1 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes
3 UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME Vienna Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes August 2010 United Nations New York, 2011
4 United Nations, June All rights reserved. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Publishing production: English, Publishing and Library Section, United Nations Office at Vienna.
5 Preface The Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice has identified the need to provide reliable evidence based on which comprehensive and successful juvenile justice reforms can be developed. In 1997, the Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1997/30, requested the Panel to facilitate the identification of common problems, the compilation of examples of good practices and the analysis of shared experiences and needs, which in turn would lead to a more strategic approach to needs assessment and to effective proposals for action. Given the paucity of evaluation data on best practices, the Panel decided to develop a set of common criteria for the design and evaluation of juvenile justice programmes and the identification of good practices, based on the rights of the child as defined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international norms and standards. The resulting criteria are presented in the hope that they will provide some useful guidance in programme development and evaluation. The criteria presented here were developed by Yvon Dandurand (University of the Fraser Valley, Canada), based on consultations with representatives of Panel member agencies about their programme evaluation objectives and their past experience in attempting to evaluate juvenile justice programmes and identify good practices. The project was guided by the Panel Steering Committee and benefited from the contributions and feedback of the following individuals and agencies: Ileana Bello (Defence for Children International), Judge Andrew Becroft (International Association of Youth and Family Judges and Magistrates), Bernard Boëton (Foundation Terre des hommes child relief), Dr. Karin Bruckmüller (University of Vienna), Vivienne Chin (International Centre for Criminal Law Reform), Anna Giudice Saget (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), Anne Grandjean (United Nations Children s Fund), Kendra Gregson (United Nations Children s Fund), Jean-Claude Legrand (United Nations Children s Fund), Joseph Moyerson (International Association of Youth and Family Judges and Magistrates), Davinia Ovett Bondi (Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice), Ignacio Packer (Foundation Terre des hommes child relief), Nikhil Roy (Penal Reform International), Jean Schmitz (Foundation Terre des hommes child relief), Mia Spolander (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), Diane Swales (United Nations Children s Fund), Benoît Van Keirsblick (Defence for Children International), Anna Volz (Defence for Children International) and Terry Waterhouse (Global Development Institute of the University of the Fraser Valley). This document is endorsed by the following members of the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice: Defence for Children International International Association of Youth and Family Judges and Magistrates Foundation Terre des hommes child relief International Juvenile Justice Observatory Penal Reform International Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations Children s Fund United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime World Organization Against Torture It is open to use and endorsement by other organizations. iii
7 Contents 1. Introduction Background Juvenile justice reforms and programmes Basic principles Public safety objectives of the justice system Core elements of a comprehensive juvenile justice approach Programmes for children victims and witnesses of crime Developing an empirical basis for evidence-based programming Juvenile justice statistics Performance indicators for the juvenile justice system Programme reviews and evaluations Evaluation criteria Programme relevance Programme efficiency and effectiveness Programme impact Programme sustainability Programme transferability Translating evaluation findings into statements of good practices Preliminary identification of goals, objectives and outcomes Measuring outcomes Collecting information on good practices Goals, objectives, outcomes and indicators Annex: Juvenile justice reforms. Programming goals, objectives, outcomes and potential impact Page v
