1 Equal Rights and Treatment for Roma in Moldova and Ukraine Project Management Methodology Manual
2 WELCOME TO THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY In July 2001, the Council of Europe launched an initiative to develop a tailor-made Project Management Methodology (PMM) that would encompass the three basic phases of the project management cycle - namely planning, implementation and evaluation. The methodology aims to complement and strengthen the objective-setting approach of the annual Programme of Activities. This manual is the result of a number of workshops and of a pilot training course, carried out in November The workshops and meetings provided a forum for discussion among Council of Europe project managers and external specialists in project management methodology. The PMM manual introduces project design and management tools largely based on the Logical Framework method. This method is already widely used by international organisations and government agencies of several member states of the Council of Europe. The PMM aims to improve the management of projects and programmes, providing a structure for analysis, design, implementation and evaluation of projects. The quality of a project is enhanced by observing three key principles: Coherent objective-setting drawing a clear distinction between the objectives and the means to achieve them; ensuring that objectives at the different levels are linked logically; considering major external factors, which could significantly affect the success of the project. Project feasibility from the practical point of view identifying tasks to which appropriate resources can be clearly attributed Measurable effects defining realistic evaluation criteria which measure the effects of intervention at different objective levels. This manual accompanies the PMM training. It serves as a post-course reference for applying the techniques and approaches learnt during the training course. The manual is aimed at Council of Europe project and programme managers and members of their respective teams involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of projects and programmes.
3 The manual includes both the theory behind the PMM and practical case-studies, prepared on the basis of a Council of Europe/European Commission project, allowing the user of the manual to see the theory applied. Follow the theory! Apply it in the exercises! Check against the example provided!
4 INTRODUCTION THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE The way in which all projects or programmes are planned and carried out follows a sequence. A planning phase leads to an idea for a specific action. The action is performed. It is then evaluated with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the implementation. The results of the assessment are fed into the planning for further action. Three Phases of the Council of Europe project cycle Planning The planning phase begins with identification of ideas for a project. A consultation with a potential target group, a feasibility study, an analysis of problems and issues of target groups might follow in order to formulate a general approach to address the issues. In the Council of Europe, work within Steering Committees, Ministerial Conferences, expert workshops and consultation with governmental or other institutional partners largely cover this process. Once a general approach has been formulated, PMM will assist project managers to translate the general approach into concrete project proposals. The Logical Framework Matrix (Logframe) is elaborated providing a reference system for measuring progress and estimating costs. The planning phase concludes either with the approval of the project proposal and a commitment for funding or the project being dropped. Implementation A work plan is established determining the task schedule according to the budgetary cycle and reporting requirements. The project is carried out. During implementation, the progress of the project is regularly reviewed by the project manager. Deviations from the initial objectives and work plan are analysed, project assumptions are checked, and corrective action, if necessary, is undertaken. The implementation phase requires not only continuous supervision by the project manager, but also timely reporting to senior management levels, committees or other interested parties. Evaluation Evaluation is an objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, its design, effectiveness of implementation and short-term and long-term effects on the target
5 group(s). Evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, and allow lessons to be drawn for subsequent decision-making processes. Evaluation should lead to a decision to continue, rectify or stop a project and lessons learnt should be taken into account when planning and implementing other similar projects.
6 THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK What is the Logical Framework method? The Logical Framework method analyses and presents the project objectives in a systematic and logical way. It requires causal relationships to be established between the different levels of objectives, and identifies the effects of the project and programme upon the target group and beneficiaries. The method invites assumptions to be made as to those factors which may be outside the control of the project but nevertheless may influence its success. The Logical Framework Matrix (Logframe) summarises the most important elements of a project design: Programme Objective Why the project is carried out Project Objective What the project is expected to achieve and for whom Specific Objectives and Activities How the project is going to achieve its objective Evaluation Criteria How the effects of the project will be measured Sources of Verification Where to find information required to assess the success of the project Assumptions Which external factors are crucial for its success Financial Resources How much the project will cost The Logical Framework Matrix Intervention Logic Evaluation Criteria Sources of Verification Assumptions Programme Objective Project Objective Specific Objectives Activities Financial Resources In addition to analysis and design, the Logframe matrix also creates the reference system for the implementation of a project, and for its evaluation.
