4,989, Nicaragua N. America 4,918, Kyrgyzstan Asia 4,753, Turkmenistan Asia 4,603, Norway Europe 4,503, Moldova Europe 4,431, Croatia Europe 4,334, Singapore Asia 4,300, Eritrea Africa 4,298, Puerto Rico N. America 3,937, Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 3,922, New Zealand Oceania 3,864, Ireland Europe 3,840, Costa Rica N. America 3,773, Lebanon Asia 3,627, Lithuania Europe 3,610, Central African Republic Africa 3,576, Albania Europe 3,510, Uruguay S. America 3,360, Armenia Europe 3,336, Congo, Republic of the Africa 3,258, Liberia Africa 3,225, Panama N. America 2,845, Mauritania Africa 2,747, Jamaica N. America 2,665, Mongolia Asia 2,654, Oman Asia 2,622, United Arab Emirates Asia 2,407, Latvia Europe 2,385, Lesotho Africa 2,177, Bhutan Asia 2,049, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Europe 2,046,209 Republic of 142 Kuwait Asia 2,041, Slovenia Europe 1,930, Namibia Africa 1,797, Botswana Africa 1,586, Estonia Europe 1,423, Gambia, The Africa 1,411, Guinea-Bissau Africa 1,315, Gabon Africa 1,221, Mauritius Africa 1,189, Trinidad and Tobago S. America 1,169, Swaziland Africa 1,104, Fiji Oceania 844, East Timor Asia 779, Qatar Asia 769,152 [continued] 624

17 World Rankings Appendix Countries and selected dependencies, by population Rank Country Continent 156 Cyprus Asia 762, Guyana S. America 697, Bahrain Asia 645, Comoros Africa 596, Equatorial Guinea Africa 486, Solomon Islands Oceania 480, Djibouti Africa 460, Luxembourg Europe 442, Suriname S. America 433, Guadeloupe N. America 431, Martinique N. America 418, Cape Verde Africa 405, Malta Europe 394, Brunei Darussalam Asia 343, Maldives Asia 310, Bahamas, The N. America 297, Iceland Europe 277, Barbados N. America 275, Belize N. America 256, Netherlands Antilles N. America 212, Vanuatu Oceania 192, Samoa Oceania 179, French Guiana S. America 177, São Tomé and Príncipe Africa 165, Saint Lucia N. America 158, Micronesia, Federated States of Oceania 134, Virgin Islands, U.S. N. America 122, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines N. America 115, Tonga Oceania 104, Kiribati Oceania 94, Grenada N. America 89, Seychelles Africa 79, Marshall Islands Oceania 70, Dominica N. America 70, Aruba N. America 70, Andorra Europe 67, Antigua and Barbuda N. America 66, Bermuda N. America 63, Greenland Europe 56, Saint Kitts and Nevis N. America 38, Cayman Islands N. America 35, Liechtenstein Europe 32, Monaco Europe 31, San Marino Europe 27, British Virgin Islands N. America 20, Palau Oceania 19, Turks and Caicos Islands N. America 18, Anguilla N. America 12, Nauru Oceania 12, Tuvalu Oceania 10, Holy See Europe Antarctica Antarctica 0 Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Population (July 2001) Total boundaries (km) 1 Canada 156, ,684 2 Russia 35,743 57,614 3 Indonesia 35,718 57,490 4 Greenland 27,333 44,087 5 Australia 22,831 36,735 6 China 22,905 36,671 7 Philippines 22,499 36,289 8 United States 19,991 32,172 9 Japan 18,479 29, Norway 15,156 24, Brazil 13,752 22, India 13,084 21, Antarctica 11,230 17, New Zealand 9,404 15, Kazakstan 9,284 14, Greece 9,250 14,886 Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) 17 Argentina 9,106 14, Mexico 8,617 13, United Kingdom 7,720 12, Chile 7,834 12, Congo, Democratic Republic of the 6,684 10,781 (Zaire) 22 Turkey 6,142 9, Italy 5,911 9, Colombia 5,758 9, Iran 5,355 8, Sudan 5,306 8, Venezuela 5,277 8, Mongolia 5,070 8, Vietnam 5,023 8, Thailand 5,022 8, Peru 4,491 7, Croatia 4,886 7, Pakistan 4,859 7, Myanmar 4,840 7, South Africa 4,686 7, Denmark 4,587 7, Malaysia 4,563 7, Algeria 4,553 7, Ukraine 4,576 7, Mali 4,661 7, Saudi Arabia 4,383 7, Mozambique 4,373 7, Spain 4,272 6, Angola 4,215 6, Bolivia 4,190 6, Uzbekistan 4,117 6, France 3,925 6, Libya 3,823 6, Micronesia, Federated States of 3,789 6, Germany 3,732 6, Papua New Guinea 3,711 5, Chad 3,700 5, Mauritania 3,622 5, Niger 3,540 5, Congo, Republic of the 3,518 5, Zambia 3,496 5, Afghanistan 3,428 5, Sweden 3,370 5, Namibia 3,373 5, Somalia 3,350 5, Solomon Islands 3,301 5, Ethiopia 3,300 5, Central African Republic 3,233 5, Laos 3,151 5, Eritrea 3,009 5, Egypt 3,109 5, Cameroon 3,095 4, Iceland 3,098 4, Nigeria 3,044 4, Madagascar 3,000 4, Tanzania 2,997 4, Bangladesh 2,995 4, Estonia 2,744 4, Ecuador 2,556 4, Korea, Democratic People s Republic 2,590 4,168 of (North Korea) 76 Botswana 2,488 4, Kenya 2,473 3, Paraguay 2,436 3, Kyrgyzstan 2,410 3, Morocco 2,391 3, Finland 2,327 3, Turkmenistan 2,322 3, Cuba 2,316 3, Guinea 2,311 3, Iraq 2,291 3, Yemen 2,270 3, Tajikistan 2,264 3, Senegal 2,257 3, Bahamas, The 2,201 3, Oman 2,154 3, Gabon 2,135 3, Poland 2,099 3,379 World Rankings [continued] [continued] 625

