Ch 3 TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Costas A. Balaras, PhD Dr Mechanical Engineer, Research Director

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1 1 BUILDING ENERGY MANAGEMENT M.S. in Energy Systems Ch 3 TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Costas A. Balaras, PhD Dr Mechanical Engineer, Research Director GRoup Energy Conservation (GR.E.C.) INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (IERSD) NATIONAL OBSERVATORY OF ATHENS (NOA) TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Main Contents Repairing faults Techniques for lowering loads Building envelope HVAC equipment Controls Chapter 3 2 BACKGROUND Techniques for lowering energy consumption Maintain Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Select suitable techniques for the specific building e.g., difficult to tamper with basic building construction There are always opportunities to reduce energy conservation The first steps are easier Start with housekeeping, reduce loads and then look for other techniques and systems to save energy, tailored to the building s characteristics and actual needs More difficult when trying to achieve higher energy savings Take into account cost (e.g. payback period) TYPICAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR HIGHER ENERGY PERFORMANCE REPAIR FAULTS Jammed valves, Leaks, Faulty sensors BUILDING ENVELOPE Thermal insulation, Double glazing, Solar control, Draughproofing SERVICES EQUIPMENT Boilers, HPs, Heat recovery, CHP, DHW, Solar collectors, Variable speed fans & pumps, Lighting, PV, Appliances BETTER BUILDING MANAGEMENT Understanding the building Switching off equipment, lights etc Motivating staff Chapter 3 3 Chapter 3 4

2 2 REPAIRING FAULTS Repairing damage to the building fabric & services equipment Poor maintenance will result to poor performance. For example, valves, dampers may get dirty or may shear off internally without knowledge of the system operators. - Dripping taps - Leaking pipes - Holes in windows or walls - Missing or damaged thermal insulation Repair & Maintenance Faults should not remain unattended for long periods It is more cost effective to take on time actions, preventing small problems becoming more serious Calibrate sensors A BMS may help detect problems in HVAC systems Chapter 3 5 Cooling Heating ENERGY BALANCE - LOADS Supply Ventilation Internal Heat Gains from lighting Internal Heat Gains from Occupants & Equipment Exhaust Ventilation Infiltration. (Thermal Losses or Gains) Solar Radiation (Thermal Gains & Daylighting) Heat Losses by conduction through transparent elements Heat Losses by conduction through opaque elements Heat gains & Heat losses (Heating or Cooling Loads) Sensible Loads, heat losses & gains that result to increase or decrease of indoor temperature. Sources: building envelope, solar radiation, ventilation, internal sources (occupants, equipment/appliances, lighting) Latent Loads, heat contained in water vapor that should be removed to condense the moisture out of the air (dehumidification) or add moisture (humidification) to meet desirable indoor conditions. Sources: ventilation, occupants, cooking and other appliances that evaporate water. Latent + Sensible = Total load The internal gains from occupants and the ventilation (including infiltration) introduce both sensible and latent loads. Solar radiation and internal loads always act as thermal gains to the space. Heat transfer through the building envelope because of temperature difference may represent a heat gain or a heat loss, depending on the direction of the heat flow. Heat gains and losses between the indoor and outdoor environment occur primarily by conduction and influenced convection (and radiation). Chapter 3 6 Solar radiation entering the indoor spaces should be controlled: In winter, it reduces heating loads In summer, it increases cooling load Internal heat gains: ENERGY BALANCE EXETRNAL & INTERNAL LOADS Reduce heating loads Increase cooling loads Winter Reduce Heat Losses (e.g. thermal insulation of building envelope, double glazing, draught proofing) Summer Reduce Solar Gains (e.g. solar control) ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Reduce Heating Loads Heat transfer through the building envelope (e.g. walls, roof, pylotis) accounts for 10-25% of total heat losses for most buildings, depending on the type of building envelope construction and outdoor weather conditions For example, a well insulated dwelling (100 m 2 ) consumes about 2 ton of oil less compared to a dwelling without thermal insulation. Buildings ( ): First Hellenic Thermal Insulation Regulation (ΚΘΚ) Π.Δ. Φ.Ε.Κ./ Buildings (as of 2011): ΚΕΝΑΚ & ΤΟΤΕΕ & 2/2010 Ref: E.G. Dascalaki et al., Energy Performance of Buildings - EPBD in Greece, Energy Policy, Vol. 45, p , (2012). Chapter 3 7 Chapter 3 8

3 3 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Reduce Heating Loads Addition of thermal insulation Internal (from the inside) Easier to implement but reduces available indoor living space, disrupts occupancy, will result to thermal bridges External (from the outside) More effective, protects façade building materials, but may impact the building s external appearance (e.g. exposed bricks, stone etc) Allowed according to the building code ΓΟΚ (Ν. 2381/ ) article 7 για τον υπολογισμό του συντελεστή δόμησης που πραγματοποιείται στο οικόπεδο δεν προσμετράται η επιφάνεια που καταλαμβάνεται για την προσθήκη εξωτερικής θερμομόνωσης σε κτίριο που υφίσταται πριν από τις Cavity (in between wall construction layers) Injecting foam insulation in the wall cavity (good option since it has a lower cost than solid wall insulation) HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Insulation Materials ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010) Υλικό Περιγραφή Μορφή υλικού Συντ. θερμικής αγωγιμότητας (W/m.K) Διογκωμένη πολυστερίνη Σκληρό αφρώδες πλαστικό από Πλάκα 0,041 μονομερές στυρένιο με πολυμερισ μό. Προσβάλλεται από έντομα & τρωκτικά, και χημικούς διαλύτες. Εξηλασμένη πολυστερίνη Σκληρό αφρώδες πλαστικό, συγγενές Πλάκα 0,028 0,035 με την διογκωμένη πολυστερίνη, αλλά διαφορετική μέθοδο επεξεργασίας. Προσβάλλεται από έντομα & τρωκτικά, και χημικούς διαλ ύτες. Δεν απορροφά υγρασία. Αυτοσβενόμενο υλικό. Θερμομονωτικά τούβλα Τούβλα με μικρά διάκενα αέρα που Τούβλα 0,063 2,25 W/m 2.K επιτυγχάνονται πριν το ψήσιμο με την ανάλογα με το πάχος του πρόσμιξη στην άργιλο διογκωμένης υλικού πολυστερόλης που στο τέλος αφήνει μικρά διάκενα. Θερμομονωμένα δομικά Κατασκευάζονται από τσιμέντο, Μπλοκ 0,102 στοιχεία χαλαζία, άσβεστο και νερό σε σχήμα Πλάκες δομικού λίθου, πλάκες κλπ Πρέκια οπλισμένα Καουτσούκ Συνθετικό καουτσούκ για Σωλήνας 0,037 μόνωση σωλήνων και Σωλήνας με αυτοκόλλητη ένωση Ρολό δεξαμενών. Πλάκα Περλίτης Πετροβάμβακας Πολυουρεθάνη Υαλοβάμβακας Υαλώδες ορυκτό υλικό. Κοκκώδες υλικό από διόγκωση φυσικού περλίτη. Σε ξηρή μορφή ή με μίξη τσιμέντου. Ινώδες ορυκτό υλικό από ασβεστόλιθο. Μη υγροσκοπικό αλλά καταστρέφεται εάν βραχεί. Άκαυστο. Αφρώδες από την ανάμειξη διισοκυανίου και πολυόλης με ειδικό καταλύτη. Αυτοσβενόμενο υλικό. Ινώδες ορυκτό υλικό από ρευστό πυριτικό γυαλί. Μη υγροσκοπικό αλλά καταστρέφεται εάν βραχεί. Άκαυστο. Ξηρή μορφή (διογκωμένος περλίτης) Περλιτόδεμα (μίξη με τσιμέντο) Ρολό (πάπλωμα) Πλάκα Κογχύλια (για σωλήνες) Ψεκαζόμενη Πλάκα Ρολό (πάπλωμα) Πλάκα Κογχύλια (για σωλήνες) 0,040 0,05 6 0,090 0,124 ανάλογα με αναλογία τσιμέντου 0,041 0,022 0,041 Chapter 3 9 Source: Αραβαντινός Δ. (1999). Μόνωση, Κτίριο, Τεύχος 121, σ. 73. Chapter 3 10 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Insulating External Walls HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Average U-value (W/m 2 K) for walls, roofs, floors Walls post2011 Walls pre2010 ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010 & /2010) Παλιός Κανονισμός Θερμομόνωσης Κτιρίων (ΚΘΚ) 1980 Chapter 3 11 Ref: Chapter 3 12

4 4 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Inspections Identifying presence of thermal insulation HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation of external walls Visual Borescope Thermography Chapter 3 Filling the gap Outside Inside Identify thermal bridges, e.g. Load bearing structure with no thermal insulation Chapter Chapter 3 14 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation of external walls HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation of load bearing structure Thermal bridges Depending on the construction and function of the building, outdoor weather conditions and the exposure of the building envelope, heat losses through thermal bridges in existing building (pre2010) may account for 10-30% of total building heat losses. Thermal bridges usually occur at non-insulated or poorly insulated building elements, e.g. load bearing structures, window or door frames, header beams, extensions or even as a result of using different materials. Emphasis according to ΚΕΝΑΚ & ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010 Student Housing, Komotini Chapter 3 15 Chapter 3 16

