Improving IT Service Management Architecture in Cloud Environment on Top of Current Frameworks

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1 Improving IT Service Management Architecture in Cloud Environment on Top of Current Frameworks Fatemeh Arabalidousti 1 and Ramin Nasiri 2 1 Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran 2 Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran 1 2 ABSTRACT The key characteristic of cloud computing is provision of IT infrastructure and its applications as a scalable service. Since this environment is conceived serviceoriented, service management and delivery of comprehensive architecture for this environment are important. To provide better services in cloud computing, any proposed architecture may be based on IT service management frameworks and reference models, to improve the management of services in cloud computing. Hence, IT service management reference models and frameworks are first compared in this paper and according to the comparisons; PRM-IT may be selected among other frameworks such as ITIL v3, HP, MOF as a more complete reference and used set forth in the operational section of the proposed architecture. Also, processes of the etom process framework are more complete than other frameworks while considering billing & revenue management as two critical modules in cloud based accounting Also. COBIT5 used in this architecture to enrich governance capability. On the other hand, a few of recent cloud architectures compared to find out current drawbacks and pitfalls and Finally, a comprehensive architecture is being proposed for cloud to provide a nearly more effective architecture resulted by composition of these frameworks in a wise layout. This architecture is in the context of SOA. KEYWORDS Cloud Computing Architecture, IT Service Management Frameworks, Reference Model, SOA. 1 INTRODUCTION Based on the various definitions of cloud computing, Cloud Computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models [1]. Service models are known as Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The service models, and the fact that cloud computing is discussed in terms of the creation, delivery and consumption of cloud services, means cloud computing supports service orientation. If cloud environment is more structured, delivery of service would be more reliable. Considering importance of cloud environment to build trust of the customers, Frameworks and reference models such as PRM- IT, ITIL v3, HP, MOF may be deployed to manage IT services in organizations. Also, a Varity of architectures such as IBM, Oracle, NIST, HP are used for cloud computing. In this paper IT service management is improved by using ITSM frameworks and proposed architecture. The next section presents related work in the cloud and then proposed architecture is introduced. ISBN: SDIWC 77

2 2 RELATED WORK PRM-IT, IBM Process Reference Model, is an overall view of the processes involved in the information technology management. This model was proposed by IBM in 2008[2]. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure library) has been provided by OGC focusing on the support and provision of service. The latest version of this document was published in ITIL v3 deals with IT Service Management in five main phases [3-7]. Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) was introduced in 2008, which manages IT services in 3 main phases and 1 managerial layer [8]. HP IT Service Management Reference Model is composed of five services, which was published in 2000[9]. On the other hand, different architectures have been presented for cloud computing environment. IBM Cloud Computing Reference Architecture defines the basic elements of cloud computing architecture. This architecture has been structured modularly such that main roles and elements have been defined in the highest level of abstraction [10]. In the NIST Reference Model, there are five main actors: consumers, cloud broker, cloud auditor, cloud carrier and cloud provider.each actor may be a person or an organization that plays role in transactions or functions available in the cloud [11]. The key components of Oracle architecture are physical resources, cloud builder, cloud application builder, SaaS consumers, cloud management infrastructure and cloud application management. This architecture provides three key perspectives on consumer, provider and broker [12]. Cloud System is an integrated system for the management of cloud services across private, public and hybrid clouds. HP Cloud System is a composition of servers, storages, and network. The result of this composition is perfect solution for cloud which can provide cloud driven services for organizations [13]. Cisco has developed the depiction of a cloud reference architecture model, which portrays the architectural layers, connected via APIs and repositories. Cisco s layer are Data center technology architecture, security layer, service orchestration layer, Service delivery and management layer and cloud services consumer layer [14]. The Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) announced at SNW Spring 2010, the formal approval of the Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) as a SNIA Architecture standard. This milestone marks the first industry-developed open standard for cloud computing and will allow for interoperable cloud storage implementations from cloud service providers and storage vendors. SNIA proposes a formal term for cloud storage, i.e. Data Storage as a Service (DaaS), which means delivery over a network of appropriately configured virtual storage and related data services, based on a request for a given service level [15]." 3 PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE First, IT service management models and frameworks are evaluated. According to different mappings between ITIL v3, PRM-IT, HP and MOF, PRM-IT has been chosen as a comprehensive reference model for the proposed architecture. COBIT5 has been considered as a comprehensive governance framework in architecture because it is a robust business framework for management and governance of IT organizations. Therefore, its governance processes are used in this architecture [16]. etom focuses on trade relations used by service providers, communication between different processes, definition of interfaces and information processing on clients, services, resources, suppliers and partners. Billing and revenue management processes in etom are responsible for the collection of appropriate usage records, determining charging and billing information, production of timely and accurate bills, for processing their payments, and performing payment collections [17]. In other models like PRM-IT, bill-related issues have not been included as it is in etom. This architecture uses etom processes associated with bills management. The architectures of a few cloud computing environments are compared in the following table. Strengths of each architectures rarely have been considered in other architectures. These obvious differences are given in the last column of the following table. Attempt is made to improve IT service management in cloud and place them in the comprehensive architecture. The ISBN: SDIWC 78