18 World Rankings Appendix Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) 93 Burkina Faso 1,983 3, Belarus 1,925 3, Zimbabwe 1,905 3, Honduras 1,894 3, Panama 1,892 3, Cambodia 1,873 3, Portugal 1,868 3, Nepal 1,818 2, Guyana 1,811 2, Malawi 1,789 2, Azerbaijan 1,751 2, Romania 1,698 2, Uganda 1,676 2, Korea, Republic of (South Korea) 1,656 2, Ghana 1,635 2, Tunisia 1,597 2, Austria 1,588 2, Vanuatu 1,567 2, Syria 1,520 2, Yugoslavia 1,520 2, Uruguay 1,381 2, United Arab Emirates 1,355 2, Liberia 1,345 2, Bulgaria 1,343 2, Nicaragua 1,330 2, Benin 1,308 2, Suriname 1,297 2, Haiti 1, , Guatemala 1,251 2, Hungary 1,248 2, Costa Rica 1,204 1, Czech Republic 1,169 1, Switzerland 1,151 1, Ireland 1,124 1, Georgia 1,098 1, Togo 1,058 1, Latvia 1,043 1, Jordan 1,022 1, Taiwan 973 1, Dominican Republic 977 1, French Guiana 970 1, Palau 944 1, Bosnia and Herzegovina 919 1, Netherlands 918 1, Belgium 900 1, Moldova 864 1, Lithuania , Sierra Leone 250 1, Slovakia 842 1, Sri Lanka 833 1, Israel 795 1, Armenia 778 1, Slovenia 753 1, Kiribati 709 1, Fiji 702 1, Albania 672 1, Bhutan 668 1, Guinea-Bissau 667 1, Jamaica 634 1, Burundi Cape Verde Kuwait Lesotho Belize Rwanda El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Djibouti Gambia, The East Timor Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 164 Lebanon Cyprus Maldives Qatar Brunei Darussalam Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) 169 Swaziland Côte d'ivoire 2, Puerto Rico Seychelles Tonga Samoa Turks and Caicos Islands Netherlands Antilles Marshall Islands Trinidad and Tobago Luxembourg Martinique Comoros Guadeloupe Malta São Tomé and Príncipe Singapore Virgin Islands Mauritius Cayman Islands Saint Lucia Antigua and Barbuda Dominica Saint Kitts and Nevis Bahrain Grenada Andorra Bermuda Barbados Saint Vincent and the Grenadines British Virgin Islands Liechtenstein Aruba Anguilla San Marino Nauru Tuvalu Monaco Vatican City [continued] 626