7 The Logframe becomes the tool for managing each phase of the project cycle helping to allocate resources, formulate work plans, conduct progress reviews, and prepare a final evaluation report. LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODS The Logical Framework method has proved its usefulness in helping those who prepare and implement projects to better structure and formulate their ideas and to set them out in a clear, coherent way. If the idea is misconceived or if the logic is poor, the Logframe should help to reveal the contradictions or inconsistencies. The Logframe is simply a tool for improving project planning, implementation and evaluation. It cannot alone guarantee success. Many other factors will also influence a project s success. Factors for success Good / careful planning Appropriate project design to meet the needs of the target groups Reliable partners Clearly identified target groups Fair representation of different interests through participation Project success Having the necessary knowledge and know-how Efficient project management Competent and motivated team Fair allocation of resources among competing projects and programmes Organisational capacity Formulating a Logframe should not be seen as a formal blueprint exercise. Rather it should be a team effort requiring a thorough analysis, consultation of all concerned and brainstorming. The Logframe must be seen as a dynamic tool, which is re-assessed and revised as the project itself develops and circumstances change during implementation.
8 STAKEHOLDERS Stakeholders are persons, groups or institutions with an interest in, or influence over, the degree of success of the project. They can be divided into four categories: beneficiaries, project partners, resource providers and target groups. Beneficiaries Those who directly/indirectly benefit, in the longer term, from the improved capacity (skills, knowledge, etc.) and quality of services and products of the target groups. Project partners In some instances, Council of Europe projects are executed with outside partners. These are not target groups nor beneficiaries, but their co-operation is vital for the successful implementation of the project. Some examples include, Ministries in charge of various sectors, other governmental agencies and NGOs. Resource providers They provide financial input and/or give political direction and support. Examples include the Committee of Ministers, member states or non-member states providing voluntary contributions and the European Commission. Target groups The target groups are those directly affected by the project and directly benefiting from the work of the Council of Europe. They include ministries, parliaments, local authorities, but also institutions and organisations, both public and civil, and professional groups (i.e. judges, prosecutors, lawyers, etc.) and non-professional groups, acting as multipliers in the member states. Target groups and Beneficiaries Beneficiaries Target group(s) Public Public and and civil civil institutions institutions and and organisations, organisations, NGOs NGOs Professional Professional groups groups Ministries, Ministries, parliaments, parliaments, local local authorities authorities in in member member states states Services and products provided by the Council of Europe with the support of Project Partners and Resource Providers.
9 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROGRAMME AND PROJECT A programme seeks to contribute to one of the Council of Europe s Strategic Objectives as currently defined below: To protect and promote respect for human rights in all member states without discrimination; To foster the setting up and development of democratic institutions and procedures at national, regional and local level; To ensure the observance of the rule of law; To promote a European cultural identity, while taking into account Europe s cultural diversity and heritage, with special emphasis on the role of education; To promote tolerance, social cohesion and social rights. The Strategic Objectives do not form part of a project s Logframe matrix. They explain the overall rationale of a programme. They refer to the Council of Europe s major orientations and reflect the political will of its member states. The Strategic Objectives identify longterm European-wide changes, towards which the Organisation is working. Programmes vary in their complexity, but any programme is composed of a number of projects. Each project in a programme has its own Logframe matrix and contributes to the achievement of the Programme Objective(s). Programme Objective(s) is (are) only reached once a programme s component projects have achieved their respective Project Objectives. The logic of the current Council of Europe Programme of Activities demands that each Strategic Objective is composed of a number of programmes, and, in turn, each programme consists of a number of projects. Thus, each project is linked through one programme principally to one Strategic Objective of the Organisation. Certain projects, such as joint EC/CoE initiatives and Integrated Projects may contribute to more than one Strategic Objective of the Organisation. This variation does not in any way undermine the applicability of the Project Management Methodology.