9 1. Introduction Evidence-based programming requires that programme outcomes be monitored and evaluated in order to determine whether the programme s objectives have been achieved. It also requires that evaluation findings be reviewed and integrated into future programming and that good practices and lessons learned through the conduct of previous programmes be identified and taken into account in designing future interventions. In order to carry out all those steps, sound measuring techniques and processes and clear criteria for measuring programme outcomes are required. The main objective of the present publication is to provide a conceptual framework for the design of juvenile justice reform programmes and a general approach for evaluating the impact of those programmes on children and their rights and on crime and public safety. This involves, initially, identifying the general criteria upon which to base such evaluations. The evaluations should make it possible to identify good practices that can be replicated at the national, regional or international level. The criteria must reflect the dual roles of juvenile justice reforms: to protect children and their rights and to protect society by preventing crime and repeat offending. The present publication is based on a review of evaluations conducted by member organizations of the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice 1 and consultations with staff and representatives of Panel member agencies about their programme evaluation objectives and their past experience in attempting to evaluate juvenile justice programmes and identify good practices. Programming should be based on the good practices identified thus far and on lessons learned from past programming initiatives undertaken in various contexts. In identifying good practices, one must rely greatly on the findings of past evaluations. The object of the present exercise, of course, is also forward-looking, as it attempts to specify how Panel members can ensure that evaluations are more rigorous and that more useful information is collected in order to guide programming practices in the area of juvenile justice reform. 2. Background Over the years, the Panel and its member organizations have recognized the need to provide reliable evidence upon which they could design and support comprehensive juvenile justice reforms, as well as specific programmes and projects based on the rights of the child as defined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international standards and norms. 1 The Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice is a group mandated by the Economic and Social Council, under its resolution 1997/30, to act as a coordination panel on technical advice and assistance in juvenile justice. The Panel is currently composed of 14 members (seven United Nations bodies and seven non-governmental organizations) that work to ensure that juvenile justice systems comply with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international norms and standards. 1
10 2 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes In 1997, the Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1997/30, requested the Panel to facilitate the identification of common problems, the compilation of examples of good practices and the analysis of shared experiences and needs, which in turn would lead to a more strategic approach to needs assessment and to effective proposals for action. Accordingly, the Panel began to identify good practices in the areas of legal support, alternative sanctions, capacity-building and training, public awareness and advocacy and monitoring and reporting. A book presenting the experience of Panel member organizations was published. 2 That initiative stopped short of identifying good practices because of the difficulty encountered in trying to arrive at common benchmarks and evaluation criteria. That and other initiatives of the Panel highlighted the fact that there were no commonly agreed criteria to guide programme evaluations, identify good practices and thereby support more rigorous evidence-based programming in the juvenile justice sector. In 2008, the United Nations Children s Fund (UNICEF) undertook research to identify examples of good practices in diversion and alternatives to deprivation of liberty among the programmes supported by its country and regional offices. The methodology used included a self-assessment of the impact of reforms on the number of children deprived of liberty. That attempt at identifying good practices was thwarted in part by difficulties in assessing the impact of juvenile justice programmes, including the lack of sufficient data and the absence of a standardized methodology for collecting such data. In view of these problems, the Panel, at its annual meeting, held in Amman in May 2009, agreed to develop a set of common criteria for the design and evaluation of juvenile justice programmes and the identification of good practices based on the rights of the child as defined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international standards and norms. 3. Juvenile justice reforms and programmes The prevention and control of juvenile offending is best understood as a process consisting of different levels of intervention, including education and prevention at the community level, as well as criminal sanctions and interventions to rehabilitate juvenile offenders and reintegrate them into the community. Articles 37, 39 and 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child pertain to children s rights with respect to the juvenile justice system and, more generally, the criminal justice system as a whole. Other articles of the Convention (arts. 2, 3, 6 and 12) set out the general principles that must be taken into account in addressing the situation of children in conflict with the law (see box 1). 2 Inter-Agency Coordination Panel on Juvenile Justice, Protecting the Rights of Children in Conflict with the Law (2006).
