IAMAW Conference: Eco-innovative Solutions for Mediterranean Wastes and Wastewaters. Ecomondo2014, 8 th November 2014, Rimini (Italy)

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1 International Association of Mediterranean Agro-Industrial Wastes IAMAW Conference: Eco-innovative Solutions for Mediterranean Wastes and Wastewaters Ecomondo2014, 8 th November 2014, Rimini (Italy) IAMAW website:

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3 WELCOME The International Association of Mediterranean Agro-industrial Wastes (IAMAW) is proud to welcome you to the IAMAW 4 th International Conference 2014 that has been organized in collaboration with CTS Ecomondo in the context of the biggest environmental fair in Italy, Ecomondo Specific focus of the conference, perfectly in line with the missions of the Association and the Ecomondo fair, is on Eco-innovative Solutions for Mediterranean Wastes and Wastewaters. The conference aims to be an opportunity to update, discuss and compare at industrial research level, new management models, experiences and case studies that are in demonstration stage, in scaling-up or already applied at industrial scale. IAMAW President Maurizio PETRUCCIOLI IAMAW BOARD ADMINISTRATION BOARD: President Maurizio Petruccioli DIBAF University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy Vice-president Rafael Borja Instituto de la Grasa CSIC, Sevilla, Spain Vice-president Milva Pepi Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples Secretary Francesca Santori ISRIM, Terni, Italy Treasurer Ermanno Federici Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy NATIONAL MEMBERS: Montserrat Sarrà Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Nicolas Kalogerakis EE-TU-Crete, Chania, Greece Erdinc Ikizoglu Ege University, Izmir, Turkey Maria Pilar Bernal CEBAS-CSIC, Espinardo-Murcia, Spain José Duarte LNEG-Unidade de Bioenergia, Lisbon, Portugal Lorenzo Bertin DICAM University of Bologna, Italy 2

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5 PROGRAM Eco-innovative Solutions for Mediterranean Wastes and Wastewaters Saturday, November 8, Sala Diotallevi 2 Hall Sud In the context of Green Economy, all sustainable innovations in monitoring, recycling and treatment of agro-industrial wastes and wastewaters aimed to recover and produce nutrients, biomolecules, energy and every added-value component have a great potential to help businesses survive the recession, representing an opportunity of a competitive agroindustrial development. In this context, specific focus will be held to Mediterranean wastes and wastewaters where the term Mediterranean refers to climatic condition and not necessarily to geographic location. The conference aims to be an opportunity to update, discuss and compare at industrial research level, new management models, experiences and case studies that are in demonstration stage, in scaling-up or already applied at industrial scale. Session Chairs Maurizio Petruccioli, President of IAMAW Josè Cardoso Duarte, Past President of IAMAW Program Introduction by the Presidents and brief report on the poster presentations Why a Mediterranean agro-industrial wastes cluster? Thoughts and Insights Josè Cardoso Duarte (IAMAW, Lisbon, Portugal) Evaluation of Mediterranean wastes: a case study for Aegean region agro-industrial wastes Sayit Sargın, Fazilet Vardar Sukan (Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey) Renewable energy from thermophilic anaerobic digestion of winery residues: batch and CSTR lab-scale study David Bolzonella, Franco Cecchi (University of Verona; Interuniversity National Consortium "Chemistry for the Environment"), Cinzia Da Ros, Cristina Cavinato, Paolo Pavan P. (University Ca Foscari, Venice) Experiences of birth business from the recovery of waste in the urban periphery Graziano Bertogli (MAN.SE.F. Onlus, Milan) Selected oral presentations Measure of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of by-products, residues and alternative crops typical of the Mediterranean area. Mariangela Soldano, Lorella Rossi, Nicola Labartino, Claudio Fabbri, Sergio Piccinini (CRPA Lab, Sezione Ambiente ed Energia, Reggio Emilia, Italy) Effect of ultrasound and microwave pretreatments on two-phase olive mill solid waste anaerobic digestibility 4