5 5 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation of load bearing structure Thermal bridges Humidity & condensation problems may occur as the indoor air moisture comes in contact with cold building surfaces (as a result of poor or missing thermal insulation) and condense when the surface temperature is lower than the air dew point temperature. As a result of poor ventilation, mold may appear on the surfaces. HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION GLAZINGS - WINDOWS ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010 & /2010) Παλιός Κανονισμός Θερμομόνωσης Κτιρίων (ΚΘΚ) 1980 Chapter 3 17 Chapter 3 18 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION GLAZINGS - WINDOWS Double glazing Reduce heat losses Improve indoor thermal comfort conditions Secure no air movement within the air gap of a double glazing & eliminate thermal bridges to ensure the proper thermal performance of double glazing Thermal breaks for aluminium frames Aluminium frames with thermal breaks have better insulating properties than the ones without thermal breaks, but not as good as wooden frames Plastic frames have similar thermophysical performance as wooden frames (but should also account for embodied energy) HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Drought proofing & Wind protection Infiltration through openings (e.g. window & door frames) Increase thermal losses & result to drafts that impact thermal comfort conditions Common problems occur around old window & frames (e.g. gaps between the sash and the frame) or when the perimeter sealing (e.g. brushes) are damaged or loosen, especially around sliding windows and balcony doors Infiltration rates depend on - Construction, Architecture, Exposure - Weather conditions (wind speed, temperature) Typical values: Very Tight building: ACH Tight building: ACH Average building: ACH Leaky old building: ACH Caution for the impact of weather stripping on IAQ Chapter 3 19 Chapter 3 20

6 6 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Drought proofing & Wind protection Wind protection of openings (e.g. windows, balcony doors) can reduce cold air infiltration and convective heat losses (e.g. can use trees if possible or building elements to create air barriers) Close external shutters or lower the shades when there are high winds, especially during the night, for wind protection of windows and balcony doors. HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION ROOFS ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010 & /2010) Παλιός Κανονισμός Θερμομόνωσης Κτιρίων (ΚΘΚ) 1980 Attach a wind breaker at the exposed facades. This may also work as an attached greenhouse The problems are less important in urban environments Chapter 3 21 Chapter 3 22 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION ROOFS HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION GREEN ROOFS Reduce loads for the last floor of the building Protect & extend roof life Minimize water consumption Account for added weight Irrigated Non-Irrigated Chapter 3 23 Θεοδοσίου, Φυτεμένα δώματα & ενεργειακή συμπεριφορά κτιρίων, 2η Τεχνική Ημερίδα στη Βόρειο Ελλάδα Ενέργεια στα κτίρια, Σάββατο 9 Μαΐου 2015 Chapter 3 24

7 7 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION PYLOTIS - FLOORS ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010 & /2010) Παλιός Κανονισμός Θερμομόνωσης Κτιρίων (ΚΘΚ) 1980 HEATING - THERMAL INSULATION Reduce heating loads & heating energy consumption (what about cooling?) Improve indoor thermal comfort conditions Regulate indoor air temperature Thermal insulation may not work as well as anticipated: Owners may increase indoor air temperature settings since they can afford comfortable conditions Some time loose-fill insulation may settle, leaving uninsulated areas Chapter 3 25 Chapter 3 26 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION BOILER & Burner Hot water supply ο C Hot water return temperature ο C (depending on heating loads) Flue gases temperature ο C Heat losses as a result of: Incomplete combustion & increase of emissions (e.g. solid particles (carbon) black smoke, CO). Maintenance is necessary: Proper maintenance and adjustments reduce losses down to ~0.5% Flue gases and stack account for 10-20% of the losses Allowable heat losses from flue gases is about 15% in new installations & 20% in existing installations. Q2 Q3 Q2 Chapter 3 27 η1 Q1 η2 Q 4 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION BOILER & Burner Higher Heating Value (HHV) or gross energy or gross calorific value (GCV) or higher calorific value (HCV) The combustion takes place under constant volume conditions, during which vapor condenses releasing its latent heat of vaporization, i.e. the water component is in liquid state at the end of combustion (in the combustion products) and that Oil 10% heat below 150 C can be put to use. Thus, the heat of vaporization of the water is released and becomes part of the NG 11% fuel s heating value HHV = HV fuel + Latent heat of vaporization Lower Heating Value (LHV) net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV) The combustion takes place in a combustion chamber under constant pressure conditions and water remains as vapor that is lost with the flue gases (loosing its heat of vaporization) Condensate byproducts are corrosive/toxic and have to be collected and disposed carefully (do not drain in the sewage, neutralize as required in condensate collector for environmentally friendly condensate disposal) LHV Heating oil kwh/kg X 0.83 kg/lt = 9.9 kwh/lt Nat. gas kwh/kg X 0.75 kg/m 3 = 10.3 kwh/m 3 ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010 Chapter 3 28

8 8 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION Legislation in Greece Ρύθμιση θεμάτων σχετικών με τη λειτουργία των σταθερών εστιών καύσης για τη θέρμανση κτιρίων & νερού Επιβάλλεται η εκτέλεση εργασιών συντήρησης ρύθμισης και τίθενται όροι σωστής λειτουργίας, στις κατηγορίες εγκαταστάσεων κεντρικής θέρμανσης, θέρμανσης νερού ή παραγωγής ατμού, εξαιρουμένων των τοπικών θερμάνσεων ΦΕΚ 2654/Β/Αρ. πρωτ. ΟΙΚ.: / HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION Types of Boilers Conventional Most common in Greece (high supply hot water temperatures ο C) Low temperature Low supply hot water temperatures ο C. Common when using floor heating and sometimes coupled with heat pumps and fan coils. Natural gas boilers are more suitable as low temperature boilers since the condensation temperature of their combustion gases is around 56 o C, while for oil boilers it is higher than 100 o C, due to the presence of SO 2 Condensing After combustion, the flue gases pass over a heat exchanger to recover the latent heat of vaporization for the condensing vapor; the temperature of the combustion gases can not be too low in order to allow the up-rise of the emissions. Partial condensation of the combustion gases can exploit 50-80% of the latent heat of vaporization of the water. Thermal efficiency is improved by 5-15% compared to conventional boilers Higher cost Boiler, heat exchanger and flue stack have to be resistant to corrosion Chapter 3 29 Chapter 3 30 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION Ελάχιστη θερμική απόδοση λέβητα-καυστήρα (Π.Δ. 335/1993 Φ.Ε.Κ. 143 & ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010) Λέβητας Ονομαστική ισχύ P n (πλήρες φορτίο) Απόδοση σε μερικό φορτίο (4-400 kw) Μέση θερμοκρασία Απόδοση (%) Μέση θερμοκρασία Απόδοση (%) νερού στον λέβητα ( o C) νερού στον λέβητα ( o C) Συμβατικός logp n logp n Χαμηλών 70 87,5 + 1, 5 logp n 40 87,5 + 1,5 logp n θερμοκρασιών Συμπύκνωσης logp n logp n Θερμική απόδοση λέβητα - καυστήρα κτιρίου αναφοράς ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010 Ονομαστική ισχύς (kw) Θερμική απόδοση (%) λέβητα - καυστήρα σε ονομαστική ισχύ Pn, και μέση θερμοκρασία νερού του λέβητα 70 o C για το κτήριο αναφοράς 4 έως 25 >25 έως 50 >50 έως 100 >100 έως 200 >200 έως 300 >300 έως 400 Απόδοση λέβητα - καυστήρα 91,9 92,5 93,0 93,4 93,8 94,1 94,4 > 400 Chapter 3 31 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION A typical boiler will consume many times the initial capital expense in annual fuel consumption Boiler efficiency can translate to substantial savings Load characteristics & Boiler size Base-Load boilers, Peak-Load boilers Two stage burners to match variable loads CE mark for boiler & burner ΦΕΚ 2654/Β/Αρ. πρωτ. ΟΙΚ.: / Σε νέες και υφιστάμενες εγκαταστάσεις θέρμανσης στις οποίες είναι αναγκαία η αντικατάσταση του καυστήρα και ταυτόχρονα έχουν ωφέλιμη ονομαστική θερμική ισχύ >180 kw, επιβάλλεται η χρήση διβάθμιων καυστήρων ή καυστήρων προοδευτικής έναυσης 8. Σε νέες και υφιστάμενες εγκαταστάσεις θέρμανσης στις οποίες είναι αναγκαία η αντικατάσταση είτε του καυστήρα είτε του λέβητα, επιβάλλεται να υπάρχει η σήμανση CE σε καυστήρα και λέβητα Chapter 3 32