11 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 3 Box 1. Convention on the Rights of the Child: articles 37, 39 and 40 Article 37 Article 39 Article 40 States Parties shall ensure that: (a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below 18 years of age; (b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time; (c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child s best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances; (d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child. 1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child s respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child s age and the desirability of promoting the child s reintegration and the child s assuming a constructive role in society. 2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that: (a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed; (b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees: (i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law; (ii) to be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence; (iii) to have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance
12 4 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes (iv) (v) (vi) and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians; not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality; if considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law; to have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used; (vii) to have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular: (a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law; (b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected. 4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence. Finally, several other international standards exist which are based on widely recognized approaches to juvenile crime and the treatment of children in conflict with the law. 3 These standards must inform and guide reform initiatives in the juvenile justice sector. They provide a compelling framework within which societies and communities are expected to define their own response to juvenile crime and shape the interventions of the criminal justice system in the lives of children in conflict with the law. However, even when taken together, these standards do not provide a specific programming model or specific guidance on how programmes should be designed in order to bring existing practices into compliance with the principles underlying these standards. Since the adoption of the Convention over 20 years ago and despite the many ongoing reform efforts, globally, there has been only modest and uneven progress in ensuring that local and national responses to juvenile crime are both fully respectful of the rights of the child and effective in preventing crime. The social and institutional responses are not always child-centred, as required by the Convention, and they are not always resolutely focused on the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Furthermore, these responses have not always been very effective in preventing crime and contributing to public safety. Many countries have yet to develop a fully functional specialized juvenile justice system or adopt a comprehensive juvenile justice policy. 3 United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (the Beijing Rules) (General Assembly resolution 40/33, annex); the United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (the Riyadh Guidelines) (General Assembly resolution 45/112, annex); the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (General Assembly resolution 45/113, annex); and the Guidelines for Action on Children
13 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 5 Many States parties to the Convention have requested and obtained assistance from members of the Panel in conceptualizing and implementing a more effective response to juvenile crime, grounded in the principles of the Convention and other relevant international standards. When assistance is delivered, in the form of technical assistance and programming initiatives, it is not always very effective, and its outcomes, however modest or considerable, are not always carefully monitored or evaluated. Evidence-based programming and decision-making in this whole sector is still weak; it is lacking the empirical basis that could support it. 3.1 Basic principles The Committee on the Rights of the Child, a body of independent experts monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by States parties, issued General Comment No. 10 (2007), on children s rights in juvenile justice, in order to provide States parties with more elaborated guidance and recommendations for their efforts to establish an administration of juvenile justice in compliance with the Convention. In General Comment No. 10 (2007), the Committee emphasized the need for States parties to adopt a comprehensive approach to juvenile justice and commit themselves to the necessary broad reforms of their criminal justice and social responses to children in conflict with the law. The Committee also reiterated the leading principles that must shape such a comprehensive approach to juvenile justice reforms. Those principles are as follows: (a) The need to ensure that all children in conflict with the law are treated equally and fairly, without discrimination, and, when necessary, to take specific measures to prevent discrimination. One form of discrimination of particular concern remains the practice of many countries of criminalizing certain conducts for children that do not constitute crimes for adults; (b) The need to ensure that, in all decisions concerning children taken within the context of the criminal justice system or its juvenile justice components, the best interest of the child is a primary consideration. This, in practice, is a central principle which many communities find difficult to implement since, on the surface, it often seems to compete even if it does not necessarily do so with the primary purpose of the criminal justice system, which is defined in terms of crime prevention and public safety; (c) The need to ensure that the child in conflict with the law can express his or her views freely and be heard in all matters affecting him or her; (d) The need to ensure that the child is treated in a manner: (i) That is consistent with the child s sense of dignity and worth; (ii) That reinforces the child s respect for the rights and freedoms of others; (iii) That takes into account the child s age; (iv) That promotes the child s reintegration and his or her assuming a constructive role in society; (v) That excludes all forms of violence.
14 6 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes These principles are listed here because they are immediately relevant to a rights-based programming framework for children in conflict with the law and cannot be ignored when defining the criteria against which juvenile justice practices are to be evaluated. 3.2 Public safety objectives of the justice system While the importance of the human rights principles summarized above is emphasized, it is important to recognize that the performance of the juvenile justice system and the effectiveness of other community responses to juvenile crime cannot simply be measured in terms of their compliance with those principles. Such evaluation must also encompass the main objectives of the criminal justice system and the guarantees it offers or fails to offer to offenders, children and adults. In its General Comment No. 10 (2007), the Committee on the Rights of the Child acknowledged that the preservation of public safety was a legitimate aim of the justice system. That aim dictates, at least partly, the choice of the criteria used to evaluate a juvenile justice system or some of its programmatic components. The question is thus how best to achieve the public safety objectives of the justice system while protecting the rights of the child and respecting the principles of juvenile justice enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The public safety objectives of the criminal justice process, as it applies to both adult and child offenders, are at the centre of the public s expectation of that process. To ignore that basic expectation when designing new responses to juvenile crime is to risk depriving such initiatives of the public support required for their success and may even encourage unsupportive or hostile public attitudes towards rights-based reforms in general. This, too, is crucially relevant to the elaboration of criteria for measuring the success of reforms and the overall performance of a juvenile justice system. 3.3 Core elements of a comprehensive juvenile justice approach In addition to identifying some of the basic principles of juvenile justice, the Committee on the Rights of the Child also identified in its General Comment No. 10 (2007) what it considers to be the five core elements of a comprehensive approach to juvenile justice (see box 2). The Committee encouraged States parties to adopt comprehensive and integrated juvenile justice policies but also recognized that individual programmes were likely to focus on one or more aspects of such a comprehensive approach Box 2. Core elements of a comprehensive policy on juvenile justice * 1. Prevention of delinquency General programmes to improve access to education, early childhood education and other measures to facilitate the successful socialization and integration of all children Programmes that provide special care or support to young persons at risk * Based on General Comment No. 10 (2007), sect. IV, of the Committee on the Rights of the Child.