6 Barbara Rincón, M. González de Canales, L. Bujalance and Rafael Borja (Instituto de la Grasa CSIC, Sevilla, Spain) The new role of the Sewage Treatment Works: the LIFE WW-SIP project experience Francesca Santori (IAMAW, Terni, Italy) CarbGrowth: maximisation of greenhouse horticulture production with low quality irrigation waters Francisco M. del Amor Saavedra (IMIDA, La Alberca, Murcia, Spain) Fungal laccases production using agro-food wastes: a factorial design approach Federica Spina, Annalisa Nanni, Alice Romagnolo, Giovanna Cristina Varese (University of Turin, Italy), Marcello Fidaleo (University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy) An agro-industrial waste valorization: biopolymer production from dephenolized and fermented grape pomace Gonzalo A. Martinez, Joana B. Domingos, Stefano Rebecchi, Lorenzo Bertin, Fabio Fava (DICAM, University of Bologna, Italy) Thermal application for agro industrial wastes utilization Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Ana Jimenez-Araujo, Rocio Rodríguez-Arcos, Aranzazu García-Borrego, Fátima Rubio-Senent, Antonio Lama-Muñoz, Abdessalem Mrabet, Rafael Guillén-Bejarano (Instituto de la Grasa CSIC, Sevilla, Spain) Valorization of corn-silage anaerobic digestate through the cultivation of the whiterot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Guglielmo Santi, Simona Proietti, Stefano Moscatello, Alberto Battistelli (IBAF-CNR, Porano, Italy), Valerio G. Muzzini, Emanuela Galli (IBAF-CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy) Effects of dilution ratio, inoculum of yeasts and concentration of ammonium sulphate on the bioremediation of olive mill wastewater Antonio Bevilacqua, Nilde Di Benedetto, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo (University of Foggia, Italy) An approach to split 2-phase olive pomace into a polyphenol liquid and a valuable solid phase Steffen Hruschka (GEA Westfalia Separator Group GmbH, Germany) Need to have a uniform law in the Mediterranean basin for the development of ecofriendly solutions for waste, wastewater and renewable energy Mariagrazia Chianura (Studio Legale Chianura, Grottaglie, TA, Italy) Concluding remarks Poster Session E4-1 Degradation of 2-chlorophenol by laccase-zeolite biocatalyst / Emanuela Galli 1, C.M. Polcaro 2, P. Ciccioli 2, E. Donati 2 ; 1 IBAF-CNR and 2 IMC-CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy E4-2 IGAN ECO-POT project / Renzo Spagnesi 1, Martina Lotti 1, Maurizia Seggiani 2, Monica Puccini 2, Sandra Vitolo 2, Roberto Altieri 3, Alessandro Esposito 3, Francesco Castellani 3,Vitale Stanzione 3, Ermanno Federici 4, Laura Fidati 4, Elena Montalbani 4, Roberta Pret 4, Masetti Gianna 5, Vincenzo Tropiano 6, Michele Bellandi 6, Mario Romiti 7 ; 1 Vivaio Sandro Bruschi, Pistoia, 2 University of Pisa, 3 ISAFOM-CNR, Perugia, 4 University of Perugia, 5 Vivai Piante Masetti Sabino s.s.a, Pistoia, 6 Impresa Verde Pistoia, Pistoia, 7 Romiti F.lli Mario & Marco soc.agr., Pistoia, Italy 5