9 9 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION BOILER INSULATION & HOT WATER STORAGE Heat losses from a non-insulated boiler can reach 5% of the total fuel consumption, while for a properly insulated boiler this is around 1% HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION BOILER INSULATION & HOT WATER STORAGE Thermal efficiency (n gen ): adjust actual combustion efficiency (n gm ) to account for oversizing (n g1 ) and boiler s thermal protection (n g2 ) n n n n gen gm g1 g 2 ΤΟΤΕΕ /2010: Ο βαθμός απόδοσης (n gen), που προκύπτει από τον πραγματικό βαθμό απόδοσης της μονάδας λέβητα - καυστήρα (n gm), όπως μετρήθηκε κατά την ανάλυση καυσαερίων στις υφιστάμενες εγκαταστάσεις ή όπως δίνεται από τις τεχνικές προδιαγραφές των εγκαταστάσεων για τα υπό μελέτη κτήρια, μειωμένος κατά το συντελεστή υπερδιαστασιολόγησης (n g1) και το συντελεστή μόνωσης λέβητα (n g2) Σχέση πραγματικής προς υπολογιζόμενη ισχύ μονάδας θέρμανσης (P m / P gen) Συντελεστής βαρύτητας υπερδιαστασιολόγησης n g1 μονάδας λέβητα - καυστήρα Λέβητας με υπερδιπλάσια ισχύ από τη μέγιστη υπολογιζόμενη 0,75 Λέβητας με ισχύ μεγαλύτερη από 50% μέχρι και 100% από τη μέγιστη υπολογιζόμενη 0,85 Λέβητας με ισχύ μεγαλύτερη από 25% μέχρι και 50% από τη μέγιστη υπολογιζόμενη 0,95 Λέβητας με ισχύ μέχρι και 25% μεγαλύτερη από τη μέγιστη υπολογιζόμενη 1,00 Συντελεστής μόνωσης n g2 μονάδας λέβητα - καυστήρα Ονομαστική ισχύς (kw) Chapter 3 33 Λέβητας με μόνωση Σε καλή κατάσταση μόνωσης Λέβητας γυμνός ή με κατεστραμμένη μόνωση 1,0 0,936 0,949 0,948 0,951 0,952 Chapter 3 34 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION Maintenance Low emissions (pollution) from fuel combustion Low fuel consumption Lower operating cost Improves the average thermal efficiency by 10% HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION Λειτουργικές Απαιτήσεις ΦΕΚ 2654/Β/Αρ. πρωτ. ΟΙΚ.: / ΦΕΚ 2654/Β/Αρ. πρωτ. ΟΙΚ.: / Σύμφωνα με το Νόμο, η ετήσια συντήρηση / ρύθμιση του συστήματος λέβητα / καυστήρα του κτιρίου σας είναι υποχρεωτική... Η συντήρηση ρύθμιση γίνεται τουλάχιστον μια φορά το χρόνο Η συντήρηση ρύθμιση γίνεται τουλάχιστον μια φορά ανά εξάμηνο σε εγκαταστάσεις θέρμανσης νερού χρήσης ή παραγωγής ατμού σε κτίρια ξενοδοχείων, νοσοκομείων, κλινικών, θεραπευτηρίων και λοιπών παρεμφερών χρήσεων, γυμναστήρια, κολυμβητήρια, πισίνες, λουτρικές εγκαταστάσεις και στεγνοκαθαριστήρια Έλεγχος και διενέργεια μέτρησης καυσαερίων, τουλάχιστον μία φορά το μήνα σε εγκαταστάσεις με συνολική εγκατεστημένη ισχύ >400 kw Chapter 3 35 Chapter 3 36

10 HEATING HEAT PRODUCTION HEATING HEAT DISTRIBUTION Maintenance Φύλλο Συντήρησης Two Pipe Μετά από κάθε συντήρηση, επισκευή ή ρύθμιση (συμπεριλαμβανομένης και της ρύθμισης για τη θέση της εγκατάστασης σε λειτουργία για πρώτη φορά), ο συντηρητής υποχρεούται να συμπληρώνει με επιμέλεια, ακρίβεια και πληρότητα και να υπογράφει το φύλλο συντήρησης και να το παραδίδει (το πρωτότυπο) στον υπεύθυνο της εγκατάστασης. Ο συντηρητής υποχρεούται στο φύλλο συντήρησης να αναφέρει ενδεχόμενα προβλήματα, δυσλειτουργίες ή ελλείψεις που επηρεάζουν την αποδοτική και ασφαλή λειτουργία του συστήματος καυστήρα λέβητα καπνοδόχου (συμπεριλαμβανομένων και προβλημάτων ή ελλείψεων στο χώρο του λεβητοστασίου). Hot water supply collector Hot water return collector Προτείνει επίσης και ενδεδειγμένες κατά την άποψή του λύσεις, στον υπεύθυνο της εγκατάστασης. ΦΕΚ 2654/Β/Αρ. πρωτ. ΟΙΚ.: / Chapter 3 37 HEATING HEAT DISTRIBUTION Chapter 3 38 HEATING HEAT DISTRIBUTION Single Pipe Distribution Network Thermal insulation of pipes, especially in large buildings with long distribution networks, especially when passing through non-heated spaces with without Chapter 3 39 Chapter

11 HEATING HEAT DISTRIBUTION HEATING HEAT EMISSION Hour Meters & Thermal Energy Meters Temperature sensor Filter Hot water Return Convective Systems Hot-water radiators Hot water Supply Hour meters Energy meters Chapter 3 41 Chapter 3 42 HEATING HEAT EMISSION Floor Heating Operate at lower hot water supply temperatures (30-40 ο C and rarely ο C) Lower energy consumption Uniform indoor air temperature May couple with solar collectors Floor temperature at ο C (near high heat losses areas may reach upto 35 ο C) May be used for floor cooling (may need to enhance air movement) Maintenance? HEATING HEAT EMISSION Radiative Systems Radiating gas or electric heaters Warm air systems High ceiling spaces may experience problems with heat stratification (hot air will rise), increase temperature near the roof and increase heat losses Fans and ductwork can be used to redirect the warm air downwards Caution with local climatic conditions and heavy mass building typologies (careful design of the floor pipe layout & proper control) Chapter 3 43 Compared against radiative heaters Radiative heaters at high level are better for heating high ceiling and intermittently heated spaces Beam radiant heat directly towards the occupants & surfaces, without heating the air (that is indirectly heated by convection from the warmed surfaces) Radiative heaters may be cheaper to run than air-heating systems, which have to heat up all the air in the space and may still leave cold surfaces Chapter

12 12 HEATING CONTROLS Control Indoor Temperature Controls perform two basic functions: - Switching between two states ON/OFF - Varying the output of an item of equipment or the position of a valve etc Two position controls Simple manual operation ON/OFF switches No intermediate state HEATING CONTROLS Control Indoor Temperature For every degree that a thermostat is set at a lower temperature, heating energy savings may reach 1-2% Two position controls Programmable microprocessor controls Program on / off operation Night setback and preoccupancy operation to prepare space turn on/off according to occupancy schedule Avoid negligence Thermostatic radiator valve On/Off switch on a hotel balcony door (turn off HVAC when the occupant opens the door) Chapter 3 45 Chapter 3 46 HEATING CONTROLS Control Indoor Temperature Two position controls Time Lag: Operating Differential > Control Differential since it takes some time to open/close the valve, during which the temperature continues to fall/increase Reduce operating differential by: Built into the thermostat a small heater. The heat generated within the thermostat cause the thermostat to close the valve sooner (limit overshooting) Electronic control using a thermistor as temperature sensor to get better control (reduce control differential) Use a number of temperature sensors and use an average to determine switching Proportional controls: Overshooting is reduced Improve temperature control and energy efficiency Control differential: the difference between the off and on points of the thermostat Operating differential: difference between the high and low temperatures in the room Chapter 3 47 HEATING CONTROLS Control Indoor Temperature Optimisers Optimum Start Thermal inertia effects of switching ON/OFF the heating are not felt immediately due to thermal inertia of heating system and the building Thermal mass Thermal capacity ( The building envelope stores heat A heavy building takes longer to heat up & cool down A light building heats up and cools down quickly Passive/Hybrid Cooling ) Chapter 3 48

13 13 HEATING CONTROLS Control Indoor Temperature Optimisers Optimum start Heating may need to be switched ON some time before occupancy The necessary time depends on: - indoor temperature - outdoor temperature - thermal mass - type of heating system Use a Simple timer to control/turn ON the boiler in order to pre-heat the space, turning on the system an hour before occupancy, based on experience Outdoor conditions will influence the time required for the system to reach desirable conditions Use an outdoor temperature sensor Chapter 3 49 HEATING CONTROLS Outdoor Temperature Compensation Automatically control (adjust) the hot water supply temperature, accounting for the outdoor ambient temperature and the desirable indoor temperature settings Lower heating energy consumption sensor Longer operating hours Avoid overheating problems, especially in buildings without independent control of the heating system Outdoor temperature Control panel (with timer) Boiler Indoor temperature Temperature sensor 4way mixing valve Chapter 3 50 HEATING DHW Solar Thermal Systems Solar Collectors in EU (2013) 30.2 GW th ( m 2 solar collectors) EU Potential = m 2 Solar thermal energy 21 TWh (3.8 mil. tcο 2 ) (ESTIF 2014) 58.8 kw th /1000 capita Around 70% of total installed capacity in EU operate in: - Germany 9.7 GW th m 2 - Austria 3.8 GW th m 2 - Hellas 2.9 GW th m 2 HEATING DHW Types of Solar Collectors kw th /1000 capita Chapter 3 51 Chapter 3 52

