Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees

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1 Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees

2 Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees This Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees identifies migratory trends among GMAT examinees applying to and attending graduate business school. Geographic and background data collected before each test taker completes the GMAT exam are used and combined with score-sending patterns. Together they illustrate which countries and schools are of interest to citizens of various Asian countries. Data from the most recent testing year are compared against data from four years prior to identify changes in examinee preferences. Geographic Trend Reports were first introduced in 2005 as part of the GMAC Research Report Series. The trend series has since grown based on requests for annual updates and specialized reports for individual regions, including Asia, Europe, and North America. If you d like an electronic copy of this or any other Geographic Trend Report documents, visit If you have questions about this publication, please contact us at The Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees is a product of the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), a global nonprofit education organization of leading graduate business schools and the owner of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). The GMAT exam is an important part of the admissions process for more than 4,500 graduate management programs around the world. GMAC is dedicated to creating access to and disseminating information about graduate management education; these schools and others rely on the Council as the premier provider of reliable data about the graduate management education industry Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC ). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of GMAC. For permission contact the GMAC legal department at Creating Access to Graduate Business Education, GMAC, GMAT, Graduate Management Admission Council, and Graduate Management Admission Test are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council in the United States and other countries.

3 CONTENTS KEY FINDINGS... 2 METHODOLOGY... 4 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT... 5 Location of GMAT Examinees... 5 Citizenship of GMAT Examinees... 6 Attractiveness of Programs in Asia... 7 Score Reports... 8 REGIONAL SCORE-SENDING PATTERNS... 9 All Asian Citizens Indian Citizens Chinese Citizens South Korean Citizens Taiwanese Citizens Japanese Citizens Thai Citizens Singaporean Citizens Pakistani Citizens Indonesian Citizens Vietnamese Citizens AUTHORSHIP CONTACT INFORMATION Acknowledgements APPENDIX: REGIONAL CATEGORIES Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 1

4 INTRODUCTION T his report presents country and regional-level analyses of student interest in graduate management education by examining data collected from Asian citizens taking the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ) during the 2004 and 2008 testing years (TY). Emphasis is placed on the destination of their score reports. Two important types of information relating to the geographic program preferences of examinees were derived from GMAT score-sending data. First, absolute change in the overall number of GMAT score reports that are sent each year reflects the physical size of the annual student pipeline. Absolute change tends to fluctuate widely depending on yearly testing volume. Second, relative change measures the proportion of total scores sent to a given country or region and reveals structural changes in market share. Relative change is generally more stable over time. Understanding both types of information absolute and relative enhances a school s ability to navigate the student pipeline and recruit effectively. Major differences in score-sending behavior were observed between TY 2004 and TY 2008 for many citizen groups in this report. This is not surprising given the global nature of higher education today, which is characterized by innovation and constant change. Many factors influence the attractiveness of certain programs to students and also the ability of students to pursue management education. This report identifies the aggregate effects of such dynamics. Key Findings Asian citizens represented 29% of GMAT tests taken globally in TY 2008 (59% when excluding US citizens). From these test takers, 257,522 score reports were sent to business schools worldwide a 70% increase in scores sent from Asian citizens compared with TY Indian citizens sent 50% of all score reports from Asia in the most recent testing year, despite taking only 40% of the exams. This is due to the high number of score reports sent per examinee: In TY 2008, Indian citizens sent an average of 4.5 score reports per examinee, the highest average in the region. Although US schools received more score reports from Indian examinees in TY 2008 than in TY 2004, they lost in total market share over the period as Indian citizens sent a greater proportion of score reports to programs in India and Western Europe. The attraction of the United States as a scoresending destination has changed for several Asian citizen groups since TY Six of the 10 groups identified in this report sent a lower proportion of their scores to US programs in TY 2008 than in TY Many of these groups, however, actually sent a greater absolute number of score reports to US programs over the period because, in many cases, the resulting growth in number of tests taken offset the decline in market share. Two citizen groups in this report sent more than 10% of their GMAT score reports to programs within their country of citizenship in TY Singaporean examinees sent 46% of their score reports to domestic programs and were the only group not to have the United States as their top study destination. Indian citizens sent 14% of their TY 2008 score reports to programs in India, up from 6% in TY Business programs in Asia have attracted an increasing number of score reports from all GMAT examinees over the last five years. In TY 2008, the top 10 countries in Asia to receive score reports were sent 39,156 scores from examinees around the world, a 215% increase when compared with TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

