1 Space Shuttle Mission SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Operation
2 SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Operation The flight plan and operation of the Space Shuttle differs markedly from that of the now-familiar launch procedures and splashdown of the Apollo missions, which utilized the expendable Saturn-V launch vehicle. The Space Shuttle vehicle provides a relatively comfortable environment for a nominal flight crew of four plus up to three payload specialists. In an emergency, an additional three persons can be provided for. This capability will enable experienced scientists and technicians to accompany their payloads into space. The environmental improvement is a result of the lower levels of launch and entry accelerations and a crew cabin that provides an air environment at shirt-sleeve temperature, pressure and humidity. As illustrated on the left side of the figure, the integrated Shuttle vehicle ascends from the launch pad to an altitude of about 24 nautical miles, at which point the solid rocket boosters are jettisoned. The SRB's fall in an arc back to earth, are decelerated by parachutes, and are recovered from the ocean for reuse. Shortly before orbital injection, the orbiter main propulsion engines are shut down, and the external tank is separated from the orbiter. The orbital maneuver ing system provides thrust to inject the orbiter into orbit while the external tank follows a ballistic trajectory into a remote ocean area for disposal. Fitted for orbiting missions of from 7 to 30 days, the Shuttle has the capability to perform a variety of tasks such as satellite placement and recovery, propulsive stage and satellite delivery and return, manned orbital laboratory operation, and satellite service and repair. At the end of its mission, the Shuttle, with thrust from its orbit-maneuvering engines, leaves its orbit to reenter the earth's atmosphere, decelerating to make an aircrafttype landing on earth. After landing, the crew of scientists, technicians, and astronauts leave the Shuttle with their data and equipment. Recovered payloads are unloaded, and the orbiter is serviced for the next flight. The orbiter, loaded with a new payload, is mated with a new propellant tank and the refurbished solid propellant boosters and is then transported to the launch area where the crew boards for the next mission.
3 SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Missions
4 SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Missions The Space Shuttle has been designed to support a wide variety of space missions, including all those current and planned. This is implicit in the vehicle's capability to orbit 65,000 pounds of payload compared to the current expendable launch vehicle capability of about 30,000 pounds. The Space Shuttle is more than a launch vehicle, however, and can support new missions and operations which will make possible the achievement of higher productivity for the space program and facilitate greater utilization of space resources. The Space Shuttle also has the unique capability to make observations and measurements, particularly those involving real- or short-time opportunities, which can only be accomplished with man-in-the-loop operations. In addition to its ability to provide more cost-effective launch services, the Shuttle has been designed to service and refurbish low-earth-orbit satellites, retrieve and return to earth pay-loads weighing up to 32,000 pounds, perform dedicated experimentation and technology development missions, carry passengers in relative comfort, and, with suitable upper stage propulsion, economically launch from orbit satellites and spacecraft whose missions require the attainment of higher orbital velocities. A group of reusable mission kits to provide special or extended services for payloads will be added when required and will be designed to be quickly installed and easily removed. " The major mission kits are as follows: oxygen and hydrogen for fuel cell usage to generate electrical energy; life support for extended missions; added propellant tanks for special on-orbit mission maneuvers; extra or specialized attachment fittings; airlocks, transfer tunnels, and docking modules; a second remote manipulator cirm; an extra high-gain antenna; fill, vent, drain, purge, and dump lines; additional radiator panels for increased heat rejection; additional storage tanks; and electrical harnesses. These capabilities can be used in many ways, some of which are listed in the facing chart as applications. Some of these applications have already evolved into vital programs. Others await the special operational capabilities of the Space Shuttle, mentioned above, to enable their initiation. With its capabilities, economy, and operational flexibility, the Space Shuttle provides the United States and its partners in space ventures the means to develop space resources for everyone's benefit.
