1 Hitachi Review Vol. 53 (2004), No Physical Security Systems OVERVIEW: Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, various steps have been taken around the world to raise the level of security, including anti-terrorist steps, at key facilities and public places where people gather. In that context, the needs are increasing for physical security systems and related equipment. Centered on security systems it developed in the past, Hitachi, Ltd. is now developing new products such as detectors for detecting dangerous objects, personal authentication systems, and inspection equipment using X-ray equipment. The discussion in this paper is centered on security systems Hitachi previously developed but it also presents a summary of the current situation concerning sensors for detecting unauthorized facility access, personal authentication systems, and surveillance cameras, all used in security systems. INTRODUCTION SINCE the terrorist attacks in the U.S. on September 11, 2001, terrorist threats have increased around the world. As a result, security measures have been bolstered at key transport facilities such as airports and harbors, as well as at places where people gather, i.e. various events and celebrations. In that backdrop, Hitachi established a physical security equipment business under the theme Comfort and Safety. The new business is centered on security systems that Hitachi has developed, installed, and maintained up to the present. Hitachi has also been involved in the field of cyber security, and has much experience in developing and installing many such systems. In fact, Hitachi is one of the few manufacturers able to combine its expertise in the twin fields of cyber security and physical security to provide solutions for total security systems. Among physical security systems, the emphasis in this paper is on security systems in place at key Perimeter sensor Tension sensor Large-screen monitor Supervisory camera High-sensitivity storage-type color CCD camera Multi-frame memory Control room: central monitoring system equipment Control console Electric-lock door Security area Information LAN Top-level security area device (train station wicket type gate) Autonomous distributed computer system device (ordinary gate) device (box gate) Double door Also has function for allowing only single person passage Extra-strength doors to withstand subversive actions Registration of persons allowed temporary entry Registers data about persons allowed temporary entry Personal authentication Mug-shot information Palmer pattern authentication Finger-vein authentication Weight sensor LAN: local area network CCD: charge coupled device Fig. 1 Outline of Security System. This security system is an access/egress control system comprising: (1) an unauthorized entry supervision system that monitors a facility s perimeter to prevent illegal entry, and (2) a system for controlling access and egress at designated entrances and exits, and (3) a control room for overseeing the first two systems.
2 TABLE 1. Comparison of Selected Sensors This table compares the main features of sensors, including their advantages and shortcomings. Since no sensor is perfect in every way, it is necessary to choose sensors appropriately depending on the environment in which they will be used. Physical Security Systems 74 Fence (vibration) sensor Tension sensor Infrared sensor Passive infrared sensor Microwave sensor Mounting Fitted with bar, or attached to fence Stands on ground Stands on ground; two sensors face each other Hang on side of wall or building wall Stands on ground; two sensors face each other Method of operation Cable interior senses vibration; senses short circuit Cable senses vibration; senses short circuit Senses broken infrared beam Heat sensitive Microwave detected Advantages Because obvious, provides deterrent effect; can be located in specific unauthorized entry areas Because obvious, provides deterrent effect; can be located in specific unauthorized entry areas Stable at long distances; installation not obvious; using twin beams, can determine size; using twin beams, little incorrect information Relatively easy to install; can provide area coverage Not readily affected by birds, other flying objects; outstanding weather durability Shortcomings Scope of sensor operation Rate of incorrect data increases slightly at long distances. Line detection (one dimensional) Distance between sensor installations 300 m Strong in rain and fog; Weather durability not so strong in wind, snow, or temperature Rate of incorrect data increases slightly at long distances. Line detection (one dimensional) Strong in rain and fog; not so strong in wind, snow, or temperature Bothersome to install and adjust; needs open area in surroundings Line detection (one dimensional) Strong in wind; weak in rain and fog Narrow scope of detection; affected by sun rays and other sources of heat; high possibility of incorrect information Area detection (two dimensional) 50 m 100 m 10 m 10 m m Relatively strong in wind, rain, snow, and fog Undetermined area of detection; seriously affected by electromagnetic waves; sensitive to swaying trees or bushes; affected by walls and other obstacles Three dimensional Strong in rain, snow, and fog; weak in wind Susceptibility to breaking Easily broken but detection still possible If on inside of wall, difficult to break If on inside of wall, difficult to break Prone to breaking because located in low position If on inside of wall, difficult to break Maintenance Inspect for physical damage Inspect for physical damage Regular cleaning of protective glass Protective glass, etc., requires regular cleaning Regular inspections only Links to cameras Possible if intervals are short; zoom in also possible Possible if intervals are short; zoom in also possible Linking is possible but setting specific positions is not Linking is possible but setting specific positions is not Linking is possible but setting specific positions is not Most appropriate location Near top of wall Near top of wall Inside of wall Any place inside facility perimeter Inside facility perimeter but as far from walls as feasible facilities, particularly on technology and equipment that Hitachi has developed (see Fig. 1). The figure shows the system configuration for important facilities. That includes devices applying technology related to analysis equipment for detecting drugs and dangerous objects, and equipment such as that used in fingerprint verification systems that has been available in the past plus finger-vein authentication system using technology developed for personal authentication. Also introduced is RFID (radio frequency identification) technology for an access control system and X-ray technology for viewing the content of large-size shipping containers. NEEDS OF KEY FACILITIES FOR SECURITY SYSTEMS Some key facilities in Japan have had security systems with sophisticated levels of security for years. In many countries the security level at key facilities, centered on the U.S., has been raised recent years. Even facilities that formerly did not use security systems are now planning to install them. Next, let us describe a security system commonly used in Japan. OUTLINE OF SECURITY SYSTEM This is an access-egress control system that