15 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 7 2. Interventions/diversion Improving interventions in the context of judicial proceedings as well as interventions that do not resort to judicial proceedings 3. Setting and complying with a minimum age of criminal responsibility and an upper age limit for juvenile justice 4. Ensuring that every child alleged to have or accused of having infringed criminal law receives fair treatment and a fair trial Ensuring fair treatment and a fair trial involves the following: Prohibiting the retroactive criminalization of a conduct Affirming the presumption of innocence throughout the process Respecting the child s right to be heard in any judicial proceedings affecting him or her Respecting the child s right to effective participation in proceedings and to be informed of charges against him or her Ensuring that the accused child is never compelled to give testimony or to confess or acknowledge guilt Offering legal and other appropriate assistance Encouraging, when appropriate, the presence of parents or guardians during legal proceedings Avoiding unnecessary delays in reaching a decision concerning a child in conflict with the law Respecting the privacy of the child during all stages of the proceedings Giving effect to the child s right to appeal against a verdict or a sentence 5. Measures to restrict the use of measures which deprive children of their liberty and to improve the treatment of children in detention and the conditions under which they are held Ensuring that detention, whether it is at the pretrial or post-trial sentencing stage, is used only as a last resort and for the shortest time period necessary Ensuring that the treatment of children in detention is fair, respectful of their rights and conducive to their prompt rehabilitation and successful reintegration Ensuring that there are effective interventions and programmes, both within juvenile justice institutions and in the community, to assess the needs of children in conflict with the law, support their education and rehabilitation and facilitate their social reintegration Programmes in any of these core areas are often complex and difficult to implement. Their impact is often slow to manifest itself and difficult to measure. That impact is usually difficult to isolate and distinguish from the effect of broader social and cultural factors or the impact of other child protection and education programmes. Building an empirical basis upon which to monitor the implementation and outcomes of comprehensive juvenile policies or core programme initiatives is not an easy task. The following section looks at some potential courses of action.
16 8 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 3.4 Programmes for child victims and witnesses of crime Member organizations of the Interagency Panel are also involved in designing and delivering programmes to address the situation of children who are victims and witnesses of crime, as opposed to children in conflict with the law. Those programmes are very important to the overall goals for child protection of those agencies and to the defence of the rights of the child. Furthermore, many children in conflict with the law are also in some way victims of crime and abuses. However, programmes for victims and witnesses are very different in nature from those developed for children in conflict with the law. For one thing, programmes for child victims and witnesses are typically within the framework of the adult criminal justice system, not the juvenile justice system. We will therefore not include such programmes in the present discussion of the relevant criteria and programme objectives that should be captured in programme evaluations. A separate conceptual exercise similar to the one being undertaken here for juvenile justice programmes would likely also be useful for programmes for victims and witnesses. 4. Developing an empirical basis for evidence-based programming Identifying good practices in juvenile justice reforms requires access to reliable empirical information on crimes committed by children, the functioning of the juvenile justice system, the impact of various interventions on children and their rights and the effectiveness of the justice system in preventing crime and recidivism. 4.1 Juvenile justice statistics Basic information on juvenile delinquency and solid indicators of the justice system s performance with respect to children in conflict with the law are required in order to measure progress towards delinquency prevention and child protection goals. The development of such indicators requires statistical data that, for the most part, are not currently collected in a systematic and reliable manner. The development of national statistics on juvenile justice and juvenile crime is a major undertaking. It is best achieved within the broader context of a functioning process for the collection, analysis and dissemination of statistics on crime and justice. 4 In its General Comment No. 10 (2007), the Committee on the Rights of the Child expressed its deep concern about the lack, in many countries, of basic disaggregated data on, inter alia, the number and nature of offences committed by children, the use and the average duration of pretrial detention, the number of children dealt with by resorting to measures other than judicial proceedings (diversion), the number of children convicted and their age and gender, and the nature and the duration of the sanctions imposed on them. Gender-disaggregated data, for instance, are essential to account for the differential impact of interventions on boys and girls and gender-sensitive programming in general. 4 See Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.XVII.6); see also Cross-Cutting Issues: Crime Prevention Assessment Tool (United Nations publication, Sales No. HS/1232/09E).