5 INTRODUCTION Geographic data collected from TY 2004 and TY 2008 included the examinee s mailing address at the time of registration and their country of citizenship. The proportion of citizens testing within their country of residence differed greatly among groups in both years. Figure 1: GMAT Exams Taken in the Top 10 Regions of Asia in TY 2008 GMAT Exams Taken in TY ,000 20,000 by Citizenship by Candidate Location 10,000 0 India China South Korea Taiwan Japan Thailand Singapore Pakistan Indonesia Vietnam Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 3

6 METHODOLOGY Methodology The 10 Asian citizenship groups with the greatest number of GMAT examinees were analyzed. Information was obtained from their responses to the background information questionnaire administered as part of the GMAT exam, score-reporting information from examinee records, and other registration information for testing years 2004 through 2008, each beginning July 1 and ending June 30. Although data from TY 2004 to TY 2008 are provided for general trend purposes, TY 2004 and TY 2008 data provide the primary basis for this report. Data from the 44,665 records of Asian citizen examinees in 2004 and the 71,149 records of Asian citizen examinees in 2008 who sat for the GMAT exam one or more times during these years are closely examined. In TY 2004, Central and South Asian citizens made up 14,147 of these examinees, a number which grew to 31,163 in TY 2008 (up 120%). However, for the second year in a row, only two countries in Central and South Asia made it into the top 10 countries in the Asian region for number of GMAT exams taken India and Pakistan. When taking the GMAT, examinees have the option to submit their score through a score report to up to five schools/programs at no charge. Once examinees leave the test center, additional copies of their score report are available for a fee. Up to 10 instances of score report data are stored for every test taken. Score reports were aggregated and grouped by school location and university for TY 2004 and school location, university, and program for TY Due to a change in vendors for the GMAT exam in 2006, data analysis can be extended to the program level for TY 2008 data. Program-level data are unavailable for TY 2004; therefore, school-level data are used. Throughout this report, school names followed by MBA indicate full-time programs unless otherwise specified. Examinees were asked their country of citizenship at the time of registration, and this information was used to group examinees into two regional categories: the East and Southeast Asia region and the Central and South Asia region (see the Appendix for complete descriptions of these categories). Country of citizenship and score-reporting behavior are used to gauge regional trends and changes in examinee preferences regarding school locations. The top 10 schools (by score report volume) for each of the top citizenship groups are listed for the two years studied to further reveal changes. The data used take into account the tests taken, not the individual test takers. Any examinees who took the test more than once are represented in the analyses by the number of times they took the test, and the average percentage of tests taken by repeat examinees is approximately 15 22%. Furthermore, the results presented in this report are generalizations that will not apply to every student. The people of Hong Kong and Macau are now included in the Chinese citizenship category. As a result, Hong Kong and Macau are no longer available as separate citizenship categories and have been collapsed into the Chinese citizenship category for both testing years analyzed in this report. GMAT score-sending trends are used to indicate interest in studying in a particular region. Other factors, such as changes in application requirements by schools and visa policies, influence these trends as well and should be taken into consideration when evaluating this report. It is also important to note when reviewing these results that it is not mandatory for examinees to respond to the Background Information Questions in order to register for the GMAT exam. As a result, not all test takers are represented in this analysis. The percentage of missing or unreported background information, however, is extremely low for both analyzed testing years Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

7 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT Asian Testing Environment The number of GMAT exams taken in Asia increased significantly during the previous five testing years. Testing volume reported by location of examinees (Table 1) and by citizenship (Table 2) highlights these changes. Location of GMAT Examinees The 20 countries/regions in Asia with the highest number of residents sitting for the GMAT exam during TY 2008 are shown in Table 1, along with historic data from TY Examinees in Asia took a total of 51,822 exams in TY 2008 and represented 21% of total exams taken worldwide. Table 1: GMAT Tests Taken by Location Top 20* Countries (TY 2004 to TY 2008) Rank TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Percent of TY 2008 Asia Total 1. India 6,137 7,206 9,270 13,324 18, % 2. China 4,610 4,040 5,299 7,663 11, % 3. South Korea 5,278 5,513 5,758 5,459 6, % 4. Taiwan 3,362 4,074 4,303 4,187 4, % 5. Japan 4,070 3,594 3,506 3,034 2, % 7. Hong Kong (S.A.R. of China) 1,760 1,683 1,634 1,886 2, % 6. Singapore 1,228 1,190 1,434 1,841 1, % 8. Thailand 1,258 1,397 1,491 1,470 1, % 9. Pakistan % 10. Indonesia % 11. Vietnam % 12. Philippines % 13. Nepal % 14. Malaysia % 15. Kazakhstan % 16. Bangladesh % 17. Sri Lanka % 18. Uzbekistan % 19. Kyrgyzstan % 20. Macau (S.A.R. of China) % 20. Mongolia % Total Number of Examinees Located in Asia 29,879 30,630 34,693 41,125 51, % *By number of GMAT tests taken. Led by persistent testing growth in India and China, the number of exams taken in Asia in TY 2008 was 73% greater than in TY The number of exams taken by residents of India and China since TY 2004 increased 209% and 145%, respectively; tests taken by these two groups represented 58% of all exams taken by Asian residents in TY Other countries that experienced triple-digit growth over the previous five testing years were Kazakhstan (247%), Sri Lanka (146%), Nepal (143%), and Mongolia (130%), although these groups have remained relatively small. Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 5