7 E4-3 The PUMAN Model. Methodology for the quantification of the wastewater volume in dry weather. A concrete solution to elaborate a standardized definition of priorities for actions and investments into the wastewater collection and treatment fields / Mario Chiarugi, Oberdan Cei, Roberto Salvadori, Gianluca Baronti, Simone Lippi; Acque Spa, Pisa, Italy E4-4 Orange peel wastes pretreatment by acid-catalyzed steam explosion for enhancing bioethanol production / Guglielmo Santi, Julia Jasiulewicz, Alessandro D Annibale, Silvia Crognale, Maurizio Petruccioli, Mauro Moresi; DIBAF, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy E4-5 Bioremediation as alternative solution for wastes management: study on potential phenol-degrading microorganisms / Daniela Campaniello, Antonio Bevilacqua, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo; University of Foggia, Italy E4-6 Fungi isolated from olive mill wastewater: Identification, phylogenetic aspects and preliminary assessment of their effluent-degrading abilities / Vassiliki Fryssouli 1, Evangelos Dagres 1, Io Kefalogianni 1, Milton A. Typas 2, Georgios I. Zervakis 1, 1 Agricultural University of Athens (Lab of General and Agricultural Microbiology) and 2 National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, (Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology), Athens, Greece E4-7 Biohydrogen production from glucose, molasses and cheese whey by suspended and attached cells of hyperthermophilic bacteria belonging to Thermotoga genus / Martina Cappelletti 1, Davide Pinelli 2, Stefano Fedi 1, Davide Zannoni 1, Dario Frascari 2 ; 1 Dept. of Pharmacy and BioTechnology and 2 DICAM, University of Bologna, Italy E4-8 Production of ethanol from xerofile and halo-tolerant plant biomass. The case of Tamarix jordanis grown in the desert and irrigated with wastewater or brackish waters / Guglielmo Santi 1, Alessandro D Annibale 1, Silvia Crognale 1, Amram Eshel 2, Aviah Zilberstein 2, Maurizio Ruzzi 1, Riccardo Valentini 1, Mauro Moresi 1, Maurizio Petruccioli 1 ; 1 DIBAF, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy and 2 Tel Aviv University, Israel E4-9 Next generation sequencing of bacteria involved in the static composting of olive mill waste / Laura Fidati 1, Giovanni Cenci 1, Alessandro Esposito 2, Roberto Altieri 2, Ermanno Federici 1 ; 1 University of Perugia, and 2 ISAFOM-CNR, Perugia, Italy E4-10 Biogas production by mesophilic phase-separated anaerobic digestion of corn-ddgs / Botond Ráduly 1, Silvia Crognale 2, László Gyenge 1, István Máthé 1, Beáta Ábrahám 1 ; 1 Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Miercurea Ciuc, Romania and 2 DIBAF, University of Tuscia, Italy E4-11 Mediterranean fruits wastes as biorefinery feedstocks / Ana Dionísio, Rute Neves, Pedro Branco, Ivone Torrado, Patricia Moniz, Talita Fernandes, Florbela Carvalheiro, Luís C. Duarte; LNEG-Unidade de Bioenergia, Lisbon, Portugal E4-12 Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica residues for bioethanol production / T. Mesquita 1,2, M. S. Romanovich 1,2, H. T. Chaves 2, F. Carvalho 2, M. C.Fernandes 1 ; 1 Centro de Biotecnologia Agricola y Agro-Alimentar do Alentejo (CEBAL), Beja, Portugal, 2 Departamento de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, ESAB-IP, Beja, Portugal E4-13 Eco-innovatve studies in Turkey for olive waste valorisation and OMWW treatment / Erdinc Ikizoglu, Ege University, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey An English-Italian simultaneous translation service is available 6

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9 Why a Mediterranean agro-industrial wastes cluster? Thoughts and Insights José Cardoso Duarte IAMAW Mediterranean it is a relatively difficult concept to use due to its different implications from the point of view of geography, climate, the territory, sociological or political among others. Besides the geographical concept-the Mediterranean sea-and its evolutionary role, either historical either civilisational we have nowadays quasi-universal concepts using the characteristic adjective mediterranean from physical phenomena like climate to more prosaic and familiar things such as kitchen all important for defining a desired and optimal way of living. So, how this translates into action it is a recurrent problem to avoid misusing and misunderstanding of the Mediterranean adjective. In fact the word Mediterranean is used nowadays within many pratical and important initiatives calling for a rigorous definition of its field of application. As an example we notice that for the first time, the word Mediterranean appears on the subtitle of ECOMONDO even if it was more or less explicitly assumed in previous organizations of the Fair. The problem becomes even more complex when we try to apply it to Wastes and in particular to Agro-industrial wastes of Mediterranean origin or character. In particular we try to elaborate in the concept for deducing its importance and for a better definition and arriving to a reasonable consensus on the need of keeping an active cluster within the topic of Agro-industrial wastes for the Mediterranean type agricultural productions. This cluster should work together to promote the science, technology and sustainability behind the exploitation of these productions. We will conclude with recommendations for signalling its importance to the European Commission and other important scientific and development forums. 8

