Demographic Analysis of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Using 2010 Census and 2010 American Community Survey Estimates

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1 Demographic Analysis of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Using 2010 Census and 2010 American Community Survey Estimates Completed for: Grants & Contract Office The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community East Osborn Road Scottsdale, AZ Completed by: Arizona Rural Policy Institute Center for Business Outreach W.A. Franke College of Business Northern Arizona University

2 This report was prepared by the Arizona Rural Policy Institute, Northern Arizona University, partially funded under an award from the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Economic Development Administration or the U.S. Department of Commerce. The Arizona Rural Policy Institute also receives support from the City of Flagstaff, Coconino County, and the Office of the President, Northern Arizona University 2

3 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 1 List of Tables... 3 List of Figures... 4 Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community... 5 Demographic Analysis... 5 Introduction... 5 Population... 6 Gender... 7 Age... 8 Population Under 18 Years Median Age Race Ethnicity Households Children Under 18 Years Age Living with Grandparent Presence of Multigenerational Households Household Income Supplemental Income Other Income Poverty Children in Poverty Households in Poverty Households Receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Fertility APPENDIX A: THE SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY CENUS Table 1: Total Population and Trends Table 2. Age Males Age 17 and Under Females Age 17 and Under Table 3. Race Table 4. Hispanic or Latino and Race Table 5. Relationship of persons in household Table 6. Households by type Table 7. Household by type of household structure Table 8. Children under 18 years of age living with Grandparent Table 9. Multi-generational and household by sex of partner and presence of children Table 10. Group Quarters Table 11. Housing occupancy and tenure

4 APPENDIX B: THE SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY 2010, 5-YEAR ESTIMATES Table 12: Household income and benefits (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) Table 13: Family income and benefits (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) Table 14: Other income measures (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) Table 15: Poverty status over the last 12 months - households within poverty rates Table 16: Poverty status over the last 12 months Table 17: Poverty status over the last 12 months - children in poverty Table 18: Poverty status over the last 12 months - households within poverty rates Table 19: Poverty status over the last 12 months - households receiving snap support Table 20: Employment status Table 21: Workforce status Table 22: Workers by industry Table 23: Class of worker Table 24: Marital status Table 25: Fertility universe women 15 to 50 who gave birth in the past 12 months Table 26: School enrollment Table 27: Educational attainment population 25 years and older Table 28: Veteran status Table 29: Residence 1 year ago Table 30: Language spoken at home APPENDIX C: THE SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY 2010, 5-YEAR ESTIMATES MARGIN OF ERROR ESTIMATES

5 List of Tables Table 1. Total Population & Trends... 6 Table 2. Gender Ratios... 7 Table 3. Age Groups by 5 Year Cohorts... 9 Table 4. Single year age by gender for those under 18 years of age Table 5. Demographic Profile the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, Census Table 5. Demographic Profile the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community continued Table 6. Race Table 7. Ethnicity Table 8. Household Structure Table 9. Household Structure Table 10. Household by Type of Household Structure Table 10. Household by Type of Household Structure.continued Table 11. Children under 18 years of age living with a grandparent householder Table 12. Household Income (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Table 13. Household Income and Benefits (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Table 14. Other Income Measures (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Table 15 Poverty Status over the Last 12 Months Table 16. Poverty Status over the Last 12 Months - Children in Poverty Table 17. Households Within Poverty Rates Table 18. Households Receiving SNAP Assistance Table 19. Fertility

6 List of Figures Figure 1. Percent Population Change 2000 to 2010 Arizona, Maricopa County & the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community... 6 Figure 2. Age Cohorts for Arizona, Maricopa County & the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Figure 3. Population Pyramid - the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Figure 4. Median Age in Years Figure 5. Ethnicity Figure 6. Average Household and Family Size Figure 7. Household Relationships Figure 8. Household Structure Figure 9. Households headed by single mothers Figure 10. Percentage of children under 18 living with a grandparent householder Figure 11. Presence of multigenerational households Figure 12. Percentage of household income by range Figure 13. Supplemental Income Figure 14. Persons in Poverty by Age Figure 15. Households by Poverty Ratios Figure 16. Birth Rates per 1000 Women

7 Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Demographic Analysis Introduction This analysis of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community was undertaken by the Arizona Rural Policy Institute (ARPI) in the W.A. Franke College of Business at Northern Arizona University for the planning department of Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The ARPI has produced the Demographic Profile for Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, with the latest information available from the 2010 Census and the 2010 American Community Survey (5-year estimates). Once the American Community Survey (ACS) data estimates for the 5-year series became available the ARPI completed the analysis, which follows in the document. This document is provided to Arizona tribes as a product of the EDA Technical Assistance grant provided by the EDA to the ARPI at Northern Arizona University. Although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. Therefore, this report incorporates two major data sources. First, the official 2010 Census, primarily from the SF1 data report to produce data on the population, age, race and ethnicity relative to Salt River Pima-Maricopa. The second data source is the American Community Survey, 5-year estimate data for the period 2006 to 2010 and is annotated in the document as ACS 2010 (5-year estimates). The 2010 ACS 5-year estimates are based on data collected between January 2006 and December The data were used to analyze household income, poverty rates, employment, language use and household characteristics for Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. Only the 5-year estimates are used as the data was provided for small geographic areas, representing the average characteristics over the 5-year period. The analysis of demographics for Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community first examines the 2010 Census and then the American Community Survey where data is available. Demographic characteristics are outlined by three separate levels, the State of Arizona, Maricopa County and the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. Comparisons between the State of Arizona and Maricopa County serve to provide further levels of comparison when examining demographic characteristics of the tribe versus the County and the State. The attached Excel spreadsheet contains the official tabular data for the seven districts from the ACS along with the margins of error used to calculate the estimates for the ACS. 5