17 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 9 The Committee also urged States parties to systematically collect disaggregated data relevant to the information on the practice of the administration of juvenile justice, and necessary for the development, implementation and evaluation of policies and programmes aiming at the prevention and effective responses to juvenile delinquency in full accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. 5 Where data exist on juvenile crime and on the justice system s response to juvenile crime (e.g. arrests, prosecutions, diversion, trials, dispositions and detention), they should, of course, be critically reviewed and used as a basis for programming. Such data, depending on how they are collected and reported, can often provide the baseline information required to monitor and evaluate the outcomes of reforms and programme performance. In the absence of crime and justice information systems in a country or jurisdiction, programming is based on general and often inaccurate perceptions of the existing situation. In other cases, programming is based on a slightly more systematic situation assessment, the scope and reliability of which is limited by a lack of data on the incidence of youth crime and the nature of the justice response to juvenile crime. Distinguishing between cases involving children and those involving adults can prove to be complicated. The development of useful performance indicators for the juvenile justice system is predicated on the presence of reliable statistics on how the system operates and what happens to children in conflict with the law. It is often the case that existing national justice information systems and other statistics collected by justice agencies do not systematically keep data disaggregated by age. When age-disaggregated data exist, the age categories used by these systems may not be the categories which are relevant in the context of the rights of the child or ensuring a functioning juvenile justice system. Each component of the juvenile justice system inevitably creates large quantities of records. However, it is only when such information is systematically transformed into statistical data that these records provide valuable information for decision-making and programming. Therefore, the development of justice information systems capable of producing reliable data disaggregated by age and gender and data on the functioning of the juvenile justice system of the criminal justice system as it relates to children in conflict with the law should be encouraged as a matter of priority. One of the first steps in helping a State reform its juvenile justice system should be, typically, to help it develop its capacity to generate reliable juvenile justice statistics and manage its justice information management systems. While it is possible to develop statistical data collection and analysis processes designed specifically to monitor the impact of a particular programme or project, it is rarely cost-effective or sustainable to do so. The ideal situation is to make use of existing justice information systems that can provide reliable baseline data and some general measurements of the impact of juvenile justice reforms. Such data, if available, can be incorporated into the design of a programme evaluation, thereby significantly increasing the strength and credibility of that evaluation. If such data are not available, it is appropriate to help the juvenile justice system develop its capacity to generate reliable juvenile justice statistics, inter alia, by adopting a system of maintaining files containing all disaggregated data to be collected and checked by the different competent authorities (police officers, prosecutors, judges and social workers). 5 Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 10 (2007), para. 98.