3 following table summarizes the architectures of the cloud [17]: Table 1: Comparison between cloud Architectures Model Comparison Comparison on Business Architecture level level IBM Cisco Elastra SNIA OSA NIST For general cc system For general cc system Specially for enterprise cloud Specially for cloud storage Specifically for cloud security For general cc system Defines actors (cc provider/user/ develop), cloud components, service models, business/ operational support Services for cloud providers. Defines a layered model which considers resources, security, service, and consumers layer. Defines a management framework for enterprise clouds, which focuses on management of diff. components And lifecycles. Defines DaaS,& CDMI which is the interface for accessing and managing Cloud storage. Defines actors (users/system architects/develop ers/3rd party auditors), security policies at each Step following info traffic flow. Defines actors (cc consumer/ provider / carrier/ auditor / broker). Key Difference Compared to use case group s model, adds more details for Service management The only layered architecture Compared to IBM, Elastra considers only cloud Management 1st industrydeveloped open Standard for cloud computing. Focuses on cloud storage Focuses on security Architecture Refers to the composition of system components to support the Cloud Providers activities In the following section, the relationship between service-oriented architecture and cloud computing are presented. 4 CLOUD AND SOA Cloud services, according to The Open Group definition, are SOA services. However, not all SOA services are Cloud service because they require automated deployment and management as well as offering support in order to support the Cloud characteristics. On the architecture continuum, Cloud architectures are more concrete than The Open Group s SOA reference architecture, a domain architecture scoped to service delivery and management. Principles and architectural decisions have been premade already to enable the Cloud computing architecture to be self service, network accessible, and scalable. Architectural building blocks have already been identified for Cloud solution architects to use for operational and business support. The benefit of recognizing the heritage of Cloud from SOA is that the existing experience over the last 6 years and standards already available for SOA and SOA solutions can be applied to Cloud Computing and Cloud solutions [10]. The SOA RA, as being standardized by The Open Group, applies to Cloud architectures and is the underlying architecture for proposed Cloud architectures. The functional concerns: operational systems, service components, services, business processes and consumer interfaces; all exist in and are relevant to functional concerns for cloud architecture s. For the Cloud architecture, there has been special focus on the [10]: Operational Layer: Infrastructure often highlighted in Cloud architectures because Cloud imposes new requirements on infrastructure to enable broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, virtualization and scalability. Service Layer: The common cloud service types, *aas, are identified in the services layer. These cloud service types, like other services, use and sometimes expose assets ISBN: SDIWC 79