8 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT The only countries in Table 1 that had fewer exams taken by residents in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004 were Uzbekistan ( 39%), Japan ( 35%), and Indonesia ( 2%). Citizenship of GMAT Examinees There were nearly 20,000 more GMAT exams taken by Asian citizens than Asian residents in TY This disparity exists because many Asian examinees tested outside of their home country or region. The 71,149 exams taken by Asian citizens in TY 2008 represented 29% of tests taken globally, and the vast majority of these exams were taken by just a few citizen groups. Three of every four Asian examinees in TY 2008, for example, were citizens of India, China, or South Korea. Table 2: GMAT Tests Taken by Asian Citizenship Top 20* Countries (TY 2004 to TY 2008) Rank TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Percent of TY 2008 Asia Total 1. India 12,267 13,544 16,541 21,481 28, % 2. China 9,646 8,554 10,142 13,048 17, % 3. South Korea 6,453 6,511 6,977 6,811 7, % 4. Taiwan 4,203 5,032 5,401 5,218 5, % 5. Japan 4,679 4,168 3,858 3,417 2, % 6. Thailand 1,909 2,075 2,068 2,091 2, % 7. Singapore ,154 1, % 8. Pakistan 1,081 1,020 1,077 1,084 1, % 9. Indonesia 1, % 10. Vietnam % 11. Malaysia % 12. Nepal % 13. Philippines % 14. Bangladesh % 15. Kazakhstan % 16. Sri Lanka % 17. Uzbekistan % 18. Mongolia % 19. Kyrgyzstan % 20. Cambodia % Total Number of Asian Citizens 44,665 45,239 50,453 58,190 71, % *By number of GMAT tests taken. Of the top 20 citizen groups reported in Table 2, five more than doubled their number of exams taken in TY 2008 compared with TY 2004: Nepal (143%), Kyrgyzstan (140%), India (133%), Kazakhstan (122%), and Cambodia (104%). Only three of these top twenty groups experienced a decline from TY 2004 in the number of exams taken: Japan ( 37%), Indonesia ( 7%), and Bangladesh ( 1%). As a group, Asian citizens took 59% more exams in TY 2008 than in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

9 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT Attractiveness of Programs in Asia Programs in Asia successfully attracted a greater proportion of global talent in TY 2008 than in TY Table 3 shows score report volume for the top 10 countries/regions in Asia to which all GMAT examinees have sent score reports over the past five years. In TY 2004, the top 10 Asian countries received just 2% of scores sent worldwide. By TY 2008, this percentage increased to 5% driven by triple-digit growth in the number of scores received by programs in India (470%), Singapore (305%), the Philippines (121%), and China (112%). Several factors have influenced these trends. Most notably, prospective students have shown increased interest in programs within Asia, and the GMAT exam has become a more prominent part of the admissions process for Asian schools. Table 3: Top 10* Countries in Asia to Which All GMAT Examinees Sent Score Reports (TY 2004 to TY 2008) Rank TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Percent Change: TY 2004 to TY India 3,117 5,064 6,896 11,484 17, % 2. Singapore 2,696 3,074 4,505 6,752 10, % 3. Hong Kong 3,170 3,409 3,182 3,933 4, % 4. China 1,533 1,365 1,892 2,144 3, % 5. Japan % 6. Philippines , % 7. Thailand % 8. Pakistan % 9. Korea % 10. Taiwan % Total Score Reports Sent to All Countries 596, , , , , % Average # of Schools to Which Examinees Sent Scores * Based on number of score reports received in TY Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 7