19 World Rankings Appendix SELECTED SOURCES The World Rankings tables in Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia, 3rd ed. were based on a large number of sources. A key source of information for all of these tables are the country entries appearing elsewhere in the book. Each of these entries has its own set of sources, and it would be impossible to list all of them here. However, some sources which cover a large number of tables or were particularly useful are listed below. Altai Republic Territory and Geography. (accessed September 2002). Atlas of Canada. (accessed July August 2002). AUGLIG: Geoscience Australia: Spatial Information for the Nation. (accessed July August 2002). CIA World Factbook (accessed July August 2002). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Studies. (accessed July August 2002). Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, Hoelzle, M. and W. Haeberli. World Glacier Inventory. World Glacier Monitoring Service and National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO, (accessed September 2002). Internal Lake Environment Committee. LakeNet. (accessed July August 2002). The Living Desert: World Desert. worlddes.htm (accessed July August 2002). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Third Edition. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, Inc., Munro, David, ed. Oxford Dictionary of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia. (accessed September 2002). River Systems of the World. (accessed July August 2002). United States Geological Survey. (accessed September 2002); World Atlas. (accessed July August 2002). World Rankings 627

20 GLOSSARY Aboriginal Someone or something that is the first or earliest known of its type in a country or region. Acid rain Rain (or snow) that has become slightly acid by mixing with industrial air pollution. Alluvium Clay, silt, sand or gravel deposted by running water such as a stream or river. Alluvial plain Flatlands containing deposits of alluvium. Antarctic Relating to the southernmost part of the Earth. Aquatic Of or relating to the water, particularly the animals and plants that live there. Aqueduct A bridge-like structure that carries water over obstacles, usually man-made. Aquifer An underground layer of porous rock, sand, or gravel that holds water. Arable land Land that is naturally suitable for cultivation by plowing and is used for growing crops. Archipelago A group of islands, or a body of water containing many islands. Arctic Relating to the northernmost part of the Earth, or anything that is frigidly and invariably cold. Arid Extremely dry, particularly applied to regions of low rainfall where non-irrigated agriculture is impossible and there is little natural vegetation. Artesian well A type of well where underground pressure forces water to the surface. Asphalt A substance containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons that is found in naturally occurring beds, and is also produced as a by-product of petroleum refinining. Used in road building. Atmosphere The air surrounding the Earth s surface. Atoll An island consisting of a strip or ring of coral surrounding a central lagoon. Avalanche A swift sliding of an accumulation of snow or ice down a mountain. Badlands Eroded and barren land. Barren land Unproductive land, partly or entirely treeless. Barrier island An island formed by wave and tidal action, oriented parallel to the shore and serving to protect the shore from ocean wave action. Barrier reef A coral reef that lies parallel to the coast, often forming a lagoon along the shore. Basalt Black or nearly black dense rock, usually formed by the solidification or magma or from some other high-temperature geological event. Basin A depression on land or on the ocean floor. Usually relatively broad and gently sloped, as compared to a trench, canyon, or crater. Bay An indented body of water surrounded by land on three sides. Bayou A stagnant or slow-moving body of water. Beach Sediment deposited through the action of waves and the process of erosion along the shoreline of a large body of water. Bedrock Solid rock lying under loose earth. Biosphere All living organisms on Earth. Bluff Elevated area with a broad, steep cliff face. Bog Wet, soft, and spongy ground where the soil is composed mainly of decayed or decaying vegetable matter. 629

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