4 in the Operational systems layer. For cloud services, which assets are exposed is often the focus of the service type, i.e. within operational systems, hardware infrastructure is exposed as IaaS, and middleware is exposed as PaaS, and business process as BPaaS. Business Process: Business processes participate in a Cloud solution much like they do in SOA solutions, they can be provided as a service (BPaaS) or be the consumer of services (whether they care cloud services or not). Additionally, business processes within a cloud provider organization need to be restructured and streamlined in novel ways to meet much faster time-to-deliver, time-to-change and cost objectives. Consumer Layer: The consumer layer is more strictly and carefully separated from the services and service provider to allow pooling and substitution of cloud services or providers. Figure 1: The Functional Concept of SOA and Cloud Architecture For the cloud ecosystem, they cloud service consumers, providers, auditors and developers are the common high level roles identified in the cloud architectures. It is important to look at Cloud in the context of SOA, and Cloud solutions in the context of the larger SOA solutions underpinning them. This diagram shows the QOS layer details that are essential to understand for Cloud, as well as the *aas [10]. The basic elements and concepts of proposed architecture aren t defined completely but derived from service oriented architecture. Figure 2: Details of Quality of Service Layer This Proposed Architecture defines four main roles: Cloud Service Consumer, Cloud Service Provider, Cloud Service Developer and Cloud Service Auditor. Each role can be fulfilled by a single person or can be fulfilled by a group of people or an organization. The roles defined here intend to capture the common set of roles typically encountered in any cloud computing environment. Therefore it is important to note that depending on a particular cloud computing scenario or specific cloud implementation, there may be projectspecific sub-roles defined. Cloud Service Consumer: A cloud service consumer is an organization, a human being or an IT system that consumes service instances delivered by a particular cloud service. Cloud Service Provider: The Cloud Service Provider has the responsibility of providing cloud services to Cloud Service Consumers [10]. Cloud Service Developer: The Cloud Service Developer is responsible for creating a cloud service, which can be run by a Cloud Service Provider and by that exposed to Cloud Service Consumers. Typically, Cloud Service Developers build their cloud services by leveraging functionality which is exposed by a Cloud Service Provider. ISBN: SDIWC 80

5 Cloud Service Auditor: Cloud Service Auditor can conduct independent assessment of cloud services, information system operation, performance and security of cloud implementation. Figure 3: The Proposed Architecture Model 5 ARCHITECTURE COMPONENTS Architecture Components are examined separately in six sections. Cloud Service Integration Tools From the perspective of a Cloud Service Consumer, it is important to be able to integrate cloud services with their on-premise IT. The functionality of Cloud Service Integration Tools is specifically relevant in the context of hybrid clouds, where seamless integrated management, usage and interoperability of cloud services in integration with on-premise IT is critical [10]. Consumer In-house IT Besides IT capabilities consumed as cloud services, consumers of such IT may continue to have in-house IT, which can be managed in a traditional non-cloud fashion. In case functionality of the existing in-house IT should be integrated with cloud services consumed from a cloud service provider, the aforementioned cloud service integration tools are required. Consumer in-house IT exists across all layers of the technology stack (infrastructure, middleware, applications, business processes, service management), therefore integration with cloud services can take place on each of these layers [10] Architecture Components in cloud Service Provider Section: 5.1. Architectural Components in cloud Service Consumer Section: Figure 5: Details of Cloud Service Provider in the Proposed Architecture Model Figure 4: Details of Cloud Service Consumer in the Proposed Architecture Model ISBN: SDIWC 81