5 Space Shuttle Mission SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Space Shuttle Vehicle
6 SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Space Shuttle Vehicle The Space Shuttle flight system consists of an orbiter with Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), an external tank (ET), and two solid rocket boosters (SRB's). The orbiter with SSME's and the solid rocket booster are reusable elements; the external tank is expended on each launch. The orbiter normally carries into orbit a crew of four, with provisions for a crew of as many as seven, and payloads. It can remain in orbit nominally for seven days (up to 30 days with special payloads), return to earth with personnel and payload, land like an airplane, be refurbished for a subsequent flight in 14 days, and provide for a rescue mission launch within 24 hours after notification (from standby status). The Space Shuttle main engines, used during ascent, obtain their propellants from the external tank. Smaller orbiter rocket engines provide for maneuvering and attitude control during space flight. Aerodynamic surfaces on the wings and vertical stabilizer control the orbiter during atmospheric flight. The crew occupies a two-level cabin at the forward end of the vehicle. From the upper level flight deck, the crew controls the launch, orbital maneuvering, atmospheric entry, and landing phases of the mission. The crew also performs payload handling. Seating for up to three additional crew members and habitability provisions are provided on the mid deck. The mid deck can be reconfigured to provide an additional three seats in the event of a rescue mission. The load factors experienced by the crew on any of these missions is 3 g's or less. The solid rocket boosters burn in parallel with the SSME's and are separated from the orbiter/external tank at approximately 150,000 feet. The SRB's descend on parachutes and land in the ocean about 150 nautical miles from the launch site. They may be recovered by ships, returned to land, refurbishec and then reused. After SRB separation, the SSME's continue to burn until the orbiter is injected into the required ascent trajectory. The external tank then separates and falls ballistically into the little used areas of the Indian Ocean or the South Pacific Ocean, depending on the launch site and mission. The orbil maneuvering system completes insertion of the orbiter into the final desired orbit.
7 NAVIGATION AND FLIGHT Typical Mission Profile
8 NAVIGATION AND FLIGHT Typical Mission Profile The Shuttle is launched with the three orbiter Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) burning in parallel with the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's). After approximately two minutes, the SRB propellants are depleted, and the SRB's are staged off to be recovered and returned to the launch site. The orbiter ascent is continued using the three SSME's, which provide thrust vector control until main engine cutoff (MECO) conditions assure a safe disposal of the external tank (ET). The ET is separated immediately after MECO, and the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engines provide the additional velocity needed to insert the orbiter into an elliptical orbit having a minimum apogee of 150 nautical miles. At first apogee, the orbiter initiates the first of two maneuvers to circularize the orbit at 150 nautical miles. Additional maneuvers may be executed as required for the orbital operations of a specific mission. Following the completion of orbital operations, the orbiter is oriented to a tail-first attitude, and the OMS provides the deceleration thrust necessary for deorbiting. The orbiter is reoriented nose-forward to the proper attitude for entry. The orientation of the orbiter is established and maintained by the reaction control system (RCS) down to the altitude where the atmospheric density is sufficient for the pitch and roll aerodynamic control surfaces to be effective, about the 250,000-foot altitude. The yaw RCS remains active until the vehicle reaches the 80,000-foot altitude, approximately. The orbiter entry trajectory provides lateral flight range to the landing site and energy management for an unpowered landing. The trajectory, lateral range, and heating are controlled through the attitude of the vehicle by angle of attack and bank angle. The orbiter has a lateral or cross-range capability of approximately 1150 nautical miles Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is initiated approximately 50 nautical miles from the landing site and provides the proper vehicle approach to the runway with respect to position, altitude, velocity, and headings Final touch-down occurs at a nominal landing speed of about 210 knots.
9 Space Shuttle Mission NAVIGATION AND FLIGHT Typical Trajectory Profiles
10 NAVIGATION AND FLIGHT Typical Trajectory Profiles Ascent Trajectory. The ascent traiectory reaches a maximum dynamic pressure (Q) of 650 pounds per square foot approximatey 60 seconds after launch at an altitude of feet. At 108 seconds, the total load factor reaches the first stage maximum value of 2.6 g's. SRB separation occurs at approximately 126 seconds at an altitude of 148,500 feet, 28 nautical miles downrange from the launch site. After SKB separation, the orbiter continues to ascend, using the three SSME's. The total load factor reaches a maximum value of 3.0 g's (longitudinal) at 415 seconds. It remains at that value until 470 seconds, when the main engine cutoff (MECO) sequence is initiated. MECO takes place 478 seconds after lift-off, when the orbiter has reached an altitude of 361,400 feet. The external tank (ET) separation occurs at MECO. After a short coasting period, the orbital maneuving system (OMS) engines are fired at 514 seconds to provide the additional velocity needed to insert the orbiter into an elliptical orbit having a minimum apogee of 150 nautical miles. The OMS engine cutoff occurs 648 seconds after launch at an altitude of 407,000 feet, when the orbiter is 1350 nautical miles from the launch site. Additional OMS burn at apogee is required to circularize or increase orbit altitude. Descent Trajectory. The orbiter descent or entry trajectory provides lateral flight range to the landing site and energy management for an unpowered landing. Entry is initiated by a deorbit maneuver and retrofinng the 0MS nominally 28 minutes prior to entry interface. The trajectory, lateral range, and heating are con trolled through the attitude of the vehicle by angle of attack and bank angle. The angle of attack is established at 40 degrees for the theoretical entry interface of 400,000 feet altitude. The entry flight path angle is l.l8 degrees. The 40- degree angle of attack is held until the speed is reduced to 11,000 feet per second (about 170,000 feet altitude), then is reduced gradually to 13.5 degrees at 2500 feet per second (about 85,000 feet altitude). Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) acquisition is accomplished at approximately 190,000 feet altitude and 650 nautical miles from the landing site. During the final phases of descent, flight path control is maintained by using the aerodynamic surfaces Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is initiated to provide the proper vehicle approach to the runway with respect to position, energy, and heading. Final touchdown occurs at an angle of attack of about 8 degrees, with a nominal touch speed of 210 knots. The maximum landing speed for a 32,000- pound payload, including dispersions for hot day effects and tailwinds, is about 225 knots.