18 10 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 4.2 Performance indicators for the juvenile justice system A well-designed mechanism for monitoring the performance of the juvenile justice system can have a number of useful applications. It can be used to determine and reinforce the accountability structure within the system; improve the quality of existing responses and services; allocate resources, formulate financial forecasts and justify budgets; identify needs for further training and capacity development initiatives; and evaluate the effectiveness and the performance of various aspects of the response to juvenile delinquency. Such a performance-monitoring mechanism can also assist local and national authorities, as well as the Committee on the Rights of the Child, in assessing the compliance of existing juvenile justice policies and practices with the requirements of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant human rights instruments. In addition, indicators can be used to assess the impact of some aspects of new programmes. Although casual observations, anecdotal accounts, sporadic data-gathering exercises and special studies may all be construed as means of providing information on the performance of the juvenile justice system, a more rigorous and systematic approach is required to adequately monitor a complex system such as a juvenile justice system. In the systematic monitoring of performance, key aspects of performance are carefully and periodically measured, recorded and compared with previous results and relevant norms. Monitoring performance of a juvenile justice system takes many forms. The common denominator of all approaches is the systematic collection of evidence on the impact, effectiveness and adequacy of existing responses to juvenile crime, in terms of fulfilling the rights and best interest of the child. Monitoring systems often measure actual performance against fixed standards. The adequacy of existing responses is assessed with reference to a normative framework or specific targets that a system is expected to achieve. In the case of juvenile justice, that normative framework is usually provided by the country s own constitutional legal framework as it relates to the protection of human rights and liberties, as well as to binding international legal standards set out in instruments such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other relevant international legal instruments. Without appropriate and timely data, it is impossible to know where to concentrate efforts to improve the system and protect children or determine whether important goals set for child and social protection goals are being achieved. Performance indicators for the juvenile justice system are necessary both as benchmarks and as means of mobilizing the justice system and persuading those involved to undertake the necessary reforms. An indicator can provide a common way of measuring and presenting information so as to reveal whether certain standards are being met. In order to develop a reliable system for data collection and analysis, it is necessary to have a broad-based agreement within a country on a set of indicators to be used for monitoring the essential components of the juvenile justice system, including components for both community-based crime prevention and criminal justice. Furthermore, statistical comparisons of regions or different time periods are possible only when the integrity of the data is ensured by well-designed and standardized data collection mechanisms and when the data recorded in those mechanisms are uniformly defined and commonly understood. The more rigorous the process of information collection and analysis, the greater the usefulness of the data and the dynamic indicators that will be generated. It is often difficult to implement mechanisms to collect the data related to a set of performance indicators. When the selected indicators require data to be collected at the
19 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 11 national level, a large number of people and organizations must be involved. The ongoing data collection effort must be supported by clear definitions of the data elements, good communication with the people responsible for collecting the data and sufficient training for all those involved. Some resistance to efforts to collect information on efficiency and effectiveness is to be expected. The usefulness of such data may not be obvious to some, and some may feel threatened by the fact that such information is being gathered. The best way to deal with such resistance is to involve those who can provide data in the process of identifying the necessary data elements and defining appropriate measurements. Those individuals must be helped to understand how valuable and useful those data will be for them in the exercise of their functions and responsibilities. Providers of data, at all levels, must feel that the specific measurements that are used are capable of providing meaningful and relevant information that will help improve the service that will be delivered under their responsibility. Finally, it is important to attempt to maximize the utilization of the data gathered at all levels of management in the juvenile justice system. Data collection can be onerous for front-line staff and their managers. People will invest more of their time and energy in the implementation of a data-gathering system if they feel that they can use those data to solve problems and improve their own performance. The United Nations Children s Fund and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime have developed a manual for the measurement of juvenile justice indicators. The Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators 6 is based on a set of 15 indicators: 11 dynamic quantitative indicators and 4 policy indicators. Taken together, the indicators provide a framework for measuring and presenting specific information about the situation of children in conflict with the law. They were not designed to provide exhaustive information on all possible aspects of children in conflict with the law or a country s juvenile justice system. Rather, they constitute a basic data set and comparative tool providing a starting point for the assessment, evaluation and development of policies and services. Where these indicators or an equivalent have been implemented they can provide an ongoing and very useful, if limited, means of monitoring the outcomes of programmes. As such, they can be integrated into a programme evaluation design. 4.3 Programme reviews and evaluations In general terms, evaluating a programme involves determining whether the goals of the programmes were appropriate, the activities were efficiently implemented and the goals were met. Evaluations help us understand to what extent a particular programme or intervention has achieved its intended result. They also inform us about the broader impact, direct and indirect, intended and unintended, of these interventions on stakeholders and institutions. In addition to supporting accountability mechanisms, a proper evaluation is an important source of evidence concerning the results achieved. As such, it is a lessonlearning tool which contributes to building knowledge about how best to achieve programme goals and objectives. In the context of juvenile justice system reforms, evaluations provide a critical tool for learning how to achieve child protection and public safety objectives in an efficient and effective manner. When programme evaluation findings 6 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators (2006).