14 14 Solar collector Hot water storage HEATING DHW Auxiliary heating system (backup) Pumps & controls (for large central installations) COLLECTOR Auxiliary energy CONSUMPTION Auxiliary energy HOT WATER STORAGE COLD WATER HEATING DHW & SPACE HEATING Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Space Heating Solar Collectors Heat Storage Heat Distribution Heat Dissipation Auxiliary (backup) Solar COMBI Systems DHW COLLECTOR HOT LOAD WATER STORAGE ς PUMP PUMP collector (load) Controls Chapter 3 53 Design considerations Minimize heating loads Minimize heat distribution losses Good operation controls (Higher complexity than solar SHW systems) Preheating for use with conventional hydronic systems (radiators) or coupled with subfloor heating systems (lower operating temperature) Common practice DHW: 1 m 2 of flat plate collector per person Space heating: 1 m 2 of flat plate collector for a thermal load of 700 W ( 600 kcal/h) Chapter 3 54 HEATING DHW & SPACE HEATING Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Space Heating Single Family House Collector area m 2 Hot water storage 1 3 m 3 Annual average performance of SHW & space heating demand Local climatic conditions Building loads Collector type Collector area Hot water storage Back-up system 20% - 35% central Europe 30% - 60% southern Europe Solar COMBI Systems Storage (lt) Gross solar collector area (m 2 ) Austria Denmark France Germany Italy Netherlands Sweden Storage (lt) / Collector (m 2 ) Space heated area (m 2 ) Chapter 3 55 Austria Denmark France Germany HEATING DHW & SPACE HEATING Chapter 3 56

15 15 HEATING DHW & SPACE HEATING Architectural integration of solar thermal energy systems for LARGE SYSTEMS Ennstal - Neue Heimat Wohnbauhilfe (ENW) Graz /Austria Hamburg Bramfeld, Germany HEATING DHW & SPACE HEATING Solar Village, Athens (1988) Proper building design Increased thermal insulation (100mm), no thermal bridges Double glazing & night insulation shutters Passive heating (conservatories, thermal mass, Trombe and water walls) External shading Natural ventilation DHW (various types of solar collectors) Seasonal heat storage Daylighting 25 Bldgs, 435 apts, Schools, Shops, Utilities Flats: 33,000m 2 Site: 90,000m 2 Ref: Penthouse Wien, Vienna, Austria Chapter 3 57 Ref: RICE - Renewables in the City Environment Altener Chapter 3 58 Solar Village HEATING DHW PASSIVE & ACTIVE SYSTEMS Attached sun spaces (greenhouses) coupled with Trombe walls Solar collectors for DHW Solar Control Natural Ventilation Annual energy conservation: 45-90% (estimated) 30-70% (measured) DISTRICT (COMMUNITY) HEATING District Heating More than one building/dwelling is heated from a single source Range from small sheltered housing schemes to citywide heat networks About 300,000 households in UK (Less than 2% of total) Germany 12% Denmark 40% The role of the occupants proved to be instrumental (detrimental) for the proper operation & performance of the various systems & techniques that were used Passive Systems are for Active People Chapter Chapter 3 60

16 16 DISTRICT (COMMUNITY) HEATING COMPONENTS Energy Centre - Boiler - CHP - Waste heat boiler Kozani, Ptolemaida (1993) Heat distribution network - Pre-insulated pipes, directly buried - Polymeric systems, long runs with no joints Consumer interface (Substation) - Hydraulic Interface Unit (HIU) for individual dwellings - Instantaneous DHW via plate heat exchanger - Metering Heating system internals - Radiators etc. as normal building - No flue gases-emissions (locally) - No space required for boiler, oil fuel tank Kozani Florina Kozani Chapter 3 61 COOLING Cooling, Air-Conditioning Natural or hybrid cooling (using various techniques, passive or hybrid systems) Mechanical cooling (using various mechanical equipment & systems that consume electricity) Air-Conditioning (winter-summer) Regulate to the desirable indoor conditions the air temperature, air humidity, air quality & air circulation (in buildings or other enclosed spaces, e.g. for transportation like airplanes, ships, vehicles), independently of outdoor conditions COOLING LOADS in the summer Solar radiation that enters the space through glazing Outdoor conditions (air entering the space or supplied to secure IAQ) Dehumidification may constitute a large percentage of cooling loads depending on outdoor conditions Chapter 3 62 COOLING COOLING System selection depends on: Size of building Spaces & Desirable indoor conditions Thermal zones (group of spaces with similar needs for indoor conditions and loads. Usually have the same orientation and operating schedules) Cost No major technical issues Reduce cooling loads Use energy efficient equipment-systems, controls Exploit RES Chapter 3 63 Chapter 3 64

17 evaporator condenser Coil on outside wall of building Heat pump Heating coil in room HEAT PUMPS Chilled water out Throttle valve Heat exchanger Water in HEAT PUMPS Heat Source (heating mode winter) Heat Sink (cooling mode summer) Outdoor air Water in a pond, river or borehole Ground Water in Heat exchanger pump A reversing valve allows operating the vapour compression cycle for Heating in winter Cooling in summer High performance, low operating cost Easy to install Provide heating & Cooling Heated water out Coefficient of Performance (COP) Useful heat (extracted or delivered) / Energy used Different values for heating (COP h range from 3-4) and cooling (COP c range from ) COP h = Condenser Duty Compressor Power COP c = Evaporator Duty Compressor Power COP varies with temperature; the closer the evaporator & condenser temperatures the higher the COP Chapter 3 65 Chapter 3 66 HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMPS Air Source HPs Simple units, most popular, easy to install The heat from the air is extracted by using a fan to blow air over the evaporator coil, which may be located on an outside wall of the building Seasonal Performance Coefficient SPF > 1.15*(1/0.35) = 3.3 Outdoor air temperature is low when the greatest amount of heat is required in the building, leading to low COP May lead to ice build-up on the evaporator coil, mandating regular defrosting (frequent HP on/off) May have to use an electric resistance to heat the air- or water-supply to the space Outdoor air temperature is high when the greatest amount of cooling is required in the building, leading to low COP Chapter 3 67 Chapter

18 18 HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMPS Air-Source HPs Indoor Unit: - Heat Exchanger - Fan - Air filter Outdoor Unit: - Heat Exchanger - Fan - Compressor The two units are connected with pipes for circulating the working fluid (refrigerant) Water Closed-loop System Water has a high thermal capacity Temperature remains more stable than that of the air Higher COP compared to air source Indoor Unit Outdoor Unit Indoor air (heating in winter) Indoor air Indoor air. (cooling in summer) Split type Outdoor air Monoblock In ponds the temperature may fall down to freezing, but in moving bodies of water such as rivers more moderate temperatures usually prevail Ground water from bore hole drilling or from sea water may also be used ( see next) Source: 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications Lower first cost compared to ground coupled systems Low energy consumption Low maintenance, operating cost Pipes may be damaged in public ponds etc Water temperature variation (e.g. shallow water) Chapter 3 69 Chapter 3 70 HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMPS Water Deep Borehole Open-loop System Use water pumped from a deep borehole (production well), which passes over the evaporator coil and is then led to a soakaway (injection well) Lower cost than ground coupling Environmental limitations Ground water availability Fouling as a result of poor quality ground water High energy consumption for pumping water from deep water wells Πηγή: 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications Water Sea Water or Lake Cooling Open-loop System Higher energy efficiency Low daily water temperature variations; lower temperatures depending on depth Facilities near seawater (e.g. hotels) Seawater cooling plant Handle corrosion & biofouling problems (use titanium plate HX, fiberglass reinforced plastic piping, duplex stainless steel pumps and copper nickel passive Filters, electro-chlorinator to control marine growth) C.H. Koon et al. Indirect seawater cooling and thermal storage system in Changi Naval Base WARM AIR CHILLED WATER AC UNIT COLD AIR WARM WATER HEAT EXCHANGER SEA WATER Seawater Air Conditioning: A Basic Understanding Chapter 3 71 Chapter 3 72