11 GN&C CHALLANGES Take-Off Get all rocket motors firing: must be timed properly relative to SSME ignition to reduce vehicle loads solid rocket booster (SRB) ignition causes vehicle to "twang" twang can cause software to think rate gyros are failing => teach software Clear launch support structure & tower: winds cause drifts mismatch of thrust (cause unwanted moments): in magnitude in direction failures: engine thrust thrust vector control system (TVCS)
12 GN&C CHALLANGES Ascent through the Atmosphere Overall shuttle vehicle is four big elements three thrusting elements tied together through one relatively weak element take care not to put too heavy loads on this configuration What causes loads: "lift" due to wings winds (steady state & gusts) failures (engine out, GN&C failures) Solution: pick angle of attack (alpha) profile sense lateral accelerations due to winds and control vehicle to relieve wind loads pick new flight profiles when an engine goes out & design GN&C to minimize failure transients More loads problems: elevons and wings no fixed setting of elevon that is OK for both elevon & wing cannot predict a variable setting that is accurate enough Solution: pick basic flight profile to keep wing happy, sense elevon loads (via resulting hydraulic pressures) & move elevons to alleviate loads
13 GN&C CHALLANGES Ascent through Atmosphere (continued) Total axial acceleration: basic design is for 3 gs or less near the end of ascent the vehicle is lighter & acceleration increases over 3 g s solution is to sense actual acceleration & reduce engine thrust to limit g's Solid rocket booster separation: avoid recontact during separation cannot turn off SRB s => just let them burn out but they do not burn out at quite the same time => vehicle wants to become a pinwheel must limit external tank (ET) yaw motion for thermal reasons also time to phase-in orbiter as main source of thrust vector control Solution: sophisticated moding & sequencing of separation events technique of flight control during separation etc.
14 ASCENT TO ORBIT Dynamic Pressure Limiting
15 ASCENT TO ORBIT Acceleration Limiting
16 ASCENT TO ORBIT Propulsion System Constraints
17 ABORT MANEUVERS Abort Characteristics
18 RE-ENTRY Deorbit To Landing
19 RE-ENTRY Re-Entry Events
20 RE-ENTRY Runway Approach
21 RE-ENTRY Landing
22 WEIGHT SUMMARY Weight Summary
23 SPACE SHUTTLE SYSTEM Weight Summary The Space Shuttle is designed to satisfy three payload missions. Mission 1 is to be launched from KSC, while Missions 3A and 4 are to be launched from VAFB. Mission 1 requires placing the maximum payload (65,000 pounds) into the minimum inclination (28-1/2 deg), 150-nmi circular orbit and return a 32,000-pound payload. Mission 3A deploys a 32,000-pound payload into a 104-degree inclination at first apogee, with a minimum altitude of 100-nmi. The orbiter lands nearly empty at the launch/landing site at end of the first revolution. Mission 4 calls for the vehicle to launch a 32,000-pound payload into a 98-degree inclination, 150-nmi circular orbit within two revolutions after lift-off and to capture, retrieve, and return a 25,000-pound payload to VAFB. The weight summary chart shows the breakdown of the pre-lift-off weights for the required missions. The gross weight of the Shuttle Transportationj System for Mission 1 is the heaviest at 4.5 million pounds; the gross weights of the other missions are slightly smaller. The variations in the gross weights are due to differences in payloads, crew size, and propellants for OMS, RCS, and electrical power as required for mission altitude, rendezvous/maneuver, and duration. The lift-off weights are slightly less (about 7500 pounds) than the pre-liftoff weights shown, due to the use of about 6300 pounds of ET propellants in engine ignition and increasing thrust level, and about 1200 pounds of propellant in the SRB's from ignition to lift-off thrust level.
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