8 Population The population of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community decreased slightly (-1.8%) in 2010 when compared to This decrease of 116 tribal members, however, may not truly reflect the actual change in the tribe between the census periods. The SF1 census is considered the official count, and accounts for only the population within the exterior boundaries of the community tribal lands. Both the state (24.6%) and the county (24.2%) grew rapidly between the census in 2000 and The rate of population growth in Maricopa County is the highest in the State and one of the highest in the Nation. Table 1. Total Population & Trends Salt River Pima-Maricopa Total Population and Trends Arizona Maricopa County Indian Community Total Population ,130,632 3,072,149 6,405 Total Population ,392,017 3,817,117 6,289 Change in Population % 24.2% -1.8% Source: Census 2000, 2010 SF1 Figure 1. Percent Population Change 2000 to 2010 Arizona, Maricopa County & the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 6

9 Percent Population Change (source: Census SF & 2010) 24.6% 24.2% Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community -1.8% Gender There are slightly more females (52.6%) than males (47.4%) within the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. The gender ratios in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are lower for males in both the State (49.7%) and the County (49.5%). Females (52.6%) comprise a larger proportion of the population among the Salt River Pima-Maricopa tribal members than either the State (50.3%) or the County (50.5%). Table 2. Gender Ratios Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Arizona Males 3,175,823 1,888,465 2,978 Females 3,216,194 1,928,652 3,311 Source: Census 2000, 2010 SF1 7

10 Age The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community is dominated by those under 18 years of age. The under-18 population accounts for 29.8 percent of all tribal members, representing a similar proportion for that age group compared to the State (25.5%) and Maricopa County (26.4%). The fact that almost one-third of the tribe is younger than 18 years of age carries with it important policy implications. The large portion of younger tribal members influences the provision of health and educational services as well as poverty and workforce issues as well. On the other hand, the tribe has a higher percentage of members who are 65 years or older as a proportion of the total population. This age group, those who have retired and are out of the workforce, accounts for 17.0 percent of tribal members compared to 13.8 percent for the State and 12.1 percent for the County. The Salt River Pima-Maricopa have a slightly different age profile to other Arizona tribes, with this greater percentage of tribal members over 65 years of age. Finally, those age 18 to 64 years account for 53.1 percent of the tribal members, which is lower than the State (60.7%) and the County (61.5%). The large number of tribal young persons will have an effect on the development of the tribal workforce in the future. See Table 3 and Figure 1. 8

11 Table 3. Age Groups by 5 Year Cohorts Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Age by Five Year Cohorts Arizona Under 5 years 455, , to 9 years 453, , to 14 years 448, , to 17 years 270, , and 19 years 190, , years 93,756 54, years 89,342 52, to 24 years 259, , to 29 years 439, , to 34 years 416, , to 39 years 415, , to 44 years 406, , to 49 years 427, , to 54 years 415, , to 59 years 375, , and 61 years 144,092 78, to 64 years 206, , and 66 years 119,102 62, to 69 years 163,764 83, to 74 years 215, , to 79 years 162,261 84, to 84 years 118,278 63, years and over 103,400 59, Total 6,392,017 3,817,117 6,289 Source: Census 2010 SF1 9

12 Figure 2. Age Cohorts for Arizona, Maricopa County & the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 2010 Age groupings percentage <18, 18 to 64 and 65+ as percent of total population (Source: 2010, SF1) 60.7% 61.5% 53.1% 25.5% 26.4% 29.8% 13.8% 12.1% 17.0% <18 Year 18 to 64 Year 65+ Year Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 10

13 A population pyramid, also called an age structure diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. The population pyramid below (Figure 3) illustrates the difference between males and females for the 5-year age cohorts. The under-18 age cohorts are symmetrical indicating that there are even numbers of males and females. The population between 20 and 21 years of age represent a small and missing part of the distribution. At the top of the age pyramid there are more females than males, which is a demographic reality since women tend to live longer than men. The age pyramid provides an illustrated snapshot of the age structure of the tribal members at the time of the 2010 census. Figure 3. Population Pyramid - the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community years and over 80 to 84 years 75 to 79 years 70 to 74 years 67 to 69 years 65 and 66 years 62 to 64 years 60 and 61 years 55 to 59 years 50 to 54 years 45 to 49 years 40 to 44 years 35 to 39 years 30 to 34 years 25 to 29 years 22 to 24 years 21 years 20 years 18 and 19 years 15 to 17 years 10 to 14 years 5 to 9 years Under 5 years Population Pyramid - the Salt River Pima- Maricopa Indian Community (Source: 2010, SF1) -5.0% -4.0% -3.0% -2.0% -1.0% 0.0% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0% 4.0% 5.0% Female: Male: 11