10 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT Figure 2: Average Number of Score Reports Sent by Asian GMAT Examinees: TY 2004 and TY 2008 Average Number of GMAT Score Reports Sent by Citizenship, TY 2004 and TY 2008 India 4.5 China 3.8 All Asian Citizens 3.6 Pakistan 3.3 Vietnam 3.1 Indonesia 3.0 Taiwan 3.0 Thailand 2.9 Singapore 2.6 Japan 2.0 South Korea TY 2004 TY 2008 Score Reports Significant regional differences in the average number of score reports sent per GMAT examinee were observed in TY As a consequence, some citizen groups sent a greater number of score reports relative to others, despite having taken fewer exams in comparison. Figure 2 shows the average number of score reports sent per Asian examinee in TY 2004 and TY Indian citizens took the most tests in the Asian region in TY 2008 and also sent the most score reports per examinee (4.5). In contrast, South Korean citizens sent an average of only 1.9 score reports per examinee in the most recent year. These differences explain variations among citizen groups when comparing the number of exams taken with the number of score reports sent Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

11 REGIONAL SCORE-SENDING PATTERNS Regional Score-Sending Patterns The remainder of this report details GMAT score-sending patterns for all Asian citizens, who cumulatively sent 257,522 score reports in TY Breakdowns for the following 10 citizen groups are also provided: Chinese (65,732 scores sent in TY 2008) Singaporean (4,002) Indian (127,916) South Korean (14,771) Indonesian (2,908) Taiwanese (15,496) Japanese (5,867) Thai (6,127) Pakistani (4,175) Vietnamese (2,110) Figure 3 shows the percentage of score report submissions in TY 2008 from the various citizen groups in Asia. A comprehensive list of the countries that make up the region is available in the Appendix. Figure 3: Percentage of GMAT Scores from Asian Citizens in TY 2008 Percentage of Asian GMAT Score Reports Sent in TY 2008, by Citizenship Indonesia 1% Singapore 2% Vietnam 1% Other 3% Thailand 2% Japan 2% Pakistan 2% India 50% Taiwan 6% South Korea 6% China 25% Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 9

12 ALL OF ASIA All Asian Citizens Results in Tables 4 and 5 are heavily influenced by Indian examinees, whose scores represented 50% of the total scores sent by Asian citizens in TY 2008 (127,916 of the 257,522). Figure 4: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location All Asia 80,000 70,000 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,149 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 44,665 45,239 29,879 30,630 50,453 34,693 58,190 41,125 51,822 20,000 10,000 0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Examinees Located in Asia Asian Citizens Country Table 4: Top 10* Countries to Which Asian Citizens Sent Score Reports Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 116, % 1. United States 183, % 2. Canada 8, % 2. India 17, % 3. United Kingdom 7, % 3. United Kingdom 14, % 4. France 3, % 4. Singapore 10, % 5. India 3, % 5. France 7, % 6. Hong Kong 2, % 6. Canada 7, % 7. Singapore 2, % 7. Hong Kong 4, % 8. Australia 1, % 8. China 2, % 9. China 1, % 9. Australia 2, % 10. Netherlands % 10. Switzerland 1, % Total Scores Sent 151, % Total Scores Sent 257, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.4 in TY 2004; 3.6 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

13 ALL OF ASIA Table 5: Top 10* Schools/Programs to Which Asian Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Harvard University, MBA Program 1. Indian School of Business Post Graduate Programme in Management 2. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 2. Harvard University, MBA 3. Stanford University, MBA 3. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 4. Columbia University, MBA 4. Columbia University, MBA 5. Northwestern University Graduate School of Management 5. Stanford University, MBA 6. New York University Stern School of Business, MBA 6. New York University, MBA 7. University of Chicago MBA 7. INSEAD, MBA 8. University of California Berkeley, MBA Full Time 8. University of Chicago, MBA 9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management 9. National University of Singapore, MBA 10. Indian School of Business 10. University of California Berkeley, MBA As a result of relative gains made by Asian programs in attracting score reports from Asian citizens, a significant reorganization of the top 10 schools/programs to which this group sent scores has occurred over the previous five testing years. In TY 2004, the only school represented from outside of the United States was the Indian School of Business (ISB) and it ranked tenth. By TY 2008, ISB jumped to the top of the list helped by significant increases in the number of scores sent by Indian examinees. INSEAD and the National University of Singapore also appeared on the list by TY 2008, ranking at seventh and ninth, respectively. Further data pertaining to scores sent and exams taken by citizens of the top 10 GMAT score-sending citizen groups in Asia follow. Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 11