19 Depth (m) 19 HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMPS Ground Ground temperature (a metre or more below the surface) is relatively stable Winter Fall Temperature( ο C) Spring Summer Winter Summer Ground - Vertical coil system Vertical Heat Exchanger U-shape small diameter polyethylene pipes (20-40 mm), at a depth of m Occupy small lot surface area Low temperature variation & thermal properties Small pipe length & low energy consumption for pumping water Higher efficiency High drilling cost Need specialized equipment for drilling Chapter 3 73 Performance: W/m 2 ground surface W/m piping Πηγή: 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications Chapter 3 74 HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMPS FAN COILS Ground - Horizontal coil system Horizontal Heat Exchanger Single U-shape pipes, May need multiple pipe rows, or Spiral shaped Lower cost (excavations >1.2 m) Occupy large lot surface area High pipe length Temperature & thermal properties variations depending on season, rainfall, depth of pipe network Higher energy consumption for pumping water Lower efficiency Performance: W/m 2 ground surface W/m piping Πηγή: 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) Becoming popular Increased COP Operate over a range of water input temperatures e.g., typical evaporator temperatures between -5 and + 12 o C while the condenser temperatures range from o C maximum. This temperature limit arises because a higher temperature results in much reduced efficiency; too low for a conventional radiator system but may be used with warm air or underfloor heating systems at (30-50 o C) This temperature is also too low for DHW which must be at a minimum of 60 o C to reduce the risk of legionella; a supplementary heater, usually electric, can be used after pre-heating the water to 50 o C with the heat pump ΑΝΤΛΙΑ ΘΕΡΜΟΤΗΤΑΣ ΝΕΡΟΥ -ΝΕΡΟΥ Γ Ε Ω Θ Ε Ρ Μ ΙΚ Ο Σ Ε Ν Α Λ Λ Α Κ Τ Η Σ COP 4,5 5,5 Chapter 3 75 Chapter 3 76

20 20 AIR CONDITIONING UNITS FAN COILS AIR CONDITIONING UNITS CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) Heat exchanger Operation Control Return indoor air Outdoor air Temperature sensor Filter FAN Fan Condensate drainage Supply air-conditioned air (distribution via air duct network) AHU Rejecting indoor air HOT & COLD water from heating & cooling units Chiller-(Cold water production) Heat Pump Hot & cold water production Boiler (Hot water production) Chiller-(Cold water production) Supply of Hot & Chilled water to the HXs inside the AHU Chilled water to & from AHU Pipe network to transfer the hot & cold water from the chiller/boiler or HP Hot water to & from AHU Boiler (Hot water production) Heat Pump Hot & cold water production Chapter 3 77 Chapter Chapter 3 78 AIR CONDITIONING UNITS CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) Heat Recovery Mixing Damper Fan Operating with 100% fresh outdoor/ambient air increases the loads & energy consumption for conditioning the air Outdoor air Return indoor air Recirculate some of the indoor air IF allowed Use an economizer (heat exchanger or enthalpy wheel (see next) Rejecting indoor air Supply air-conditioned air (distribution via air duct network) Plate HX for heat recovery Recirculation area, mixing the return & fresh outdoor air (the quantities are controlled by the damper) Filters Heat exchanger Chapter 3 79 Chapter 3 80

21 21 CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) Heat Recovery CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) Heat Recovery Plate Heat Exchangers (HX) No mixing of air flows Sensible heat recovery Counter or Cross flow Run-Around Coil Intermediate closed loop of a working fluid (e.g. Ethylene Glycol) coupling air exhaust & air supply Sensible heat recovery 60-65% Outdoor air Rejecting indoor air Outdoor air Return indoor air Supply air Return indoor air Rejecting indoor air Supply air Chapter 3 81 Chapter 3 82 CENTRAL AIR-HANDLING UNITS (AHU) Heat Recovery COOLING & AIR CONDITIONING ALTERNATIVES Rotating Wheel (counter flow HX) Sensible heat wheels Enthalpy wheels Desiccant wheels No major technical issues Can achieve comfort conditions under any adverse conditions Energy consumption, environmental issues Cost The Challenge to reach comfort with Lower energy use Lower cost Ref: ASHRAE GreenGuide (3 rd edition), The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings ASHRAE Press and Butterworth-Heinemann an imprint of Elsevier, J.M. Swift, T. Lawrence (Editors), (ISBN ), Atlanta, p. 464, (2010). Chapter 3 83 Chapter 3 84

22 22 DHW Space Heating SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING Solar COMBI Systems + Solar Cooling COMBI-PLUS Typical Combi+ : Mismatch between availability of solar energy & loads Typical solar combi+ systems struggle to reach a high solar fraction (e.g. over 80% in terms of total solar fraction and over 70% in terms of partial space heating fraction) Use high efficiency solar collectors Utilize excess solar heat during the low load periods using a heat storage Long term or seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) depending on size of collector field STES typically between 1.5 & 4 m 3 per m 2 of collectors SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING Fundamentals of absorption refrigeration were patented in France by Ferdinand Carré (1859). First machine was introduced in the market by Edmond Carré in 1886 Peak cooling demand in summer is associated with high solar radiation availability => excellent opportunity to exploit solar energy with heat-driven cooling machines. Improve performance of solar-combi systems, Avoid collector stagnation Obstacles: High first cost, limited practical experience with the design, control, operation, installation and maintenance of these systems. Limited commercially available low power cooling systems, till recently Chapter 3 85 Chapter 3 86 SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING HEAT DRIVEN COOLING TECHNOLOGIES CLOSED CYCLE SYSTEMS e.g. Absorption & Adsorption cycles Produce chilled water that can be used in combination with any AC equipment such as an air handling unit, fan-coil systems, chilled ceilings, etc OPEN CYCLE SYSTEMS e.g. Desiccant systems The refrigerant is discarded from the system after providing the cooling effect and new refrigerant is supplied in its place in an openended loop Ref: H-M. Henning (editor), Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning in Buildings A Handbook for Planners, Springer-Verlag, (ISBN ), Vienna, p. 150, (2004). IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING HEAT DRIVEN COOLING TECHNOLOGIES Absorption Single-effect configuration From cooling tower Cycle: A refrigerant expands from a condenser to an evaporator through a throttle, like in the conventional vapour compression system. Cooling is produced in the evaporator through the evaporation of the refrigerant at low temperature. A second working fluid the absorbent - is employed, which absorbs refrigerant vapour from the evaporator at low pressure in the absorber, and desorbs into the condenser at high pressure, when heat is supplied to the desorber. Absorbent-refrigerant pairs: LiBr/H 2 O & H 2 O/NH 3 H.X. Generator Weak solution Strong solution Condenser Vacum Absorber Evaporator To cooling tower Steam or hot water o C Multiple stages: Utilize the heat rejected from the condenser to power additional desorbers, to double or triple the amount of refrigerant extracted out of solution. Water 4 o C Chilled water Chapter 3 87 Chapter 3 88

23 23 Solar Collectors Heat Storage Heat Distribution Heat-driven Cooling Unit Cold Storage (optional) Air Conditioning System Cold Distribution Auxiliary (backup) SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING integrated at different places in the overall system: as an auxiliary heater parallel to the collector or the collector/storage or as an auxiliary cooling device or both Cosmetics factory (22000 m 2 ) cover 40% of cooling load Flat plate solar collectors (2700 m 2 ) Adsorption chillers (2 x 350 kw) Oinofyta SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING INSTALLATIONS Hotel 60 rooms (3000 m 2 ) Flat plate solar collectors (500 m 2 ) Absorption chillers (105 kw) Crete Hotel 35 rooms (2400 m 2 ) Flat plate solar collectors (450 m 2 ) Absorption chillers (105 kw) Crete Chapter 3 89 Chapter 3 90 SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING INSTALLATIONS Minimize building loads Solar collectors (85 m 2 ) Seasonal heat storage Solar cooling Low temperature heating & cooling (floor heating & radiant wall cooling) Geothermal heat pump Photovoltaics (4.4 kw) BMS Athens (urban) 600m 2 AUSTRIA-1, Gleisdorf Town Hall & Service Centre (2,533 m 2 ) Absorption 35 kw 304 m 2 collectors 4,600 lt stratified heat storage tank Fan-coils & floor heating in TH Chilled/heated ceilings & AHU in SC SPAIN, Barcelona Social housing (2300 m 2 ) & Health care (1500 m 2 ) AUSTRIA-2, Gleisdorf Office building (1,000 m 2 ) Absorption 24 kw 130 m 2 collectors 10,000 lt heat storage tank Chilled/heated ceiling & radiators ITALY, Milan Sports centre (660 m²) Absorption 35 kw 165 m 2 collectors 18,000 lt heat storage tank Fan-coils & AHU AUSTRIA-3, Graz Office building (435 m 2 ) Absorption 21 kw 60 m 2 collectors 2,000 lt heat & 200 lt cool storage tank Chilled ceiling HELLAS, Athens Office building (427 m²) Chapter 3 91 Absorption 70 kw 200 m 2 collectors 4,000 lt stratified heat storage tank Floor heating/cooling & AHU (dwellings) Fan-coils & AHU (health care) Absorption 35 kw 95 m 2 collectors 58,000 lt stratified STES Fan-coils