10 The hierarchical relationship between each Strategic Objective, the objectives of its programmes and the objectives of their constituent projects is shown below. Interlinked Objective Levels STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES Strategic Objective Programme Objectives PROGRAMMES Programme Objective Project Objectives PROJECTS Project Objective Specific Objectives Activities / Tasks
11 THE PLANNING PHASE BUILDING THE LOGFRAME First Column: Intervention Logic The first column of the Logframe shows the logic of intervention. It sets out the basic strategy behind the project and shows the hierarchy of the objectives: The diagram below shows the sequence in which the hierarchy of objectives is established in order to plan the project. The four levels of objectives are defined as follows: 1. The Programme Objective expresses the long-term impact and positive changes upon the beneficiaries. Each programme can have one or more Programme Objectives. 2. The Project Objective describes what the project is expected to achieve. It defines the project s success. The Project Objective should address the needs of the target group(s). It should be defined in terms of sustainable benefits or positive change for the target group(s). There should be only one Project Objective per project. Clarifying and agreeing precisely what will define the project s success is therefore a critical step in project design. 3. Specific Objectives describe the intended provision of services / products by the Council of Europe to the target group. 4. Activities are the actions to be carried out in order to attain the Specific Objectives. They describe the project in operational terms. Financial resources should be clearly attributed at this level.
12 In contrast to the project planning, the diagram below depicts the way in which the project is carried out. Activities at the lowest level - by carrying them out, the Specific Objectives are attained Specific Objectives - the attainment of all Specific Objectives collectively leads to the achievement of the Project Objective Project Objective contributes to the Programme Objective Fourth Column: Assumptions In some cases, the project alone cannot achieve all the objectives identified. External factors will affect the project s implementation and long-term sustainability but lie outside the control of the project manager. Certain conditions for success must therefore be assumed. These conditions must be met if the project is to succeed, and are included as Assumptions in the fourth column of the Logframe. Assumptions are only set at the level of Specific and Project objectives. The feasibility of the project can then be assessed following a bottom-up approach as explained below: Once the Specific Objectives are attained and the Assumptions at this level are fulfilled, the Project Objective will be achieved; Once the Project Objective has been achieved and the Assumptions at this level are fulfilled, a considerable contribution to the programme can be expected. Project feasibility Intervention Logic Assumptions Programme Objective Project Objective + Specific Objectives + Assumptions Assumptions Operational Objectives
13 How to Identify Assumptions? The probability and significance of external conditions to be met should be estimated as part of assessing the degree of risk related to the project. Some factors will be crucial to project success, and others of marginal importance. Once Assumptions have been identified, they are stated in terms of the desired situation. They can then be verified and assessed. The flowchart below presents a useful way of assessing the importance of Assumptions.
14 THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE The implementation phase of a project is structured by means of workplans and project progress reports. With an annual budgetary cycle, each year is divided into four-monthly reporting periods. At the beginning of each four-month period the project manager produces a workplan. At the end of the reporting period the project manager reports on the progress to date. Actual implementation is compared to the workplan, differences are analysed and possible corrective actions are proposed and incorporated into the workplan for the following period. This is a time to review the Logframe, make use of additional information to up-date Evaluation Criteria and Sources of Verification, and, if necessary, even to review Objectives and Assumptions. WORK PLAN A project workplan presents in logical sequence the Activities and Tasks to be implemented within a project and is used to assign responsibility for the completion of each Activity/Task. All information in a workplan can be presented in a Gantt Chart. An example is shown below. The format can be adapted to fit the expected duration of the project. An overall work plan may perhaps only specify Activities/Tasks on an annual basis, while more detailed workplans may use a four-monthly, monthly or weekly format. Example Workplan July 2001 August 2001 September 2001 October 2001 November 2001 December 2001 Reponsibilities PM DP ED 1.1 Gather systematic and exact data on the organisation of education systems in Europe Assign a co-ordinator L Develop a common grid for analysis L S Establish team of experts and conduct meetings L Appoint national correspondents and distribute the anaylsis grid S L Organise and hold symposia L S S Milestone 1: 1.2 Prepare guides containing a brief and coherent description of secondary education in all states which have signed the Cultural Convention etc. Notes: = duration of results = period in which single activites will be carried out = milestones Conceptual workshop Key: PM = Project Manager DP = Deputy Project Manager ED = Expert on Education Systems L = Leading role S = Supporting role The appropriate timescale for the workplan will be determined by the complexity of the project, reporting considerations and the budgetary cycle. It may be that a number of workplans are required showing different timescales. As a minimum requirement, the project manager should compile a four-monthly workplan.