14 Population Under 18 Years Children under 18 years of age account for 29.8 percent of all tribal members. There are 2,978 males and 3,311 female tribal members, of those 31.4 percent of all males are under age 18 and 28.5 percent of all females are under age 18. There are more males under age 5 years (35.9%) than females (30.9%), while the sex ratios are similar for those between 5 and 10 and 11 to 17 years of age. See Table 4. Table 4. Single year age by gender for those under 18 years of age Male: Female: Total Population 2,978 Male % 3,311 Female % Under 1 year 41 4% 50 5% 1 year 51 5% 45 5% 2 years 53 6% 60 6% 3 years 61 7% 51 5% 4 years 60 6% 37 4% 5 years 69 7% 48 5% 6 years 46 5% 74 8% 7 years 54 6% 54 6% 8 years 58 6% 41 4% 9 years 37 4% 43 5% 10 years 48 5% 57 6% 11 years 41 4% 64 7% 12 years 49 5% 60 6% 13 years 45 5% 46 5% 14 years 48 5% 51 5% 15 years 46 5% 37 4% 16 years 62 7% 54 6% 17 years 65 7% 70 7% Total Under 18 Years of age % % Source: Census 2010 SF1 12

15 Median Age The median age (point that splits the population where 50% are above and 50% are below) for the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community members is 36 years, with males and females aged 33 and 38 years respectively. The median age of tribal members is the same as the State (36 years of age) and slightly older than the County (34 years). This statistic serves once more to emphasize the slightly older age profile of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. See Figure 4. Figure 4. Median Age in Years 2010 Median age in years (Source: Census 2010, SF1) Median Age Median Age Male Median Age Female Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 13

16 Table 5. Demographic Profile the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, Census 2010 Salt River Pima-Maricopa Arizona Maricopa County Indian Community Total Population ,130,632 3,072,149 6,405 Total Population ,392,017 3,817,117 6,289 Change in Population % 24.2% -1.8% Males 3,175,823 1,888,465 2,978 Females 3,216,194,928,652 3,311 Population Density persons per square mile Land Area Square Miles , Males 49.7% 49.5% 47.4% Females 50.3% 50.5% 52.6% Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Maricopa 5 Year Age Cohorts Arizona County Under 5 years 455, , to 9 years 453, , to 14 years 448, , to 17 years 270, , and 19 years 190, , years 93,756 54, years 89,342 52, to 24 years 259, , to 29 years 439, , to 34 years 416, , to 39 years 415, , to 44 years 406, , to 49 years 427, , to 54 years 415, , to 59 years 375, , and 61 years 144,092 78, to 64 years 206, , and 66 years 119,102 62, to 69 years 163,764 83, to 74 years 215, , to 79 years 162,261 84, to 84 years 118,278 63, years and over 103,400 59,

17 Table 5. Demographic Profile the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community continued Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Arizona Median Age Median Age Male Median Age Female Age Group Demographics Age 0 to 17 1,488, ,524 1, to 24 Years 407, , to 44 Years 887, , to 64 Years 1,096, , Years and Over 1,088, ,846 1, Years and Over 729, , & Over 4,763,003 2,809,256 4,413 Male 18 & Over 2,343,919 1,373,545 2,044 Female 18 & Over 2,419,084 1,435,711 2, & Over 4,478,620 2,642,761 4, to 19 Years 461, , Males 65 & Over 401, , Females 65 & Over 480, , Source: Census 2010 SF1 15

18 Race Not surprisingly, the majority of Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community tribal members identify themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native alone (71%), while the remaining 27 percent are split between white alone (22%), some other race alone (2%), and multi-race persons (3%). This stands in strong contrast to the State which is 73 percent white alone, and the County which is 72 percent white alone. See Table 6. Table 6. Race RACE: Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Population 6,392,017 % 3,817,117 % 6,289 % White alone 4,667,121 73% 2,786,781 73% 1,409 22% Black or African American alone 259,008 4% 190,519 5% 19 0% American Indian and Alaska Native 78,329 2% 4,496 71% alone 296,529 5% Asian alone 176,695 3% 132,225 3% 14 0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific 7,790 0% 9 0% islander alone 12,648 0% Some Other Race alone 761,716 12% 489,705 13% 125 2% Multi Race - Persons reporting more than one race 218,300 3% 131,768 3% 217 3% Source: Census 2010 SF1 16