10 EVALUATION OF MEDITERRANEAN WASTES: A CASE STUDY FOR AEGEAN REGION AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES Sayit Sargın, Fazilet Vardar SUKAN Ege University Department of Bioengineering, Bornova-İzmir, TURKEY The economies of many Mediterranean countries are agricultural and agro-industry based and because of rapid increase in urban populations as well as industrialization in these countries, vast amounts of residues and wastes are generated leading to a high turnover rate of organic material with an undisputable economic potential which is greatly undervalued. Therefore, it is very important to identify feasible recycling and reutilization strategies, taking into consideration the availability, convertibility, cost, existing and potential usages of these waste materials. Being a part of the Mediterranean basin the Aegean Region of Turkey contributes immensely to the Turkish economy with its agro-industrial infrastructure and consequently enormous amounts of agricultural wastes and surpluses are produced annually. Presently, these materials are very rarely reutilized. The fact that agro-industrial wastes contain economically valuable or microbially metabolizable components enable them to be converted to high value added products through biotechnological methods. The objective of this study was to develop a data base and to determine the sources, quantities and qualities, the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Region s agro-industrial wastes. The recycling and reutilization potentials were investigated with respect to the information obtained through questionnaires and the comprehensive literature survey conducted. Wastes were grouped on the basis of their main components, industrial sector and possible products to be produced. Existing conventional methods of reutilization were compared with novel methods used in other countries. Waste/Product ratios and estimated amounts of waste produced annually were presented for all the industrial sectors included in the study. The study clearly shows that the Aegean Region agro-industrial wastes and surpluses have a very promising potential for reutilization. However, the success of reutilization depends on the regional distribution, seasonality, quantity, economic value, pretreatment requirements of the wastes as well as the scientific and technological know-how within the country, public awareness, governmental regulations and incentives. 9

11 : Renewable energy from thermophilic anaerobic digestion of winery residues: batch and CSTR lab-scale study. Bolzonella D. 1,2, Da Ros C. 3,Cavinato C. 3, Cecchi F. 1,2, Pavan P. 3 1 University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada le Grazie , Verona, Italy. 2 Interuniversity National Consortium "Chemistry for the Environment", Via delle Industrie, 21/ Venice, Italy. 3 University Ca Foscari of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Calle Larga Santa Marta, Dorsoduro , Venice, Italy. The production of one hectolitre of wine generates about 18 kg of marcs, 4 kg of stalks, 6 kg of lees, and 1 kg of sewage sludge from winery wastewater treatment (ANPA, 2001). These kind of bio-wastes are characterized by high biodegradability, but at the same time a low nutrient content. Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents the most suitable technology for these substrates in terms of energy saving and CO2 emission. In this study, potential methane production of the different bio-waste was evaluated by standard biological methanisation tests. The study shows that the most interesting substrate is wine lees, with specific a methane production that reached m 3 /kgcod, while the methane production from grape marc can be increased from to m 3 /kgvs after a fermentation step. Considering the amount of grape marc available this substrate seemed to be the most interesting winery by-product. Thus, lab-scale semi-continuous reactor was used to evaluate feasibility of AD of grape marc alone and with sewage sludge. The process fed with grape marc alone showed a not suitable solution: it wasn't stable at 20 days of HRT, mainly due to the presence of slowly biodegradable compounds with low hydrolytic rates and to the low nitrogen content. The hydrolysis can be improved by using a pre-fermentation step, or higher HRT can be applied to stabilise the process. Thus, a second test at HRT=40 days, feeding the reactor with fermented grape marc showed higher biogas production (SGP), 0.3 m 3 /kgvs. Also in this case, ammonium release was not enough to maintain an adequate buffer condition. Adoption of a co-substrate as sewage sludge seems to be the most promising approach to follow to obtain a stable process thanks to the supply of missing nutrients, even if lower overall SGP can be obtained due to low biogas production of sludge. 10