24 24 SOLAR ASSISTED COOLING More Information IEA TASK 25 Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings IEA TASK 38 Solar Air Conditioning & Refrigeration SACE Solar Air-Conditioning in Europe SOLCO Removal of non-technological barriers to Solar Cooling technology across southern European islands CLIMASOL Promoting solar air conditioning EVAPORATIVE COOLING All processes in which the sensible heat in an air stream is exchanged for the latent heat of water droplets or wetted surfaces Warm outdoor air comes into contact with water droplets, which can be sprayed directly to the air stream or it is passed through a wetted porous material. The moisture evaporates thus extracting heat from the warm air, lowering its temperature. The majority of evaporative cooling applications use hybrid systems (e.g. pumps & fans for moving the fluids (air & water) used during the process Perspiration or sweat solarcombi+ Small scale combined solar heating & cooling applications HIGH COMBI High Solar Fraction Heating and Cooling Systems Trees (natural AC) Watering surfaces Chapter 3 93 Chapter 3 94 EVAPORATIVE COOLING EVAPORATIVE COOLING DIRECT SYSTEMS Water evaporation occurs in direct contact with the ambient air Limit of air temperature drop equals the wet bulb temperature Increase moisture content (consequently it can not be used in areas with high humidity) Cooling Towers Direct system Ref: Zion National Park Visitors Center, Utah INDIRECT SYSTEMS Air is cooled without addition of moisture by passing through a heat exchanger Lower efficiency Water consumption Chapter 3 95 Roof Spraying Mist Indirect system Reduce surface temperature & cooling loads for the last floor of the building Protects & extends roof life Ref: Delta T Corp Chapter 3 96

25 25 Storage Reduce peak loads (possibly higher tariffs, penalties) More efficient equipment/system operation More uniform loads, smoother equipment operation Chilled water COLD STORAGE Ice The chiller operates at night to produce the chilled water or ice, while the cooling loads are low, with a higher efficiency, possibly at lower tariffs Chapter 3 97 Passive (natural) cooling: well-known techniques and processes, which have been used successfully even in the early periods of civilization. The principles are the same, but they are now enhanced with the available technological know-how and they are optimized so that they can be successfully incorporated into the building design and operation, in a suitable form for providing optimum results Reduce cooling loads Improve comfort conditions Combine with energy efficient mechanical systems reduce energy use for air-conditioning and electricity loads Natural (passive) Hybrid (e.g. enhance air movement with fans) Natural ventilation Night ventilation Solar protection Thermal mass PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING Ref: Passive Cooling of Buildings, A. Argiriou, A. Dimoudi, C.A. Balaras, D. Mantas, E. Dascalaki, I. Tselepidaki, (eds. M. Santamouris and D.N. Asimakopoulos), James & James, ISBN , p. 468, London, Chapter 3 98 PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING - Natural Ventilation Most popular technique for natural (passive) cooling, maintaining thermal comfort and proper IAQ, in naturally ventilated buildings. Microclimate (e.g. lower outdoor air temperature, proper outdoor air quality) To assess the viability for natural ventilation consider: 1. Environmental Peak summer heat gains if they are in excess of 40-50W/m 2 then mechanical ventilation or air conditioning are likely to be necessary Outdoor Noise (e.g. traffic) may be a serious problem with a naturally-ventilated building. The noise level should be at most 70dB at the façade to achieve an acceptable level of 50-55dB with windows open Outdoor air pollution (e.g. from traffic) may be unacceptable during certain periods of the day; adopt a proper strategy (e.g. early in the morning or late at night) Assess prevailing winds & impact of surrounding buildings vs openings 2. Building Shallow-plan buildings are easier to naturally ventilate than deep-plan. For single-sided the maximum depth is 7-10m; cross ventilation (open plan) up to 15m is possible PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING - Night Ventilation Outdoor conditions are usually favorable during the night Remove the heat accumulated in the building during the day; start following day with improved indoor conditions (e.g. thermal mass of the building at a lower temperature) Natural night ventilation (consider security issues) vs Mechanical night ventilation (free cooling, if available; energy use for fans) Chapter 3 99 Chapter 3 100

26 26 PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING - Solar Protection PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING - Solar Protection C external movable vertical shades Εξωτερικές κάθετες C κουρτίνες. C Βλάστηση Green στην roof οροφή, (solar προσφέρει protection on ηλιοπροστασία για τον τελευταίο όροφο last και floor, μειώνει reducing τα θερμικά thermal heat κέρδη gains της οροφής. deciduous trees for shading and Δέντρα improving που προσφέρουν the microclimate ηλιοπροστασία και βελτιώνουν το μικροκλίμα. Proper external shading using: C C C overhang Καλή εξωτερική ηλιοπροστασία, συνδιάζοντας εξωτερικές περσίδες, οριζόντιο πρόβολο και external movable louvres βλάστηση μπροστά στα παράθυρα για την μείωση των αντανακλάσεων. plants in front of windows for reducing reflections Ref: D.N. Asimakopoulos (Ed.), Solar Control Handbook - Design Guidelines, Conphoebus Scrl, European Commission JOULE - Solar Control. Ref: D.N. Asimakopoulos (Ed.), Solar Control Handbook - Design Guidelines, Conphoebus Scrl, European Commission JOULE - Solar Control. Chapter Chapter PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING - Solar Protection C Κατάλληλος εξωτερικός Proper external shading σκιασμός. Περιορισμένης αποτελεσματικότητας Minimum σκιασμός που επιτρέπει shading υψηλά άμεσα ηλιακά κέρδη. Close Περιορισμένης shutters Limit αποτελεσματικότητας natural ventilation σκιασμός. Use Χρησιμοποίηση of an AC without shading κλιματιστικού χωρίς τον κατάλληλο σκιασμό. Ref: D.N. Asimakopoulos (Ed.), Solar Control Handbook - Design Guidelines, Conphoebus Scrl, European Commission JOULE - Solar Control. Chapter PASSIVE / HYBRID COOLING Thermal Mass Heat gain modulation can be achieved by proper use of the building's thermal mass (thermal inertia), in order to absorb and store heat during daytime hours and return it to the space at a later time. The thermal mass of a building (typically contained in walls, floors, partitions, constructed of material with high heat capacity) absorbs heat during the day Regulates the magnitude of indoor temperature swings Reduces peak cooling load Transfers part of the absorbed heat into the night hours (time delay); the cooling load can then be covered by passive cooling techniques, since the outdoor conditions are more favorable. An unoccupied building can also be pre-cooled during the night by night ventilation and transfer this stored coolness into the early hours of the following day, thus reducing energy consumption for cooling Positive impact during summer & winter (main feature of solar passive systems and bioclimatic architecture) Thermal insulation may deteriorate the performance of thermal mass, because it reduces its effectiveness to the portion that is positioned inside the wall insulation Energy conservation as a result of reducing peak cooling & heating loads may reach 18-20% Chapter 3 104

27 27 Cogeneration of Heat & Power - CHP Simultaneous production of electricity & (usable) heat, both of which are used To maximize the many benefits that arise from CHP, systems should be based on the heat demand of the application High-temperature heat first drives a gas or steam turbine-powered generator that produces electricity and the resulting lowtemperature waste heat is then used for space heating & DHW. At smaller scales (typically below 1 MW) a gas engine or diesel engine may be used. Recovering heat from the flue gases further improves efficiency. Trigeneration differs from cogeneration in that the waste heat is used for both heating & cooling, typically with absorption chillers. About 40% of the generated electricity from CHP systems are from central power plants combined with district heating. For building applications: CHP small scale: <1 MWe CHP very small scale: <50 kwe EU generates 11.2% of its electricity using cogeneration Latvia (47.4%), Denmark (46.2%) Greece (4.5%) CHP & TRIGENERATION Chapter CHP Cogeneration of Heat & Power - CHP Primary fuel: 100% Primary fuel: 100% Primary fuel: 100% CONVENTIONAL PROCESSES 65% Losses 35% Electricity 20% Losses 10% Losses 55% Heat (direct use or drive a sorption process for cooling) 80% Heat COGENERATION 35% Electricity η 0 = / 200 = 57.5% η 0 = / 100 = 90% Chapter CHP CHP IF CHP is PROPERLY SIZED - Lower waste compared to mains supplies - Fewer CO 2 emissions - Lower energy costs Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος Συμπαραγωγής Ηλεκτρισμού & Θερμότητας (ΕΣΣΗΘ) ΤΟΤΕΕ /2012 CHP could be a direct replacement of a gas boiler plant if ratio of the heat to electrical power from CHP is 1.7 to 1 Heat & electrical loads should be simultaneous (e.g. plant operation for 11 h/day for whole year or 17 h/day for eight months) CHP system needs to operate for at least 4000 h/year Electrical load should remain above unit s output for most of the operating hours If there is a night rate electricity tariff, it is usually not cost effective to operate the CHP unit Account for necessary space of the CHP unit PBP of 3 5 years Chapter Chapter 3 108

28 28 CHP Cogeneration of Heat & Power - CHP Appropriate for large buildings with uniform profiles and continuous loads (demand) for electricity & heat (e.g. hospitals, hotels) CHP Cogeneration of Heat & Power Micro-CHP Micro-CHP can be applied in private dwellings, public & commercial buildings Usually based on Stirling engine, Organic Rankine Cycle or internal combustion engine (ICE) technologies, characterized by high heat-to-power ratios. Most suitable for installation in existing buildings Newer technologies based on fuel cells are just being launched onto the market Chapter The benefits of micro-chp Chapter CHP Micro-CHP for HOTELS CHP Micro-CHP for RESIDENCES Thessaloniki CHP units (5-20 kwe and kwth (DHW upto 95 o C) The units are coupled with solar collectors. Annual savings 14,000 Ref: Σύμβουλοι & Μηχανικοί Α.Ε. Serres Four CHP units (4.5 kwe each and 12 kwth each (replaced a 450 kwth oil boiler) Annual savings 45,000 (initial investment 120,000 Ref: Theofylaktos, The future of CHP in Greece House: CHP unit 4.5 kwe &12 kwth for space heating of a house (550 m 2 ) and a swimming pool Thessaloniki Apartment building (8 floors, 18 apts): CHP unit 4.5 kwe & 12 kwth and 2 hot water storage tanks (1000 lt each) Could not export electricity to ΔΕΔΔΗΕ Thessaloniki Ref: Theofylaktos, The future of CHP in Greece Chapter Chapter 3 112