19 Ethnicity In terms of ethnicity, about one in eight (14.1%) Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community tribal members self-identify as Hispanic or Latino. This is about half the rate of the State (29.6%) and the surrounding County (29.6%). See Table 7 and Figure 5. Table 7. Ethnicity HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN: Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Population 6,392,017 % 3,817,117 % 6,289 % Not Hispanic or Latino: 4,496, % 2,688, % 5, % Hispanic or Latino: 1,895, % 1,128, % % Source: Census 2010 SF1 Figure 5. Ethnicity Ethnicity - Hispanic and Non-Hispanic (Source: Census SF1, 2010) 85.9% 70.4% 70.4% 29.6% 29.6% 14.1% Not Hispanic or Latino: Hispanic or Latino: Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 17

20 Households In 2010, there were 2,198 households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, with an average household size of 2.9 persons and an average family size of 3.7 persons. The average household size of 2.9 persons is slightly larger than the State average (2.6 persons) and the County average (2.7 persons). The average family size for tribal members (3.7 persons), which is also larger than the State and the County, where the average is 3.2 and 3.3 persons respectively. See Figure 6. Figure 6. Average Household and Family Size Average Household and Family Size (Source: Census 2010, SF1) Average Household Size Average Family Size Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 18

21 The next portion of this analysis concerns households and their structure. The Census, defines as household as a person or group of people who occupy a housing unit. The householder is a person in whose name the housing unit is owned, being bought, or rented. A family household consists of a householder and one or more people living together in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption it may also include people unrelated to the householder. If the householder is married and living with his/her spouse, then the household is designated a married-couple household. The remaining types of family households not maintained by a married couple are designated by the sex of the householder. A nonfamily household consists of a person living alone or a householder who shares the home with nonrelatives only; for example, with roommates or an unmarried partner. Family households (63.0%) dominate on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, although traditional married couple families are in the minority (31.2%), lower than the State (48.1%) or the County (47.8%). Households headed by a female (single moms) account for almost one-fourth (24.2%) of all households. Half (55.4%) of all households are either married couple families (31.2%) or households headed by single mothers (24.2%). Other household structures include non-family households (37.0%), the majority of whom are unmarried partner households (9.4%). See Table 8 and Figure 7. Table 8. Household Structure Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Arizona Maricopa County Community Total Households 2,380,990 % 1,411,583 2,198 Family Households (Families) 1,576, % 932, % 1, % With Own Children Under 18 Years 465, % 443, % % Married Couple Family 1,146, % 675, % % With Own Children Under 18 Years 465, % 296, % % Female householder, No Husband Present 296, % 175, % % With own children under 18 years (single mothers) 169, % 102, % % Non Family Households 804, % 478, % % Unmarried Partner Households 186, % 111, % % Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households 20, % 12, % % Householder Living Alone 621, % 365, % % Households With Individuals Under 18 Years 800, % 291, % % Households With Individuals 65 Years and Over 628, % 495, % % Average Household Size Average Family Size Source: Census 2010 SF1 19

22 Unmarried partner households (9.4%) occur at a slightly higher rate in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community than at the State (7.8%) or the County (7.9%). Households with a member over age 65 account for a slightly smaller percentage of the tribal population (33.6%) than they do in the County (35.1%) but is higher than the State (26.4%). Finally, tribal households are more likely to be headed by a single mother with their own children under age 18 (11.0%) than the State (7.1%) or the County (7.3%). Figure 7. Household Relationships 60.0% Household Relationships 2010 (source: Census SF1 2010) 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Married Couple Family Married Couple kids <18 years Female householder Single mothers own children <18 Households With kids < 18 Households Individuals 65+ Years Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community In terms of household characteristics 34.9 percent of all households are headed by a householder, lower than the State (37.2%) or the County (37.0%). Spouse headed households comprise a minority of Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community tribal households (10.9%) far less than the State (17.9%) or the County (17.7%). Children comprise almost one-third of all households (29.9%), similar to the State (28.9%) or the County (30.0%). See Table 9 and Figure 8. 20

23 Table 9. Household Structure Relationships to People in the Household Arizona Maricopa County The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Householder 2,380, % 1,411, % 2, % Spouse 1,146, % 675, % % Child 1,845, % 1,144, % 1, % Other Relatives 464, % 275, % 1, % Non Relatives 415, % 256, % % Non-Relative Under 18 32, % 19, % % Non-Relative Over 65 23, % 11, % % Unmarried Partner 186, % 111, % % Source: Census 2010 SF1 Figure 8. Household Structure 40.0% Relationships to People in Household (Source: Census 2010, SF1) 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Householder Spouse Child Other Relatives Non Relatives Non- Relative Under 18 Non- Relative Over 65 Unmarried Partner Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 21

24 Family households dominate among Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community tribal members (63%), compared to 66 percent for the State and the County. Non-family households account for one third (37%) of tribal member households more than the State or County (34%). Husband and wife families account for half (50%) of households, whereas residents of the State (73%) and the County (72%) are much more likely to live in husband and wife households. Households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are three times more likely to be headed by a female householder (38.4%) with no husband present. Households headed by single mothers are far less prevalent at the State or County (12.4% each). Households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are as likely (34%) to have children under the age of 18 living in the household, as are households in the State (34%) and the County (34%). See Table 10 and Figure 9. Figure 9. Households headed by single mothers Households headed by single mothers (Source: Census 2010, SF1) 38.4% 12.4% 12.4% Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 22