12 Experiences of birth business from the recovery of waste in the urban periphery Graziano Bertogli (MAN.SE.F. Onlus, Milan) The study RECYCLING FROM E-WASTE TO RESOURCES prepared by UNEP in 2009 underlines that an appropriate handling of e-waste can both prevent serious environmental damage and also recover valuable materials, especially ferrous and non-ferrous metals and precious metals. In fact, S.Chatterjee and Krishna Kumar, estimated in 230 kg the volume of saleable material (steel, glass, plastic, copper, aluminum, etc) recovered from 1,000 kg of Personal Computers (PCs) and Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) with an estimated value of around $ only from PCBs contained in 1,000 kg of PCs. In addition to usual components, in the last 5/6 years another important group of elements became economically suitable to be recovery from e-waste: the Rare Earth (REM) that are used in a wide range of applications, such as automotive catalytic converters, permanent magnets, and rechargeable batteries, petroleum cracking catalysts, flints for lighters, pigments for glass and ceramics etc. The incresing utilization of REM coupled with the increased reduction of export from Cina, the main producer, resulted in a growing price. For intance, the price FOB China of cerium increase from 3.04 $/kg in 2007 till 140,6 $/kg in May 2011, opening an important opportunity for the recycling plants. The recycling chain for e-waste is classified into three main subsequent steps: (i) collection, (ii) sorting/dismantling and pre- processing (including sorting, dismantling and mechanical treatment) and (iii) end- processing. Typically, the end-processing takes place at three main destinations. Ferrous fractions are directed to steel plants for recovery of iron, aluminum fractions are going to aluminum smelters, while copper/lead fractions, circuit boards and other precious metals containing fractions are going to e.g. integrated metal smelters, which recover precious metals, copper and other non-ferrous metals, while isolating the hazardous substances Developing and emerging economies can play an important role in this field so several pilote projects, easlely scalable, can be implemented mainly in urban peripheries taking into account the present level of technology, performance of the recycling chains of both informal and formal recyclers and other economic and social aspects and parameters. 11

13 Misura del potenziale metanigeno (test BMP) di sottoprodotti, scarti e colture di integrazione tipiche dall area del Mediterraneo. Measure of Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of by-products, residues and alternative crops typical of the Mediterranean area. Mariangela Soldano, Lorella Rossi, Nicola Labartino, Claudio Fabbri, Sergio Piccinini Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali CRPA Lab, Sezione Ambiente ed Energia -Reggio Emilia Il CRPA Lab, sezione Ambiente ed Energia, ha sviluppato un sistema per determinare il potenziale metanigeno, definito con l acronimo inglese BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential), di diverse matrici utilizzate negli impianti di biogas. Il test misura la produzione massima di metano ottenibile per degradazione anaerobica della sostanza organica contenuta nelle biomasse, secondo la norma UNI EN ISO 11734:2004, ed espressa in Nm 3 per kg solidi volatili. Dal 2011 il laboratorio CRPA ha effettuato oltre 1000 analisi BMP di scarti, sottoprodotti dall agroindustria e colture energetiche. Nei paesi dell aerea Mediterranea, dove è in crescita il numero di impianti di biogas e di conseguenza l interesse verso questo settore, l attività agroindustriale produce quantità significative di sottoprodotti e scarti, molti dei quali inutilizzati e che spesso rappresentano un notevole problema ambientale. Inoltre colture alternative alle coltivazioni energetiche, come l Arundo Donax, Nicotina tabacum, Miscanthus giganteus, Jatropha curcas, prodotte in quest area, riscuotono sempre più interesse in digestione anaerobica. L articolo riporta i risultati di diversi test BMP di sottoprodotti e scarti organici provenienti dall area del Mediterraneo, quali sanse di olive, pastazzo di agrumi, scarti della lavorazione del pomodoro, colture energetiche alternative ecc Dai risultati ottenuti si conferma che l uso di queste matrici è molto promettente in quanto di buona qualità in termini di sostanza organica e resa in metano e quindi idonei alla digestione anaerobica. La loro trasformazione in biogas permette di incrementare il potenziale metanigeno di piccoli impianti di digestione anaerobica che solitamente utilizzano solo effluenti zootecnici e diminuire l uso delle colture energetiche dedicate nei grandi impianti. 12