3 TABLE 2. Comparison of Surveillance Cameras This table compares selected surveillance cameras. Cameras should be chosen according to their use environment. Hitachi Review Vol. 53 (2004), No Single-pole rotation, Tri-pole rotation (high magnification rate) Tri-pole rotation day-and night-vision single panel Exterior view of camera Camera type Visible light color Visible light camera Visible light camera Near infrared rays, and visible light color CCD element 1/3" CCD 1/2" CCD 3 1/2" CCD 3 1/2" CCD Resolution 480 TV lines 850 TV lines 800 TV lines 480 TV lines Visible light sensitivity Ordinary Recording 1.5 lx 0.02 lx lx lx lx lx 0.3 lx (Visible light color) 0.02 lx (Near infrared rays) Lens Zoom lens 16 times mm 33 times mm 17 times mm 18 times mm Camera stand maximum 180 /s maximum 49 /s maximum 90 /s maximum 45 /s Lighting Mass Built-in option Fitted to outside option Fitted to outside option Near infrared ray lighting 13.5 kg About 70 kg About 20 kg About 20 kg Features Tracking through high-speed rotation Fitting for night surveillance Fitting for night surveillance Near infrared rays give it high concealment Aim of installation Limited to night surveillance of preset area For wide-area night surveillance For wide-area night surveillance For night surveillance of concealment includes a surveillance system for preventing unauthorized access to specific facilities from outside and a system for checking the credentials of persons entering the facility via authorized gates. A third system oversees and integrates the first two systems. The unauthorized access surveillance system has detector sensors located near the fence or other barrier that marks the perimeter of the facility s property, as well as surveillance cameras for viewing the areas the sensors cover. The access-egress control system has equipment installed at the gates or doors where visitors are authorized to enter or leave the facility. It includes ID card readers for confirming the information on ID cards concerning the credentials of persons entering the facility. The control room is fitted with television monitors for monitoring the various systems, computers for displaying various information, and a control console containing the various operation buttons and switches. TABLE 3. Comparison of Selected Cards This chart compares selected types of cards. In the future, the use of smart cards is expected to be mainstream, because of their data security capabilities. Bar code Electromagnetic cards IC cards Prevention of counterfeiting Data volume : good : not so good : bad Cost Unauthorized Access Surveillance System The unauthorized access surveillance system uses various kinds of sensors for surveillance of unauthorized access. It is necessary to select the most appropriate sensors depending on the surrounding environment, the prevailing weather of the particular location, and other factors. Table 1 provides a
4 TABLE 4. Comparison of Personal Authentication Equipment This table compares selected personal authentication devices. Hitachi has developed an easy-to-use device that is also difficult to trick with counterfeits. Confirmation of organism Fingerprint minutia Hand geometry Iris Face Voice Size of device Physical Security Systems 76 Per square centimeter Points per feature Access control, wet skin, dry skin Per every 10 square centimeters Size of palm, length, proportion Miniaturization of device cm Pattern of iris Miniaturization of device About cm (camera) About 30 mm 15 φ (microphone) Weight of features of object being examined Shape of face, location of eyes and nose Voice wavelength, speed of sound generation, for visitor access/egress/leaving early control Areas of application Future tasks Lighting, shooting angle, interference of background Susceptibility to health condition Signature lines Square centimeter (tablet) Order of lines, writing speed, and shape of letters for access control Access control Countermeasures for forged signatures Finger vein Per square centimeter Shape of vein Susceptibility to health condition comparison of unauthorized access sensors. Even among sensors based on the same principle, there is a need to consider adding to them a sensor check function, or a detector function to prevent tampering. Various types of surveillance cameras are available, as seen in the comparison in Table 2. Cameras should be selected and used depending on the lighting conditions at their locations as well as the objects they are monitoring. It is also necessary to design the cameras appropriately, such as selecting the camera cases and the platforms to which they will be fitted. It is important to check the related surveillance camera as soon as feasible after a sensor unit transmits a signal. Among the various methods of doing so Hitachi uses a network based on autonomous distributing for ensuring fast transfer of signals. Utilizing frame memory, meanwhile, a method is used for memorizing still images when a sensor transmits signals. A wide spectrum of reasons can be input for causing the sensors to transmit signals. For confirming that the sensors are working properly, moreover, a system is used that checks each sensor at least once a day. All such data are stored as log files and can be accessed at any time. Access/egress Control Systems systems fit into either of two general categories: card systems, and gate systems. Table 3 shows a representative type of card system. Magnetic cards were mostly used at first in these control systems but IC cards, with their large capacity and high level of security for stored data, can be expected to become the mainstream products in the future. For methods such as those using disposable cards, many types of two-dimensional disposable barcode cards are available and can be expected to be used. As introduced in another article of this issue, there is new type of a card used as an access control system that combines RFID (radio-frequency identification) and infrared raditation. Next, let us discuss access/egress control gates. These gates are particularly effective when the number of authorized persons entering/leaving a facility increases above a certain level, thus making manual control difficult. There are various types of gates. Those providing the highest level of security use extrastrength doors, while the simplest gates are like the passenger wickets at train stations. The most important point concerning gates is that their functions differ widely depending on whether they are manned or not. If a gate is unmanned, the card used will have to include