25 Table 10. Household by Type of Household Structure Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Population 6,392,017 3,817,117 6,289 Under 18 years 1,624,111 25% 1,005,149 26% 1,871 30% 18 years and over 4,628,522 72% 2,758,791 72% 4,413 70% Average Household Size Children Under 18 years Total Households 2,380,990 1,411,583 2,198 Family households: 1,576,520 66% 932,814 66% 1,384 63% Husband-wife family 1,146,036 73% 675,057 72% % Other family: 430,484 27% 257,757 28% % Male householder, no wife present 134,171 6% 82,206 6% % Female householder, no husband present 296,313 12% 175,551 12% % Nonfamily households 804,470 34% 478,769 34% % Householder living alone 621,008 77% 365,212 76% % Householder not living alone 183,462 23% 113,557 24% % Households By Presence Of People Under 18 Years total: 2,380,990 1,411,583 2,198 Households With Individuals Under 18 Years 800,348 34% 495,596 35% % Family households: 791, , Husband-wife family: 504,055 63% 317,584 64% % Under 6 years only 114,439 23% 73,065 23% 36 13% Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 135,778 27% 85,375 27% 99 37% 6 to 17 years only 253,838 50% 159,144 50% % Other family: 287,271 12% 172,520 12% % Male householder, no wife present: 85,119 30% 52,174 30% 93 20% Under 6 years only 22,353 8% 13,743 8% 16 3% Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 18,947 7% 11,722 7% 27 6% 6 to 17 years only 43,819 15% 26,709 15% 50 11% Female householder, no husband present: 202,152 70% 120,346 70% % Under 6 years only 41,608 21% 24,921 21% 53 14% Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 48,367 24% 28,292 24% % 6 to 17 years only 112,177 55% 67,133 56% % 23

26 Table 10. Household by Type of Household Structure.continued Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Nonfamily households: 9,022 5,492 3 Male householder: 6,642 74% 4,040 74% 1 Under 6 years only 1,465 22% % 1 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years % % 0 6 to 17 years only 4,457 67% 2,690 67% 0 Female householder: 2,380 26% 1,452 26% 2 Under 6 years only % % 0 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 218 9% % 0 6 to 17 years only 1,616 68% % 2 Households with no people under 18 years: 1,580, ,987 1,459 Family households: 785,194 50% 442,710 48% % Husband-wife family 641,981 82% 357,473 81% % Other family: 143,213 18% 85,237 19% % Male householder, no wife present 49,052 34% 30,032 35% 73 31% Female householder, no husband present 94,161 66% 55,205 65% % Nonfamily households: 795,448 50% 473,277 52% % Male householder 388,487 49% 229,508 48% % Female householder 406,961 51% 243,769 52% % Source: Census 2010 SF1 24

27 Children Under 18 Years Age Living with Grandparent Children under age 18 are four times more likely to live with grandparents on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (8.0%) than they are in the State (2.3%) or in the County (2.0%). There are few differences between the proportions of children by age living with grandparents, when comparing the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community to the State or the County. See Table11 and Figure 10. Table 11. Children under 18 years of age living with a grandparent householder Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total population under 18 living with Grandparents 146, % 77, % % Under 3 years 42, % 23, % % 3 and 4 years 22, % 2, % % 5 years 9, % 5, % % 6 to 11 years 43, % 2, % % 12 to 17 years 29, % 4, % % Source: Census 2010 SF1 25

28 Figure 10. Percentage of children under 18 living with a grandparent householder Children under 18 years of age living with Grandparent Householder (Source: Census 2010, SF1) 8.0% 2.3% 2.0% Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 26

29 Presence of Multi-generational Households Households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are twice as likely to be multi-generational (10.3%), than households in the State (4.9%) or the County (4.7%) generally. The Census defines multi-generational families as family households consisting of more than two generations, such as a householder living with his/her children and grandchildren. Multi-generational family households may be more likely to reside in areas where new immigrants live with their relatives, in areas where housing shortages or high costs force families to double up their living arrangements, or in areas that have relatively high rates of out-of-wedlock childbearing. See Figure 11. Figure 11. Presence of multi-generational households Presence of multigenerational households (Source: Census 2010, SF1) 10.3% 4.9% 4.7% Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 27

30 Household Income The median household income for the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community is $31,892, less than the County ($55,054) and less than the State ($51,310). Tribal households are twice as likely to have incomes of less the $20,000 (30%) than households generally in the State (17%) or the County (15%). Tribal members are as likely (27%) to have household incomes between $20,000 and $40,000 and $40,000 and $60,000 as those in the State and the County. One fourth (26%) of tribal members have incomes in excess of $60,000. See Table 12, and Figure 12. Table 12. Household Income (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Household Income (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Arizona Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Maricopa County Total Households 2,326,468 1,382,002 2,149 Less than $10, , % 84, % % $10,000 to $14, , % 60, % % $15,000 to $19, , % 62, % % $20,000 to $24, , % 70, % % $25,000 to $29, , % 70, % % $30,000 to $34, , % 73, % % $35,000 to $39, , % 70, % % $40,000 to $44, , % 71, % % $45,000 to $49, , % 61, % % $50,000 to $59, , % 115, % % $60,000 to $74, , % 151, % % $75,000 to $99, , % 179, % % $100,000 to $124, , % 117, % % $125,000 to $149,999 98, % 68, % % $150,000 to $199,999 85, % 62, % % $200,000 or more 79, % 59, % 5 0.2% Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 28