6 Service Orchestration Service Orchestration refers to the composition of system components to support the Cloud Providers activities in arrangement, coordination and management of computing resources in order to provide cloud services to Cloud Consumers [11]. Figure 6: Details of Service Orchestration in the Proposed Architecture Model Services: Infrastructure-as-a-Service: The capability provided to the consumer is to rent processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly select networking components (e.g., firewalls, load balancers) [10]. Platform-as-a-Service The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumercreated applications using programming languages and tools supported by the provider (e.g., java, python,.net). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but the consumer has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations [10]. Software-as-a-Service: The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure and accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a Web browser (e.g., web-based ). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings [10]. Business-Process-as-a-Service: Business process services are any business process delivered through the Cloud service model (Multitenant, self-service provisioning, elastic scaling and usage metering or pricing) via the Internet with access via Web-centric interfaces and exploiting Web-oriented cloud architecture. The BPaaS provider is responsible for the related business function(s) [10]. Data Storage-as-a-Service: Data Storage as a Service (DaaS), which means delivery over a network of appropriately configured virtual storage and related data services, based on a request for a given service level [15] Infrastructure: This layer includes all the physical computing resources. It has two elements. Hardware: This layer includes hardware resources, such as computers (CPU and memory), networks (routers, firewalls, switches, network links and interfaces), storage components (hard disks) and other physical computing infrastructure elements. Facility: It also includes facility resources, such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), power, communications, and other aspects of the physical plant [11] Cloud Provision and Management This part exposes a set of business and operational management focused services. These functions ISBN: SDIWC 82

7 must be exploited by Cloud Services to run within the context of the respective cloud service provider Businesses Support Services: Developer to implement a cloud service. These services use PRM-IT Reference Model process. This model covers many management frameworks (ITIL v3, HP, MOF). Business Support Services represents the set of business-related services, which are needed by Cloud Service Developer to implement a cloud service. Figure 8: Details of Operational Support Services the Proposed Architecture Model Figure 7: Details of Business Support Services in the Proposed Architecture Model Account Management: This section describes the processes involved in managing of client accounts. These processes are part of the IBM architecture model. Billing and Revenue Management: This section is responsible for the collection of appropriate usage records, determining charging and billing information, production of timely and accurate bills, for providing pre-bill use information and billing to customers, for processing their payments, and performing payment collections, These processes are part of the etom process framework [17] Operational Support Services: Operational Support Services represents the set of operational management / technical-related services, which are needed by Cloud Service Customer relationships: The Customer Relationships process category gives IT service providers a mechanism to understand, monitor, perform and compete effectively in the marketplace they serve. Through active communication and interaction with customers, this process category provides the IT enterprise with valuable, current information concerning customer wants, needs, and requirements [2]. Direction: The Direction process category provides guidance on the external technology marketplace, aligns the IT outcomes to support the business strategy, minimizes risk exposures, and manages the IT Architecture and IT Portfolio [2]. Realization Management: The Realization process category exists to create solutions that will satisfy the requirements of IT customers and stakeholders, including both the development of new solutions and the enhancements or maintenance of existing ones [2]. Transition Management: The Transition category of processes exists to support any aspect related to a life cycle status change in solutions and services. The processes provide defined and repeatable approaches to planning, effecting and ISBN: SDIWC 83

8 recording these transitions and can be applied to all stages of the life cycle [2]. Operation Management: This category contains the operational service processes that enable daily IT activities using available infrastructure, applications, and services to meet service level agreements (SLAs) and business objectives [2]. Resilience Management: The Resilience category of processes describes the analysis and proactive planning required to enable resilient infrastructure, applications, and services. Each process covers a range of activities from handling everyday adjustments as required by service operations through anticipating the potential future demands upon its specific domain [2]. Administration: The Administration process category brings together the processes that look after many of the non-technical resources: people, finances, and contracts, among others that support IT service delivery [2]. Service Creation: Developers create cloud services. Service publishing: Cloud services, will be published by the developers. Service Analytics: During service creation, analytics involve remote debugging to test the service before it is published to consumers. Once the service is published, analytics allow developers to monitor the performance of their service and make changes as necessary Architectural Components in cloud Auditor Section: A cloud auditor is a party that can perform an independent examination of cloud service controls with the intent to express an opinion thereon. Audits are performed to verify conformance to standards through review of objective evidence [11]. This section has three parts: 5.3. Architectural Components in cloud Service Developer Section: The service developer creates, publishes and monitors the cloud service. This section includes three parts. Development environments for service creation vary. If developers are creating a SaaS application, they are most likely writing code for an environment hosted by a cloud provider [15]. Figure 10: Details of Cloud Auditor in the Proposed Architecture Model Figure 9: Details of Cloud Service Developer in the Proposed Architecture Model Security Audit: A cloud auditor can make an assessment of the security controls in the information system to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to the security requirements for the system [2]. Privacy Impact Audit: A privacy impact audit can help organization comply with applicable privacy laws and regulations governing an ISBN: SDIWC 84