29 CHP CHP European Legislation Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market Hellenic Legislation Ν.3468/06 (ΦΕΚ ) «Παραγωγή ηλεκτρικής Ενέργειας απο ΑΠΕ και ΣΗΘ Υψηλής Απόδοσης και λοιπές διατάξεις» Ν.3734/09 (ΦΕΚ ) «Προώθηση της συμπαραγωγής δύο ή περισσότερων χρήσιμων μορφών ενέργειας, ρύθμιση ζητημάτων σχετικών με το Υδροηλεκτρικό Έργο Μεσοχώρας και άλλες διατάξεις» Σύμφωνα με την Ε.Ο. 2002/91/EK & τον Ν.3661/08 & KENAK για την ενεργειακή αποδοτικότητα των κτιρίων προβλέπεται Άρθρο 3.3: Κατά τον υπολογισμό της ενεργειακής απόδοσης των κτιρίων συνεκτιμάται, κατά περίπτωση, η θετική επίδραση:... β) της ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας που παράγεται μέσω ΣΗΘ Άρθρο 4: Για τα νέα κτίρια συνολικής ωφέλιμης επιφάνειας άνω των 1000 m 2, η τεχνική, περιβαλλοντική και οικονομική σκοπιμότητα εγκατάστασης εναλλακτικών συστημάτων, όπως η συμπαραγωγή ηλεκτρισμού και θερμότητας, μελετάται και συνυπολογίζεται πριν από την έναρξη της ανέγερσης Chapter Chapter CHP & TRIGENERATION Trigeneration Use CHP during the summer, so that it is possible to exploit the useful heat for driving a sorption chiller for cooling Extend the use of CHP throughout the year CHP & TRIGENERATION Trigeneration Use CHP during the summer, so that it is possible to exploit the useful heat for driving a sorption chiller for cooling Extend the use of CHP throughout the year Peak vapor compression chiller Absorption chiller Visit the building at Chapter Matysko, 3 Mikielewicz, Trigeneration system, 115 Chapter

30 30 LIGHTING Important for Large commercial buildings Indoor lighting levels (higher standards & requirements for different tasks, visual comfort) Operational cost (price increase of electricity) LIGHTING Daylight provides the best quality light that improves human psychology (mood) and in some cases even performance Careful design to achieve uniform distribution and to secure the appropriate amount of light at the working level Energy Efficient Lamps Longer time life Higher performance Better light quality Energy Efficient Lamps & Daylight Daylight (solar radiation that enters indoor spaces; Shading) Artificial lighting (with energy efficient lighting; Controls) Visual Comfort Daylight depends on: - Location (latitude) - Orientation - Layout and dimensions of interior spaces - Size and relative position of openings - Optical properties of glazing - Type and dimensions of shading devices - Optical properties of interior surfaces - Reflections from the ground or neighboring buildings Chapter Chapter Lumen (lm): the basis of light measurement, defined as the luminous energy (flux) emitted in a unit solid angle (steradian, sr) by a uniform point source having a luminous intensity (candlepower, cd) of 1 candela (1 lm = 1 cd/sr). A lumen is analogous to the flow in a hydraulic system or current in an electric system Illuminance (Lux): the luminous flux of one lumen produced on a one square meter surface area and uniformly distributed over that surface. The illuminance can be measured with a lux meter and is expressed in Lux (1 lx = 1 lm/m 2 ) LIGHTING LIGHTING Placement of Openings Exterior walls Roof Size of the opening: 30% of wall surface & 16% of floor area General lighting ΚΕΝΑΚ (Τ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Ε /2010) Min 55 lm/w (for NR buildings) EN :2002 ΕΝ 15193:2007 Daylight Global horizontal illuminance (lux), Athens, Greece More than what we need Kambezidis et al., Daylight climatology in the Athens urban environment: guidance for building designers, Lighting Res. Technol. 34,4 (2002) p Chapter Chapter 3 120

31 31 LIGHTING Placement of Openings Exterior walls Roof Size of the opening: 30% of wall surface & 16% of floor area LIGHTING Visual discomfort & Thermal discomfort issues as a result of high solar gains Skylights Daylit roof External windows Atrium windows Chapter Chapter LIGHTING Control direct (beam) solar radiation Use interior reflectors or semitransparent diffusing surfaces LIGHTING Light Tubes Chapter Chapter 3 124

32 32 LIGHTING Solar Control / Shading LIGHTING Solar Control / Shading - Horizontal Overhang L Awnings Vertical roller blinds Retractable louvers Metal Concrete Solar height α H Vertical & Horizontal fins Horizontal fins Deciduous trees Semitransparent Horizontal louvers Extension of a horizontal overhang: L = H / tan(α) External solar control is most effective Before solar radiation enters the space (and increase cooling loads) Chapter Not effective on E or W facing windows Chapter LIGHTING Solar Control / Shading - Horizontal Overhang Light levels LIGHTING Solar Control / Shading - Horizontal Overhang as a Light Shelve Working plane Latitude 37 o N External shelve L=H https://windows.lbl.gov/pub/designguide/section3.pdf Chapter Internal shelve L=K Chapter 3 128

33 33 LIGHTING Solar Control / Shading - Horizontal Overhang as a Light Shelve LIGHTING Software for Daylight Calculations COMFEN single-zone facade energy analysis tool RADIANCE ray tracing program that calculates light levels at specific points in a simulated daylit space using space geometry, glazing properties, luminaire specifications, and other site-specific information https://windows.lbl.gov/pub/designguide/section3.pdf DAYSIM a RADIANCE-based program that calculates annual availability of daylight in buildings and estimates how building occupants will react to it in terms of how they control the space lighting and blinds Chapter https://windows.lbl.gov/daylighting/designguide/lbnl_tips_for_daylighting.pdf Chapter LIGHTING Artificial Lighting LAMPS & LUMINAIRES A 20 W energy efficient lamp emits 1200 lumen, while a common incandescent lamp of 60 W emits 890 lumen Reflectors redirect light where is need (but need to keep them clean!) LIGHTING Artificial Lighting CONTROLS Switching ON/OFF Dimming Zoning Energy Efficient Lamps: Lower electricity consumption Lifetime 10 times longer Reduce cooling loads 1.5 m Higher initial cost (PBP 1-2 years) Chapter https://windows.lbl.gov/daylighting/designguide/lbnl_tips_for_daylighting.pdf Chapter 3 132

34 LIGHTING LIGHTING Artificial Lighting CONTROLS Timers Artificial Lighting OCCUPANCY SENSORS Occupancy control yields 15-30% savings Cost effective Minimize outdoor decorative lighting Account for seasonal change (adjust timers) Chapter Chapter LIGHTING and more... PHOTOVOLTAICS PVs convert solar energy (beam & diffuse solar radiation) to produce DC Direct use to cover electrical loads or feed in the main grid (use an inverter to AC) Use batteries for storage Performance PVs Voltage depends on PV material and remains almost constant with solar radiation intensity during the day Silicon modules produce 0.5 V regardless of the PV surface Current is proportional to the solar radiation intensity (number of photons) and PV area Chapter Average output kwh/kwp.year Thessaloniki: kwh/kwp.year Athens: kwh/kwp.year Crete: kwh/kwp.year Chapter

35 35 Optimization & distribution of electrical loads Space availability for PVs (15-20m 2 /kwp), electrical systems, batteries, if necessary Obstructions that may shade PVs (e.g. neighboring obstacles, other PVs) Orientation (south exposure, tilt angle 30 o ) Structural impact - loading (e.g. typical system with support frames kg/m 2 ) Cost (PV type, manufacturer, loads-size of installation, installation, stand alone storage & grid connection accessibility) Net metering PVs PVs Building Applications - Integration Electrical loads Main power grid Integration as roof elements (opaque or semitransparent) Integration as façade elements (semitransparent) Integration as shading devices Integration as cover finish elements Ref: Meter Inverter Source: Source: Chapter Chapter PVs PVs Hellenic Legislation ΚΥΑ ΦΕΚ Β 1079/ Chapter Chapter 3 140