31 Figure 12. Percentage of household income by range Household Income (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Source: (ACS, 2010) 42% 46% 17% 15% 30% 22% 21% 27% 19% 18% 16% 26% <$20,000 $20,000 to $40,000 $40,000 to $60,000 $60,000+ Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 29

32 Supplemental Income Households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are more likely (13%) to receive Food Stamps than are residents of the State (10%) and the County (8%). Tribal members (43%) are much more likely to receive Social Security income than are citizens in the County (25%) and the State (29%). See Table 13 and Figure 13. Figure 13. Supplemental Income Supplemental Income (source: ACS 2010, 5 year estimate) 43% 29% 25% 25% 3% 4% 2% 2% 5% 10% 8% 13% 21% 19% 16% With Social Security income With Supplemental Security Income (SSI) With public assistance income With cash public assistance or Food Stamps/SNAP With retirement income Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 30

33 Table 13. Household Income and Benefits (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total: Household Income 2,326,468 1,382,002 2,149 Less than $10, ,071 84, $10,000 to $14, ,317 60, $15,000 to $19, ,054 62, $20,000 to $24, ,708 70, $25,000 to $29, ,795 70, $30,000 to $34, ,236 73, $35,000 to $39, ,658 70, $40,000 to $44, ,736 71, $45,000 to $49, ,265 61, $50,000 to $59, , , $60,000 to $74, , , $75,000 to $99, , , $100,000 to $124, , , $125,000 to $149,999 98,457 68, $150,000 to $199,999 85,914 62, $200,000 or more 79,797 59,654 5 Median household income in the past 12 months (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) $50,448 $55,054 $31,892 Households with earnings 1,820,138 1,123,791 1,200 Households with Social Security income 665, , Households with Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 74,011 35, Households with public assistance income 51,253 25, Households with cash public assistance or Food Stamps/SNAP 228, , Households with retirement income 439, , Aggregate Social Security income in the past 12 months $10,000,000,000 $80,000,000,000 $50,943,900 (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) Aggregate Supplemental Security Income (SSI) in the past $640,755,700 $6,000,000,000 $13,076, months Aggregate public assistance income in the past 12 $166,913,400 $319,766,500 $872,000 months (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) Aggregate retirement income in the past 12 months (in $10,000,000,000 $81,186,000 $355, inflation-adjusted dollars) Mean Household Income $67,436 $73,909 $44,895 Mean Household Earnings $52,921 $60,477 $23,706 Mean Household Social Security Income $16,258 $16,504 $14,091 Mean Household retirement Income $22,890 $23,140 $16,768 Mean Household Cash Public Assistance Income $3,257 $3,235 $3,389 Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 31

34 Other Income Per capita Income on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community ($15,719) is lower than the per capita income for the County ($21,816) and the State ($25,680). Correspondingly, the median earnings for workers ($26,081) is also lower than the County ($31,766) and lower than the State ($29,573). See Table 14. Table 14. Other Income Measures (In 2010 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) Maricopa County The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Arizona Per capita income $25,680 $27,816 $15,719 Median nonfamily income $33,003 $36,861 $21,192 All Male Full Time Workers 1,119, , All Female Full Time Workers 785, , Median earnings for workers $29,573 $31,766 $26,081 Median earnings for male full-time, year-round workers $44,021 $45,799 $40,144 Median earnings for female full-time, year-round workers $35,675 $37,601 $32,841 Source: ACS 2010, 5-Year Estimates 32

35 Poverty Poverty rates on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (22%) are slightly higher than the State (15%) and the County (14%). One-third (31%) of all children under 18 years of age are considered to be living in poverty, while one-fifth (19%) of tribal members between 18 and 64 also live in poverty. Overall, one-fifth (19%) of persons living in families on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community live in poverty, a higher rate than families in poverty at the state level (13%) or the County (12%). See Table 15 and Figure 14. Table 15 Poverty Status over the Last 12 Months Maricopa County % Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community % Arizona % Persons for whom poverty status is determined 6,110,304 3,702,339 6,399 Persons Below Poverty 933,113 15% 515,030 14% 1,376 22% Persons under 18 for whom poverty status is determined 1,586, ,161 1,799 Persons under 18 in Poverty 342,607 22% 195,805 20% % Persons aged 18 to 64 for whom poverty status is determined 3,701,150 2,281,617 3,502 Persons aged 18 to 64 in 252,114 11% % Poverty 457,919 12% Persons over 65 for whom poverty status is determined 822, ,561 1,098 Persons over 65 in Poverty 66,473 8% 30,407 7% 81 7% Persons in Families for whom poverty status is determined 4,955,658 3,000,284 5,220 Persons in Families in Poverty 654,359 13% 362,714 12% 1,006 19% Unrelated Persons in Poverty 278,754 6% 152,316 5% 370 7% Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 33