9 individual s privacy, and to ensure confidentiality and integrity[2]. Performance Audit: To evaluate the performance takes place [2] Security, Resiliency, Performance & Consumability: These non-functional aspects must be viewed from an end-to-end perspective including the structure of architecture by itself, the way the hardware infrastructure is set up (e.g. in terms of isolation, network zoning setup, data center setup for disaster recovery, etc.) and how the cloud services are implemented[10] Governance of IT: Deal with the stakeholder governance objectives value delivery, risk optimisation and resource optimisation and include practices and activities aimed at evaluating strategic options, providing direction to IT and monitoring the outcome[16]. This domain contains five governance components. Figure 11: Details of Governance of IT in the Proposed Architecture Model structures, principles, processes and practices, with clarity of responsibilities and authority to achieve the enterprise s mission, goals and objectives [16]. Ensure Benefits Delivery: Optimise the value contribution to the business from the business processes, IT services and IT assets resulting from investments made by IT at acceptable costs [16]. Ensure Risk Optimisation: Ensure that the enterprise s risk appetite and tolerance are understood, articulated and communicated, and that risk to enterprise value related to the use of IT is identified and managed [16]. Ensure Resource Optimisation: Ensure that adequate and sufficient IT-related capabilities (people, process and technology) are available to support enterprise objectives effectively at optimal cost [16]. Ensure Stakeholder Transparency: Ensure that enterprise IT performance and conformance measurement and reporting are transparent, with stakeholders approving the goals and metrics and the necessary remedial actions [16]. 6 CONCLUSION Since cloud computing is service-oriented, service management is very important in this environment. In this paper, service management frameworks and related models scrutinized and a few of them are selected to use in proposed architecture. In addition, few important cloud architecture are compared, the strengths of each have been obtained and deployed in proposed architecture. Billing processes of etom framework been used in the business support services. PRM-IT was seen in operational support service. COBIT5 was used for governance of IT section. Combination of ITSM framework improve IT services management and provide better services in cloud computing. This is an ongoing research and further results would be published shortly. Ensure Governance Framework Setting and Maintenance : Analyse and articulate the requirements for the governance of enterprise IT, and put in place and maintain effective enabling ISBN: SDIWC 85

10 7 REFERENCES 1. Peter Mell, Timothy Grance, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, September IBM Advisory Group, PRM IT IBM Process Reference Model for IT, IBM Corporation ITIL Advisory Group, Service Strategy of ITIL V3, The UK Chapter of the itsmf, ITIL Advisory Group, Service Design Overview of ITIL V3, The UK Chapter of the itsmf, ITIL Advisory Group, Service Transition of ITIL V3, The UK Chapter of the itsmf, ITIL Advisory Group, Service Operation of ITIL V3, The UK Chapter of the itsmf, ITIL Advisory Group, Service Improvement of ITIL V3, The UK Chapter of the itsmf, MOF Advisory Group, Microsoft Operations Framework overview, Microsoft, April HP Advisory Group, The HP IT Service Management Reference Model, HP, IBM Advisory Group, Introduction and Architecture Overview IBM Cloud Computing Reference Architecture 2.0, NIST Advisory Group, NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, ORACLE Advisory Group, Oracle Reference Architecture, HP Advisory Group, Understanding the HP cloud System Reference Architecture, Cisco Advisory Group, Cisco Cloud Computing - Data Center Strategy, Architecture, and Solutions, NIST Advisory Group, Cloud Architecture Reference Models, NIST CCRATWG 16. ISACA, COBIT5,Enabling Process, TM Forum Advisory Group, etom (Business Process Framework), TM Forum 2012 ISBN: SDIWC 86

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