20 12 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes are compared, good practices can be identified and lessons can be learned, and both can be widely communicated so as to improve the general quality of programming in the whole sector. The Norms for Evaluation in the United Nations System formulated by the United Nations Evaluation Group state the following: An evaluation is an assessment, as systematic and impartial as possible, of an activity, project, programme, strategy, policy, topic, theme, sector, operational area, institutional performance etc. It focuses on expected and achieved accomplishments, examining the results chain, processes, contextual factors and causality, in order to understand achievements or the lack thereof. It aims at determining the relevance, impact, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the interventions and contributions of the organizations of the United Nations system. An evaluation should provide evidence-based information that is credible, reliable and useful, enabling the timely incorporation of findings, recommendations and lessons into the decision-making processes of the organizations of the United Nations system and its members. 7 Using that definition, it is clear that several programmes, projects and interventions are the subject of reviews and assessments which do not fully amount to an evaluation. In fact, there remains confusion in the juvenile justice sector about the difference between various forms of performance monitoring, assessment and evaluation (e.g., reviews, assessments, audits and evaluations). Because so few programmes or major interventions in this programming area are the object of a rigorous evaluation, there seems to be a tendency to use the findings of informal reviews and assessments as if they carried the same credibility and weight as the findings of a proper evaluation. Less systematic assessments and reviews of juvenile justice programmes sometimes contain important lessons for future programming, particularly in relation to various implementation issues. However, the identification of good practices within that whole sector ought generally to rely on more robust data: data generated by independent, systematic and comprehensive evaluations. The United Nations has adopted some evaluation standards which apply to the system as a whole, 8 and some United Nations agencies have adopted their own evaluation policies which are congruent with those norms and standards. 9 Some Panel member organizations have adopted their own policy concerning programme evaluation, and many donor organizations active in the field of juvenile justice have adopted their own results-based management schemes and their own evaluation policies and standards. 10 The general principles and guidelines behind these various policies are generally consistent with each other even if some confusion might result from the use of slightly different terminology United Nations Evaluation Group, Norms for Evaluation in the United Nations System, 2005, para Available from 8 United Nations Evaluation Group, Standards for Evaluation in the United Nations System, Available from 9 The evaluation policy of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is available from documents/evaluation/guidelines/final_evaluation_policy.pdf; the evaluation policy of the United Nations Children s Fund is available from 10 Such as the criteria for evaluating development assistance of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Available from pdf. 11 Some effort has been made to clarify the evaluation terminology. See, for example, the Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Available from pdf. See also the glossary of monitoring and evaluation terms of the Office of Internal Oversight Services. Available from
21 Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Juvenile Justice Reform Programmes 13 Most of these evaluation policies recognize five main evaluation criteria. The following section reviews those criteria and makes suggestions for how to apply them specifically to juvenile justice reform. The General Assembly has requested the United Nations system to conduct evaluations in a way that fosters evaluation capacity-building in Member States to the extent possible. Most agencies active in this sector recognize that there is much to learn from participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. The United Nations Children s Fund for example, has published Country-led Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: Better Evidence, Better Policies, Better Development Results. 12 Similarly, with respect to programmes relating to children in conflict with the law, we should note the importance of children s participation in evaluating programmes that affect them. The Committee on the Rights of the Child has stated that it is important that children be involved in evaluation and research, in particular those who have been in contact with parts of the juvenile justice system Evaluation criteria The essence of a programme evaluation is to measure the intended and unintended outcomes of a programme and relate that to its goals and objectives. The definition of evaluation formulated by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has been adopted by all major international development agencies. The definition contains five evaluation criteria that should be used in assessing development interventions: relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. Most Panel member organizations explicitly use these criteria. The five criteria can be summarized as follows: The relevance of a project or programme is the extent to which its objectives are consistent with the beneficiaries requirements, country needs and priorities, relevant international standards, global priorities and the policies and objectives of partners and donors. Efficiency is a measurement of how well inputs (funds, expertise, time etc.) are converted into outputs. Effectiveness is the extent to which a project or programme attains its objectives and expected accomplishments and delivers the planned outcomes. Impact is the sum of the primary and secondary long-term effects of an intervention, positive or negative, direct or indirect and intended or unintended. Impact is the measurement of all significant effects of the programme, positive or negative, expected or unforeseen, on its beneficiaries and other affected parties. Sustainability is the extent to which the benefits of the project or programme will continue after its completion, including long-term benefits. 12 Available from 13 Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 10 (2007), para. 99.
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