36 Figure 14. Persons in Poverty by Age Persons in Poverty by Age (Source: ACS 2010, 5 year estimates) 31% 22% 22% 20% 19% 19% 15% 14% 12% 11% 8% 7% 7% 13% 12% Persons Below Poverty Persons under 18 Persons 18 to 64 Persons 65 + Persons in Families Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 34

37 Children in Poverty The rates of children under 18 years of age living in poverty are higher for the tribe (22%) than for the State (15%) or the County (14%). The highest poverty rates for tribal members are for school-aged children between the ages of 6 and 17 years, where 30 percent of these children live below the poverty level, a higher rate than both the State (23%) and the County (23%). See Table 16. Table 16. Poverty Status over the Last 12 Months - Children in Poverty Arizona Maricopa County The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Persons for whom poverty status is determined 6,110,304 3,702,339 6,399 Persons with income below poverty level: 933,113 15% 515,030 14% 1,376 22% Children under 5 in households with income below poverty level 65,753 7% 37,980 7% 107 8% Children 5 in households with income below poverty level 27,895 3% 15,056 3% 4 0% Children between the ages of 6 and 17 with income below poverty level 210,090 23% 117,529 23% % Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 35

38 Households in Poverty The Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is poor. If a family s income is less than a family s threshold, then that family and every individual in it, is considered poor. Further the ratio of income to poverty can be used to measure the degree or depth of poverty. The ratio of income to poverty compares a person s income with their poverty threshold, and expresses the comparison as a fraction. For example, a poverty ratio of 1.0 (income at 100% of poverty level) means a person is living right at the poverty line; a ratio of 0.5 (income at 50% of poverty level) would mean that a person is living in a household making only half the income designated as the poverty threshold. The Census Bureau describes those with family incomes below one half of their poverty threshold as being severely poor. People with incomes at or above their threshold but below 125 percent of their threshold are classified as near poor. One-fifth (22%) of households on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are classified as severely poor, with poverty ratios that ranges from below 0.5 to.99. These rates are higher than those of the State (15%) or the County (14%). A further 8 percent of tribal member are classified as near poor with poverty ratios between 1.00 and 1.24, double that of the State and County. The data indicates that 30 percent of households lie below the poverty line, while the remaining 70 percent are said to live above the poverty line. See Table 17 and Figure 15. Table 17. Households Within Poverty Rates Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total: Households 6,110,304 3,702,339 6,399 Under ,779 7% 244,812 7% %.50 to ,334 8% 270,218 7% % 1.00 to ,062 5% 165,324 4% 498 8% 1.25 to ,124 5% 168,640 5% % 1.50 to ,445 7% 233,681 6% 394 6% 1.85 to ,042 3% 100,405 3% 208 3% 2.00 and over 3,972,518 65% 2,519,259 68% 3,215 50% Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 36

39 Figure 15. Households by Poverty Ratios Household by Poverty Rates (Source: ACS 2010, 5 year estimates) 80% 82% 71% 10% 7% 7% 8% 7% 12% 5% 4% 8% Severly Poor (Under.50) On Poverty Line (1.0) Near Poor (1.0 to 1.24) Not Poor (1.25 to 2.00 and over) Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 37

40 Households Receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) About one in 10 households (12.5%) on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community receive Food Stamp assistance from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). This rate is higher than the State (9.1%) or the County (7.6%). The proportion of elderly over 65 years of age receiving SNAP assistance (1.7%), a lower percentage than the same age groups in the State (2%) or County (1.4%). See Table 18. Table 18. Households Receiving SNAP Assistance The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Maricopa Arizona County Total Households 2,326,468 1,382,002 2,149 Household received Food Stamps/SNAP in the past 105, months: 212,791 At least one person in household 60 years or over 46,099 19, No people in household 60 years or over 166,692 85, Household did not receive Food Stamps/SNAP in the 1,276,563 1,880 past 12 months: 2,113,677 At least one person in household 60 years or over 736, ,904 1,037 No people in household 60 years or over 1,377, , Source: ACS 2010, 5 Year Estimates 38

41 Fertility The birth rate for women between the ages of 15 and 50 years for the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community is 5.8 percent, which is lower than the County and the State (6.2% each). The proportion of unmarried women giving birth on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (7.5%) is, however, almost twice the level of the State (4.3%) and the County (4.2%). See Table 19 and Figure 16. Table 19. Fertility Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Maricopa Arizona County Women 15 to 50 years old 1,509, ,446 1,626 Unmarried Women 15 to 50 years old 781, ,624 1,146 Women 15 to 50 years old who had a birth in 58, the past 12 months 93,740 Unmarried women who gave birth 33,462 20, Women 15 to 19 years of age 218, , Women 20 to 34 years of age 624, , Women 35 to 50 years of age 666, , Births Per 1,000 unmarried women Births Per 1,000 women 15 to 50 years old Births Per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years old Births Per 1,000 women 20 to 34 years old Births Per 1,000 women 35 to 50 years old