14 EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE PRETREATMENTS ON TWO-PHASE OLIVE MILL SOLID WASTE ANAEROBIC DIGESTIBILITY B. Rincón*, M. González de Canales, L. Bujalance and R. Borja Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC). Avenida Padre García Tejero, 4, 41012, Sevilla, Spain. This study investigated the effect of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) pretreatments on two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility. The effect of US and MW pretreatment on OMSW composition and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Two-phase OMSW was ultrasonically pretreated at a power of 200W and a frequency of 24 khz for different time periods. These time periods correspond to specific energies of (US1), (US2), (US3), (US4), (US5) and (US6) kj/kg TS, respectively. The MW pretreatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and a targeted temperature of 50ºC using different heating rates, ramp and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 (MW1), 4830 (MW2), 7170 and 7660 (MW3) kj/kg TS. The US pretreatments that reached the highest COD solubilizations were US1, US4 and US6, with a COD solubilization between 48-57%, these pre-treatments were selected for BMP tests, obtaining methane yields of: 311±15, 393±14 and 370±20 ml CH4/g VSadded respectively, while the untreated OMSW gave a methane yield of 367±4 ml CH4/g VSadded. For the MW pretreatment the COD solubilizations achieved were very similar in all the cases and they were in the range of 41.1%-43.1%. BMP tests revealed that US2 (pretreated at 21121kJ/kg TS) and MW3 (pretreated at 7660kJ/kg TS) gave maximum methane yields very similar ( ± 1 ml CH4/g VSadded), which were around 7% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSW. Methane yield for the US pretreatment increased when the specific energy increased from to kj/kg TS. Nevertheless, for a specific energy of kj/kg TS a decrease in the methane yield was observed. For MW the maximum value was obtained for the maximum energy tested (MW3). 13

15 The new role of the Sewage Treatment Works: the LIFE WW-SIP project experience Francesca Santori IAMAW, Perugia - Italy Rethink the common notion of the sewage treatment plant, from a site devoted to the urban waste water collection, treatment and discharge to an integrated platform for the sustainable and profitable refining of the organic liquid waste, should be considered a priority to face the current emergency in terms of water scarcity, energy recovery, economic and managerial sustainability of the whole water and waste water treatment sector. Notably, the sewage works of the future should integrate different approaches in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability; in actual fact, whilst in the past the works was put in operation merely to treat urban wastewater, losing energy and valuable components in its waste materials, at present, due to the introduction of the anaerobic digestion process inside the works, energy is recovered from the process residues, reducing cost and the carbon footprint of the whole process, going towards energy neutral targets. Based on these premises, a wastewater refinement platform, co-financed by the LIFE+ programme, is going to be built by integrating infrastructures, processes and workforce of the ordinary UWWTP. It will be fed with organic liquid waste available in the surrounding area, carried via truck and pre-treated into the Works by using the electro-coagulation process. The sludge obtained after primary and secondary treatment, will be digested into the already constructed anaerobic reactor for biogas production. The biogas will be conveyed to the CHP station for energy production. The carbon dioxide produced by the CHP station will then be directed to the PBR, fed with N, P and K present in the sewage works effluents. The algal biomass from the PBR will be redirected to the anaerobic reactor or used to generate algal fuel. The final products of the whole process will be reusable water and energy; any process residue and effluent will be re-circulated within the treatment chain. 14

16 CarbGrowth: Maximisation of greenhouse horticulture production with low quality irrigation waters Francisco M. del Amor Saavedra - Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA) Agriculture in the European Union faces some serious challenges in the coming decades: competition for water resources, rising costs, competition for international markets, changes in climate and uncertainties in the effectiveness of current European policies as adaptation strategies. Greenhouse production appears as an alternative to face some of the upcoming challenges. In 2011, the surface dedicated to greenhouse production at worldwide level was up to 3000kha, from which 5% belongs to Europe. This production is characterised by a climate conditions associated to fourth climate regions, which allows for diversity in technologies and practices used for greenhouse vegetable production. On the other hand, The EU is the main export destination with almost one-half of the world s imports. In the period , fruit and vegetables imports have experimented a constantly growth (up to 39% for this period).therefore, in order to ensure their competitiveness against producers from other Non-European countries with lower labour costs as Morocco, or Israel, European growers need to adopt new agricultural technologies to improve net production, ensure quality and reduce production costs. On the other hand, European aquaculture represents 20% of the total fish production. Major environmental impacts of aquaculture have been associated mainly with high-output of wastewater of intensive systems. In 2009, the Commission proposed a strategy for the future of the European aquaculture which includes new wastewater management strategies. In order to satisfy the needs of this two different sectors, Carbgrowth aims to: (1)increase net production and tolerance to salinity through CO2 injection (2)recover CO2 for injection by photocatalysis (3)reusing industrial wastewater for irrigation purposes and reducing the cost associated to water supply, (4)reduce charge loses in irrigation systems.(5)develop process control to optimise irrigation, CO2 injection and greenhouse climate control. 15