5 Hitachi Review Vol. 53 (2004), No inside a facility at all times, the central system utilizes an autonomous distributed management system for high-speed processing. Fig. 2 Access/egress Control Gate. These gates are integrated with a function to detect tags on products to prevent shoplifting. a function for authorizing passage of each person, and the gate will have to be designed so that it cannot be easily bypassed, such as by climbing over it. Fig. 2 shows an acess/egress control gate with a function for checking the carrying out of valuables. In the future, the system is expected to be utilized for goods control using RFID. For the purpose of identifying the persons passing through an unmanned gate, personal authentication devices can be used. Table 4 compares selected personal authentication devices. Hitachi has developed an easy-to-use device that is also difficult-to-trick with counterfeits. It enhances live finger recognition, for example, by using finger vein authentication. Hitachi decided to develop a device that enhances live finger recognition by using finger-vein authentication because it provides a low error rate and meets with little resistance from users. The use of this device is expected to expand in the future. Personal authentication devices will become more familiar to a wider audience as they are gradually used more often in financial institutions and for purposes such as verifying passports. An important point in access/egress control systems is the ability to know at all times where persons are inside a facility after having been granted access. Knowing the location of persons inside a facility: (1) prevents double usage of their cards, and (2) allows a quick search and pinpointing of each person s whereabouts if an emergency situation develops. In order to know the whereabouts of all persons Control Room The control room includes television monitors for confirming images sent from the unauthorized entry surveillance system cameras. Each person in the control room should be in charge of no more than 3 4 television monitors, and the monitors should always display images from the surveillance cameras in predetermined cycles. When a sensor transmits a signal, the system automatically switches to the images being sent from the related surveillance cameras. In the most up-to-date systems, frame memory is used for constantly memorizing images from each of the cameras cyclically. When a sensor transmits a signal, the constant cyclic monitoring is stopped, the image on the related monitor at the time the sensor signal was sent is confirmed, and the cause of the signal is correctly determined. Related to the access/egress control system, the console in the control room is fitted with buttons for operating each gate and has monitors connected to surveillance cameras that monitor the gates and their surrounding areas. It is especially important to establish a method for confirming whether or not an ID card belongs to a specific person when an error is generated at a control gate related to confirmation of a person s access qualifications. SYSTEMS IN FUTURE Devices for Detecting Dangerous Objects Key facilities are expected to increase their level of security in the future, and they might add explosives and chemicals among the hypothetical threats. For those reasons, it will become more important in future systems to include devices for detecting dangerous objects. Ideally, bulk-type X-ray devices and trace-type devices for detecting dangerous objects should both be utilized. Hitachi is developing products in both categories, and in the future will provide solutions that integrate new products into security systems used up to now. The bulk-type X-ray devices and trace-type devices are introduced in another article of this issue. X-ray Equipment for Use in Inspecting Motor Vehicles As a product for more effective inspection of motor vehicles that enter the precincts of key facilities,
6 Physical Security Systems 78 Hitachi is currently developing X-ray equipment for viewing an entire vehicle at one time. Other Equipment Other equipment that might be mentioned is an image-processing sensor included in the group of sensors for surveillance of unauthorized entry. When image-processing sensors are used outdoors, special care should be taken in choosing the installation location in areas where it frequently snows or is foggy. Such installations are not easy but when successful the sensors are quite effective. Also, as the use of electronic passports and electronic driving licenses becomes more widespread, the use of personal authentication systems is also expected to increase. Hitachi is therefore continuing its development of such systems. CONCLUSIONS As described above, Hitachi has developed a variety of security systems including bulk-type X-ray using new technology and trace-type devices for detecting dangerous objects. Moreover, in the field of access/ egress control, we have developed an access-control system that utilizes RFID and infrared radiation and a finger-vein authentication system making Hitachi one of the new manufactureres that can provide a total physical security system. It was said in the past that systems and their equipment became more difficult to use when the level of security was increased. For its part, Hitachi will continue to develop systems and equipment that will be easy to use even as the level of security is increased.
A specifier s guide to access control systems October 2012 For other information please contact: British Security Industry Association t: 0845 389 3889 f: 0845 389 0761 e: firstname.lastname@example.org www.bsia.co.uk
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