42 Figure 16. Birth Rates per 1000 Women 140 Births per 1000 Women (Source: ACS 2010, 5 year estimates) Unmarried women Women 15 to 50 years old Women 15 to 19 years old Women 20 to 34 years old Women 35 to 50 years old Arizona Maricopa County Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community These data provide a snapshot in time for the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, primarily the status of the population at the time of the 2010 Census and the American Community Survey estimates for the period 2006 to

43 APPENDIX A: THE SALT RIVER PIMA-MARICOPA INDIAN COMMUNITY CENUS

44 Table 1: Total Population and Trends The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Population ,405 Total Population 6,289 Males 2,978 Females 3,311 Population Density (persons per square mile) 76 Total Area Square Miles 85 42

45 Table 2. Age The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian 5 Year Age Cohorts Community Under 5 years to 9 years to 14 years to 17 years and 19 years years years to 24 years to 29 years to 34 years to 39 years to 44 years to 49 years to 54 years to 59 years and 61 years to 64 years and 66 years to 69 years to 74 years to 79 years to 84 years years and over 104 Median Age 36 Median Age - Male 33 Median Age - Female 38 Age 0 to 17 1, to 24 Years to 44 Years to 64 Years Years and Over 1, Years and Over & Over 4,413 Male 18 & Over 2,044 Female 18 & Over/ 2, & Over 4, to 19 Years 553 Male 65 & Over 457 Female 65 & Over

46 Males Age 17 and Under The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Male: 2,978 Under 1 year 41 1 year 51 2 years 53 3 years 61 4 years 60 5 years 69 6 years 46 7 years 54 8 years 58 9 years years years years years years years years years 65 44

47 Females Age 17 and Under The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Female: 3,311 Under 1 year 50 1 year 45 2 years 60 3 years 51 4 years 37 5 years 48 6 years 74 7 years 54 8 years 41 9 years years years years years years years years years 70 45

48 The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Males 2,978 Under 5 years to 9 years to 14 years to 17 years and 19 years years years to 24 years to 29 years to 34 years to 39 years to 44 years to 49 years to 54 years to 59 years and 61 years to 64 years and 66 years to 69 years to 74 years to 79 years to 84 years years and over 44 46

49 The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Females 3,311 Under 5 years to 9 years to 14 years to 17 years and 19 years years years to 24 years to 29 years to 34 years to 39 years to 44 years to 49 years to 54 years to 59 years and 61 years to 64 years and 66 years to 69 years to 74 years to 79 years to 84 years years and over 60 47

50 Table 3. Race The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Population 6,289 White 1,409 Black or African American 19 American Indian or Alaskan Native 4,496 Asian 14 Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 9 Some Other Race 125 Multi Race - Persons reporting more than one 217 race Hispanic or Latino of any race 887 Not Hispanic or Latino 5,402 Table 4. Hispanic or Latino and Race The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Hispanic or Latino of any race 887 Mexican 817 Puerto Rican 14 Cuban 1 Other Hispanic or Latino 1,719 Not Hispanic or Latino 5,402 48

51 Table 5. Relationship of persons in household The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Householder 2,198 Spouse 686 Child 1,883 Other Relatives 1,144 Non Relatives 373 Non-Relative Under Non-Relative Over Unmarried Partner 206 Table 6. Households by type The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Households 2,198 Family Households (Families) 1,384 Families With Own Children Under 18 Years 514 Married Couple Family 686 Married Couples With Own Children Under Years Female householder, No Husband Present 532 Single Mothers With Own Children Under Years Non Family Households 814 Unmarried Partner Households 206 Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households 16 Householder Living Alone 688 Householder 65 Years and Over 760 Households With Individuals Under 18 Years 739 Average Household Size 2.9 Average Family Size

52 Table 7. Household by type of household structure The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Total Population 6,289 Under 18 years 1, years and over 4,413 Average Household Size 3 Under 18 years 1 Household Type Total: 2,198 Family households: 1,384 Husband-wife family 686 Other family: 698 Male householder, no wife present 166 Female householder, no husband present 532 Nonfamily households 814 Householder living alone 688 Householder not living alone 126 Households By Presence Of People Under 18 Years By Household 2,198 Type By Age Of People Under 18 Years Total: Households With Individuals Under 18 Years 739 Family households: 736 Husband-wife family: 270 Under 6 years only 36 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 99 6 to 17 years only 135 Other family: 466 Male householder, no wife present: 93 Under 6 years only 16 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years 27 6 to 17 years only 50 Female householder, no husband present: 373 Under 6 years only 53 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years to 17 years only 172 Nonfamily households: 3 Male householder: 1 Under 6 years only 1 Under 6 years and 6 to 17 years - 6 to 17 years only - Female householder: 2 50

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