17 Fungal laccases production using agro-food wastes: a factorial design approach Federica Spina 1, Marcello Fidaleo 2, Annalisa Nanni 1, Alice Romagnolo 1, Giovanna Cristina Varese 1 1 Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, Torino, Italy 2 Department of Innovation of Biological Systems, Food and Forestry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy Fungal laccases are excellent green biocatalysts but their actual exploitation at industrial scale is still limited by the commercial availability of large amount of cheap enzymes of interest. Basidiomycetes are considered great enzymes sources and, during this study, the attention was focused on a Trametes pubescens strain: its laccases were stable, versatile and, when a direct comparison was possible, more active than commercial formulates. The objective was then to stimulate laccases production by controlling medium composition and operative conditions. Traditional C/N sources (glucose, peptone) and model inducers resulted functional for this purpose, but they are not cost effective. For industrial applications, the economic balance should be indeed taken into consideration. Wastes of agrochemical and food processes may be used as alternative nourishment sources for fungi; their lignino-cellulosic matrix mimics the natural growth substrate of ligninolytic fungi, being able to sustain and trigger specific metabolisms. Tomato sauce and orange peel waste were here considered because of the large production within Italian and, more in general, Mediterrean boundary. At first, the concentration of both sources (C) and peptone (N) was evaluated in presence of Cu as inorganic inducer. A 2 2 plus centre point replicated factorial design was used to investigate the role of these factors and their synergic effect on laccase production. Both C and N concentration gave significant effects, even though N was more important for tomato sauce. An interaction between the two factors was always observed. The highest laccase productivity was achieved in presence of orange peel waste (46 U/ml). These data should be verified, and whether possible, acquiring chemical analysis of the wastes acquired. Further experiments are then necessary to define the optimal medium composition for laccase production. Moreover, the effect of other factors (Cu, ph, inoculum, etc.) has to be evaluated. 16

18 An agro-industrial waste valorization: biopolymer production from dephenolized and fermented grape pomace Gonzalo A. Martinez 1 *, Joana B. Domingos 1, Stefano Rebecchi 1, Lorenzo Bertin 1,2, Fabio Fava 1 1 DICAM, University of Bologna, via Terracini 28, I-40131, Bologna, Italy 2 IAMAW - International Association of Mediterranean Agro-industrial Wastes c/o ISAFOM-CNR, Via della Madonna Alta, 128, Perugia Italy The present work was dedicated to verify the possibility of extensively replacing the utilization of simple sugars for the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by pure cultures. To this aim, the utilization of a dephenolized and fermented grape pomace (GP), i.e., a solid organic waste of the winery industry, was proposed. The dephenolization, which represented the first valorization step, consisted on high valuable organic molecules recovery by super-critic CO2 extraction. Thereafter, the pomace was fermented under anaerobically acidogenic conditions for obtaining a volatile fatty acids (VFAs)- rich effluent (GPAcid), mainly containing (g/l): acetic (14.69±0.57), propionic (0.77±0.04), iso-butyric (0.83±0.03), butyric (4.67±0.21) and caproic (0.55±0.02) acids. Finally, a grown culture of Cupriavidus necator was fed with the GPAcid. Experiments were carried out in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks (working volume: 150-mL) at 30ºC and 180 rpm. The whole PHA production process was separated into two stages, namely: (a) a balanced cell growth phase, using DSMZ-81 mineral medium amended with 5 g/l of fructose, and (b) an accumulation phase, where harvested cells were suspended in a NH4 free- DSMZ-81 medium containing 20 or 40% of GPAcid (v/v). Higher GPAcid were not tested since VFAs concentrations would inhibit PHA accumulation. A control experiment aimed at indirectly evaluate water matrix inhibition effect was performed by substituting GPAcid with a VFAs water solution, wherein VFAs concentrations were the same of GPAcid. First results showed a higher polymer production when employing 40% of GPAcid, with a final polyhydroxybutyrate content of 60% (cell dry weight bases). Thermo-gravimetric analyses confirmed gas-chromatography ones and identical results were obtained in the control experiment. To the very best of our knowledge, this work represents the first attempt to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates with a pure culture of Cupriavidus necator and a dephenolized and fermented GP as an alternative carbon source. 17