15 PROJECT PROGRESS REVIEW The project progress review is a process comparing the project s achievements to date with its planned targets. The intended achievements of the project are compared with the actual progress made. Significant deviations from the initial plan are identified and analysed. Corrective actions are agreed and integrated into the next planning period, with responsibilities assigned among the members of the project team. The progress review is an opportunity for the project manager and team members to assess critically their own performance. The project progress report summarises the review process and serves a dual purpose: - to provide a record of the results of the progress review for the project team, including achievements, issues and challenges - to communicate information on the progress of the project in a standardised way to senior management in order to facilitate appropriate decision-making. Project progress review and reporting should not be considered as low value-added exercises or just another bureaucratic nuisance that will add to the overall workload. Project managers should spend a considerable amount of time on project management issues. It is time well spent. A structured approach, timely identification of problems and issues to be addressed, clarity as to who does what, project milestones, structured and standardised communication all of this should, in fact, save time. There will be less need to coordinate because actions of the various players will be more coherent. Reporting will not be chaotic. Problems will largely have been anticipated, thus reducing the need to react on an ad-hoc basis, etc. To clarify, the project progress report describes progress in achieving the Specific Objectives through implementation of Activities/Tasks, because it compares achievements at this level in relation to the workplan. It should include: A description of Activities and Tasks by each Specific Objective undertaken during the period of the report as compared to the workplan. The report should note any deviations from the workplan and the corrective measures taken. A description of problems, both current and anticipated, including planned remedial actions or recommendations. Any proposed modifications to the Logframe in relation to the Project and/ or Specific Objectives (if appropriate) Workplan for the new period.
16 KEY TERMS for Monitoring and Evaluation. (3) Monitoring The systematic and continuous assessment of the progress of a piece of work overtime, enabling actors to verify that things are going to plan and to enable adjustments to be made in a methodical way. Evaluation The periodic assessment of the relevance, performance, efficiency, rate of achievement, and sustainability of the general objective. Policy A policy is an overall plan embracing general goals and procedures and intended to guide and determine present and future decisions, including legislation and programming. Strategy A strategy is a detailed plan based on long-term objectives for achieving positive results in situations, such as Roma employment, or a skill in planning for such situations. Programme A programme is a series of projects with a common overall objective. Project A project is a series of activities with set objectives, designed to produce a specific outcome within a limited time frame. Project Cycle The project cycle follows the life of a project from the initial idea through to its completion and the development of a subsequent project or phase of the project. Project Purpose The project purpose is the central objective of the project. The purpose should address the core problem, and be defined in terms of sustainable benefits for the target group(s). There should only be one project purpose per project. Objective An objective is the description of the aim of a project or programme. In its generic sense it refers to activities, results, project purpose and overall objectives. Means/ Inputs
17 Means are physical and non-physical resources (often referred to as Inputs ) that are necessary to carry out the planned activities and manage the project. A distinction can be drawn between: human resources and material resources. Activities The actions (and means) that have to be taken (provided) to produce the results. They summarise what will be undertaken by the project. Output An output is the clearly identified products emerging from activities. Results Results are the products of the activities undertaken, the combination of which achieve the project purpose, namely the beginning of enjoyment of sustainable benefits for the target groups. Impact and Outcomes. Impact/outcomes are the effect of the project on its wider environment, and its contribution to the broader sectoral objectives summarised in the project s overall objectives, and on the achievement of the overarching policy objectives. Indicator. An indicator is an observable change or event which provides evidence of change, whether this be short-term or long-term change. They can be revealing of effort and effect at all levels from outputs to objectives. Baselines. The initial situation that a project is addressing is reflected in surveys of the current situation and should emerge out of the initial analysis. Baselines are important to help measure changes Benchmarks. Milestones/benchmarks are a type of objectively verifiable indicator providing indications for short- and medium-term objectives (usually activities) which facilitate measurement of achievements throughout a project rather than just at the end. They also indicate times when decisions should be made or action should be finished. Participation. Participation is the active involvement of a person or a group of people within an activity; it goes beyond consultation to being a form of active and continuing engagement in an effective way. This is a key element of minority rights. Risks