36 36 APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Increasing number of Appliances, Office equipment New Appliances & Equipment are more energy efficient Labeling «White Appliances» ΕΝ 153 (European Directive 92/75/ L 297/ ) Old appliances have high operating cost for the lifetime of the appliance Annual savings from an efficient refrigerator (300 kwh), washing machine (200 kwh) Π.Δ. 180/ΦΕΚ Α 114/ APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) improving the environmental performance of energy-using products (EuP) and other energy related products (ErP) Ecodesign Directive initially included 14 product groups ( Lots ) but overtime has expanded to more than 30 Lots ErP Ecodesign Directive standards currently in force: Lot 5 - Televisions (EC 642/2009), Lot 6 - Standby and Off-mode (EC 1275/2008), Lot 7 - External Power Supplies (EC 278/2009), Lot 8 - Tertiary Lighting (EC 245/2009), Lot 10 - Room Air conditioning Appliances, Lot 11 - Fans Driven by Motors (125 W to 500 kw), Lot 11 Water Pumps, Lot 13 - Refrigerators (EC 643/2009), Lot 14 Dishwashers and Washing Machines, Lot 16 - Household Tumble Driers, Lot 18a - Simple set-top Boxes (EC 107/2009), Lot 19 - Non-directional Household lamps (EC 244/2009) and Directional Lamps, Light emitting diode lamps, and related equipment (EC 1194/2012) Chapter Chapter APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Standby & Off-Mode APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Standby & Off-Mode Ecodesign Directive ErP ENER Lot 6 The standby and/or off-modes of various small & large household appliances & electronic products according to ErP ENER Lot 6 are: Max 1 W for standby & off-mode since 2010; max 2 W for standby mode & displays information (e.g. clock) Max 0.5 W for standby & off-mode since 2013; max 1 W for standby mode & displays information (e.g. clock) If a device draws 1 W constantly for a year then its electrical energy consumption is 9 kwh/year Chapter Field survey (80 dwellings) Average standby/off mode Power: 49 W Annual Consumption: 279 kwh/year or 2.7 kwh/m 2 Percentage of total household electricity consumption: 6% Ref: C.A. Balaras et al, Standby Energy Consumption of Electrical Appliances in Hellenic Households, Proc. 4th Int. Conference on Renewable Energy Sources & Energy Efficiency New Challenges, ISBN , p , Nicosia, Cyprus, 6-7 June, Chapter 3 144

37 37 APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Office Equipment The European ENERGY STAR Programme is a voluntary energy labelling scheme for office equipment (e.g. computers, scanners and servers) APPLIANCES - EQUIPMENT Reduced Tariffs ENERGY STAR was first started by the US Environment Protection Agency in The EU agreed to take part in 2001 to include office equipment not carrying an EU energy efficiency label Under EU law (Article 6 and Annex III (c) of Directive 2012/27/EU), central governments and EU Institutions, must purchase office equipment with an ENERGYSTAR label Chapter Chapter Example: Office Building (high rise) Solar control Daylight Operable windows Natural ventilation Absorption chillers District heating BMS Frankfurt, Germany 53 storeys, 120,000m 2 Chapter Chapter 3 148

38 38 Example: Office Building Example: Office Building Double skin, Ext. solar control Daylight Operable windows Nat. ventilation Night ventilation (15 ACH) Ceiling fans Underfloor HVAC Ice storage BMS, Motion Sensors Solar collectors Athens (urban) 3,050m 2 Solar control Daylight Operable windows Nat. ventilation Night ventilation (25 ACH) Ceiling fans BMS, Motion Sensors Outdoor microclimate Athens (suburban) 1,000m 2 A.N.TOMBAZIS & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS Chapter Chapter Example: Historic Office Building Example: Historic Office Building Reduce heating load (Add roof insulation, double glazing) Reduce cooling load Shading with external shutters, Natural ventilation, ceiling fans) New heating / cooling system Replace old heating system, Install heat pump; fan coils, Controls (time schedule, H.P. / boiler priority) BMS (in-house built) Built: 1865 Athens, Thisseio (NOA) 416m 2 PBP (years) ROOF INSULATION 1.5 Peak cooling load ( 5%) & heating load ( 2.4%) EXTERNAL SHADING 12.5 Peak cooling load ( 12%) CEILING FANS 1.2 Peak cooling load ( 72%) ENERGY EFFICIENT LAMPS 8.5 Electrical energy consumption for lighting ( 18.5%) CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM 6.5 Energy consumption ( 14-20%) HEAT PUMP CONTROLS 9.4 Energy consumption for heating ( 29%) Chapter Chapter 3 152

39 39 Example: Historic Office Building Example: Historic Office Building B e f o r e Indoor Conditions (Responses from occupants) HEATING COOLING LIGHTING VENTILATION SHADING 45% 36% 36% 27% 55% 55% 64% 64% 73% 45% Annual energy Consumption (kwh/m 2 ) Before (actual): Refurbished: kwh/m 2 Before(normalized): kwh/m 2 Normalized to similar operating hours 39.6% 65.7% A f t e r 91% 9% 100% 82% 18% 100% 91% 9% TOTAL Hot water Equipment Cooling Average Hellenic buildings 187 kwh/m 2 After Before After Before (normalized) Heating Lighting Before (actual) C.A. Balaras, Energy Retrofit of a Neoclassic Office Building. Social Aspects and Lessons Learned, ASHRAE TRANSACTIONS, Vol. 107, Part 1, p , ASHRAE Annual Winter Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA, January 27-31, kwh/m kwh Chapter Chapter Example: Hotels Potential Energy Savings 1. Solar collectors (sanitary hot water) 2. Solar collectors (swimming pool water) 3. Solar cooling 4. Chiller cooling with sea water 5. Elevator zoning & controls 6. Efficient office equipment 7. Efficient lighting 8. Daylight controls Improved microclimate Increased thermal insulation Solar control Daylight, efficient lighting Operable windows Natural ventilation Ceiling fans BMS Example: Hospitals Thessaloniki (Papageorgiou) 600 beds 70,000 m 2 Solar collectors Controls Kalamata 226 collectors 535 m 2 Hotel, Crete, Greece; 60 rooms 3000 m 2 Solar collectors 500 m 2 Absorption chillers 105 kw Unglazed solar collectors (50-70% of pool area) 7 tanks 35,000 lt Chapter Chapter 3 Ref: ANDRIANOS 156

40 40 For more information For more information ASHRAE GreenGuide (3rd edition), The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings ASHRAE Press and Butterworth-Heinemann an imprint of Elsevier, J.M. Swift, T. Lawrence (Editors), (ISBN ), Atlanta, p. 464, (2010). V. Vakiloroaya, et al., A review of different strategies for HVAC energy saving, Energy Conversion and Management, 77, , (2014). K.G. Droutsa et al., Ranking cost effective energy conservation measures for heating in Hellenic residential buildings, Energy & Buildings, 65, , (2014). C.A. Balaras et al., European Residential Buildings and Empirical Assessment of the Hellenic Building Stock, Energy Consumption, Emissions & Potential Energy Savings, Building and Environment, 42 (3), , (2007). A.G. Gaglia et al., Empirical Assessment of the Hellenic Non-Residential Building Stock, Energy Consumption, Emissions and Potential Energy Savings, Energy Conversion and Management, 48 (4), , (2007). C.A. Balaras, Potential for Energy Conservation in Apartment Buildings, Energy & Buildings, 31, , (2000). H-M. Henning (editor), Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning in Buildings A Handbook for Planners, Springer-Verlag, (ISBN ), Vienna, p. 150, (2004). IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Passive Cooling of Buildings, A. Argiriou, A. Dimoudi, C.A. Balaras, D. Mantas, E. Dascalaki, I. Tselepidaki, (eds. M. Santamouris and D.N. Asimakopoulos), James & James, ISBN , p. 468, London, D.N. Asimakopoulos (Ed.), Solar Control Handbook - Design Guidelines, Conphoebus Scrl, European Commission JOULE - Solar Control, Tips for Daylighting with Windows, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USDOE. https://windows.lbl.gov/daylighting/designguide/lbnl_tips_for_daylighting.pdf 30% Guides Small office Small retail K-12 schools Warehouses Highway lodging Healthcare facilities 50% Guides Small-medium office K-12 school buildings Medium to big box retail Large hospitals Free downloads Chapter Chapter For more information For more information Whether you are an HVAC&R system designer, architect, building owner, building manager/operator, or contractor charged with designing a green building, ASHRAE GreenGuide aims to help you answer your biggest question: "What do I do now?" Using an integrated, building systems perspective, it gives you the need-to-know information on what to do, where to turn, what to suggest, and how to interact with other members of the design team in a productive way. Information is provided on each stage of the building process, from planning to operation and maintenance of a facility, with emphasis on teamwork and close coordination among interested parties. An easy-to-use reference with information on almost any subject that should be considered in green-building design. The GreenTips found throughout this edition highlight techniques, processes, measures, or special systems in a concise, often bulleted, format. References and resources mentioned are listed at the end of each chapter for easy access. Chapter Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: Technical Implementation (2011) Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: The Business Case for Building Owners and Managers (2009) ASHRAE Guideline 14 - Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings ASHRAE Guideline Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings Chapter 3 160

41 41 For more information For more information Post-construction testing a professional s guide to testing housing for energy efficiency Chapter 3 Chapter Chapter More information For more information Chapter Chapter 3 Chapter 3 164

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