19 Thermal application for agro industrial wastes utilization Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Jimenez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocio; García-Borrego, Aranzazu; Rubio-Senent, Fátima, Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Mrabet, Abdessalem; and Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael. Instituto de la Grasa: Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Avda. Padre García Tejero nº 4, Seville-41012, Spain. The agro industrial wastes generated in the Mediterranean basis countries are based in lignocellulosic matrix that makes difficult their utilization. A novel system based in thermal pretreatment by steam has been successfully tested to get the olive oil waste solid utilization. Nowadays, the technology is being studied for the utilization of other agro industrial wastes like asparagus, grapes, tomato or dates, besides others. Although these studies are still ongoing, some of results are showing the formation of antioxidant extracts from the liquid phase and antioxidant fibres from the final solid. The main advantages found using the thermal technology are based in the solubilization of interesting compounds, like phenols and sugars to the liquid phase, the formation of antioxidant fibres in the solid which is concentrated in other components like proteins and oil, the easier solid-liquid separation and the possibility of further application of bioprocess to both liquid and solid phases. In the case of asparagus and date wastes, the use of the thermal system allows to obtain a liquid extract with antioxidant properties and a final solid rich in fibre, part of them with also antioxidant activities. The olive oil wastes from the two phase extraction system have been widely studied, and the use of the thermal treatment is being transferred to industrial scale for the production of phenols extract and a final solid rich in oil and cellulose. The application of a physical pre-treatment, like the thermal ones, gives us the opportunity to get a real total utilization of agro industrial wastes that are actually causing environmental problems. 18

20 Valorization of corn-silage anaerobic digestate through the cultivation of the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Guglielmo Santi 1, Valerio G. Muzzini 2, Emanuela Galli 2, Simona Proietti 1, Stefano Moscatello 1, Alberto Battistelli 1 1 Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale, via Marconi 2, Porano (TR) Italy 2 Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale, UOS di Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km ; Monterotondo (Roma) Italy The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus SMR 684 was cultivated on the solid digestate obtained from biogas production at commercial scale from corn silage (namely corn silage digestate, CSD), with the aim of i) producing edible mushrooms and ii) degrading lignin. The pure fungal species was grown in sterilized Petri dishes containing 3% malt extract and 1.5% agar. When the mycelium formed an abundant biomass, discs of 9 mm were cut and used for inoculation of the digestate. Each circle was placed in the center of a Petri dish (11 cm diameter) containing 15 g of wheat straw (WS, control) or CSD. Moisture was fixed at 70% in each substrate. The fungus was incubated for 42 days and samples were taken approximately twice per week. The mycelium in CSD grew as fast as in the control. Each sample was extracted with 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, filtered and centrifuged. The superrnatant was analyzed for the determination of proteins, ligninolytic activities (laccase, peroxidases) and cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities (endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, xylanase), while the solid residue was used for the determination of lignin. It is worth noting that the highest activities (total peroxidases: 4.06 IU/mg protein after 24 days; xylanase: 3.03 IU/mg protein after 17 days) were found in the mycelium grown on CSD. Lignin was reduced by 12% in CSD and 11% in WS after 42 days. This study indicated that CSD might represent a suitable feedstock for the production of fungal fruiting bodies. Moreover, the reduction of lignin percentage suggests that spent CSD after mushroom cultivation, enriched with fungal biomass, might be re-introduced into the anaerobic digester with the consequent increase of biogas yield, since fungal biomass is reported to represent a viable feedstock for biogas production. 19

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