18 The External factors and events that could affect the progress or success of the project, and that are not very likely to hold true. They are formulated in a negative way, e.g.: Reform of penal procedures fails. Relevance / Needs analysis The appropriateness of project objectives to the real problems, needs and priorities of the intended target groups and beneficiaries that the project is supposed to address, and to the physical and policy environment within which it operates Effectiveness An assessment of the contribution made by results to achievement of the project purpose, and how Assumptions have affected project achievements. Efficiency The fact that the results were obtained at reasonable cost, i.e. how well Means and Activities were converted into Results, and the quality of the results achieved. Beneficiaries The beneficiaries are those who benefit in whatever way from the implementation of the project. Distinctions may be made between: Project Partners Those who are supported by funds in order to manage design and implementation of a project, i.e. usually ministries, implementation agencies; Target Groups, Direct Beneficiaries the group / entity who will be positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level and with whom the project will work very closely, as well as for whom the project is designed. They are key stakeholders Intermediate beneficiaries. Those who are supported within the project in order to better perform services to the target group(s), They are stakeholders. Final Beneficiaries those who, beyond the level of the target groups, benefit from the project in the long term at the level of the society or sector at large, e.g. children due to increased spending on health and education. Gender The social differences that are ascribed to and learned by women and men, and that vary over time and from one society or group to another. Gender differs from sex, which refers to the biologically determined differences between women and men. Gender Equality
19 The promotion of equality between women and men in relation to their access to social and economic infrastructures and services and to the benefits of development is essential. The objective is reduced disparities between women and men, including in health and education, in employment and economic activity, and in decision-making at all levels. All programmes and projects should actively contribute to reducing gender disparities in their area of intervention. Stakeholder Any individuals, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project / programme are defined as stakeholders. They may directly or indirectly, positively or negatively affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of projects or programmes. Usually, different subgroups have to be considered. Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholder analysis involves the identification of all stakeholder groups likely to be affected (either positively or negatively) by the proposed intervention, the identification and analysis of their interests, problems, potentials, etc. The conclusions of this analysis are then integrated into the project design. Intervention Logic The strategy underlying the project. It is the narrative description of the project at each of the four levels of the hierarchy of objectives used in the log frame. Logical framework Approach A methodology for planning, managing and evaluating programmes and projects, involving stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, analysis of objectives, analysis of strategies, preparation of the log frame matrix and activity and resource schedules. Log frame The matrix in which a project s intervention logic, assumptions, objectively verifiable indicators and sources of verification are presented. SWOT analysis Analysis of an organisation s strengths and weaknesses, and the opportunities and threats that it faces. A tool that can be used during all phases of the project cycle This listing of key terms is based upon the Manual on project Cycle management published by the European Commission March 2001 and Council of Europe Recommendation CM/Rec (2008)5. ADJP 2008
20 PRACTICAL EXERCICES Prepared by Dr Alan Phillips SWOT CHART Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats STRENGTHS WEAKENESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
21 DOMESTIC IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISMS Actions needed after ratification of international law. Actors Rule of Law Programme Action Senior Politicians Constitutions State Policy Distinguished Lawyers State Strategy Senior Politicians Constitutional Laws Cabinet Policy Distinguished Lawyers Parliamentarians Legislation Ministry Policy Governmental lawyers Ministry Strategy Ministers, Finance Min Objectives Senior officials Priorities Officials Administrative Decrees Programmes & Finance Ministry Projects to meet Economists Interpretation Sub objectives Experts Dissemination - targets & indicators Training Organisations Operation Planning Media Communicating Corporations Budgeting Piloting Professionals Resourcing Implementing Statutory bodies Resourcing All Citizens Judges Senior Officials Individuals Prosecutors Local government Families Lawyers Local managers Communities Court Officials Local agencies
22 Organisations Police Experienced staff NGOs Civil Society Rich Urban Men Young Minorities including Poor Rural Women Old Majorities ADJP rev 2 Nov 2006
23 Stakeholder table Stakeholders Interests & Information needs Potential project Impact/ Power Priorit y of interes t Primary Stakeholders Secondary Stakeholders External Stakeholders Appendix: Log frame
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