14 INDIA Indian Citizens There has been significant growth in the volume of GMAT tests taken in India and by Indian citizens over the last five testing years. During this period, the average annual growth rate in number of exams taken was 24% for Indian citizens and 33% for examinees located in India. In TY 2008, Indian citizens took 28,570 exams, representing nearly 12% of tests taken worldwide. This level marked a 133% increase in the number of exams taken by Indian citizens since TY Figure 5: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location India 30,000 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,570 25,000 21,481 20,000 18,950 16,541 15,000 12,267 13,544 13,324 10,000 9,270 6,137 7,206 5,000 0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 India Location Indian Citizenship Table 6: Top 10* Countries to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 41, % 1. United States 81, % 2. India 2, % 2. India 17, % 3. United Kingdom 2, % 3. United Kingdom 8, % 4. Canada 2, % 4. Singapore 6, % 5. France 1, % 5. France 4, % 6. Singapore % 6. Canada 3, % 7. Australia % 7. Australia 1, % 8. Philippines % 8. Switzerland % 9. Switzerland % 9. Philippines % 10. Netherlands % 10. Spain % Total Scores Sent 53, % Total Scores Sent 127, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 4.4 in TY 2004; 4.5 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

15 INDIA As a result of broad increases in testing, the number of scores sent by Indian examinees to all programs more than doubled between TY 2004 and TY During this time, the score-sending preferences of Indian citizens also shifted significantly. Most notably, the propensity of Indian citizens to send scores to programs located in India rose. In TY 2004, 6% of Indian examinees sent scores to programs in India; by TY 2008, that proportion increased to 14%. Programs in the United Kingdom and Singapore also became more attractive to Indian examinees. The gain in market share by Indian, UK, and Singaporean programs came at the expense of US programs, which experienced a 13-percentage-point decrease in market share from TY 2004 to TY Because growth in the number of tests taken by Indian citizens was so strong, however, US programs still received twice as many score reports from Indian citizens in TY 2008 than in TY Table 7: Top 10* Schools to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Indian School of Business 1. Indian School of Business 2. Harvard University 2. INSEAD 3. University of Pennsylvania 3. National University of Singapore 4. Stanford University 4. University of Pennsylvania 5. Northwestern University 5. Harvard University 6. Columbia University 6. London Business School 7. University of Chicago 7. Northwestern University 8. London Business School 8. New York University 9. INSEAD 9. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad 10. New York University 10. Stanford University The Indian School of Business (ISB) remained the top school of choice among Indian examinees in TY Other Asian schools including the National University of Singapore and the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad appeared on their top 10 list by TY The number of US schools in the top 10 list fell from seven in TY 2004 to five in TY 2008, and the highest-ranked US school fell from second to fourth. ISB also received the most score reports from Indian examinees in TY 2008 at the program level. Table 8: Top 10* Programs to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY Indian School of Business, Post Graduate Programme 2. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 3. National University of Singapore, MBA 4. Harvard University, MBA 5. INSEAD, MBA 6. Stanford University, MBA 7. London Business School, MBA 8. New York University, MBA 9. Indian Institute of Management, One-Year Programme 10. Columbia University, MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 13

16 CHINA Chinese Citizens After a decrease in the number of GMAT exams taken in China between TY 2004 and TY 2005, testing has experienced consistent growth. There were 81% more exams taken by Chinese citizens in TY 2008 than in TY 2004 and 145% more exams taken by candidates located in China over the same period. In TY 2008, Chinese citizens represented 7% of all exams taken worldwide and had the third-highest citizen total in the world. Figure 6: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location China 20,000 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,000 17,420 16,000 14,000 13,048 12,000 11,287 10,000 9,646 8,554 10,142 8,000 7,663 6,000 4,610 4,040 5,299 4,000 2,000 0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 China Location Chinese Citizenship Table 9: Top 10* Countries to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 22, % 1. United States 50, % 2. Canada 4, % 2. Hong Kong 3, % 3. Hong Kong 2, % 3. Canada 2, % 4. United Kingdom 2, % 4. United Kingdom 2, % 5. China 1, % 5. France 2, % 6. France % 6. China 1, % 7. Singapore % 7. Singapore % 8. Australia % 8. Australia % 9. Netherlands % 9. Netherlands % 10. Belgium % 10. Switzerland % Total Scores Sent 35, % Total Scores Sent 65, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.7 in TY 2004; 3.8 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

17 CHINA Unlike several other citizen groups in Asia, Chinese examinees sent an increasing proportion of their score reports to programs in the United States between TY 2004 and TY In TY 2008, 77% of their score reports went to US programs, up from 64% in TY Much of this shift in market share can be attributed to declines in the number and proportion of score reports sent to programs in Canada, which fell from 13% of all scores in TY 2004 to just 4% in TY Market share for programs in the United Kingdom also decreased over this period. Programs in China continued to have difficulty attracting domestic students from the GMAT pipeline in TY 2008, as less than 3% of scores sent by Chinese examinees went to Chinese schools. Table 10: Top 10* Schools to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Harvard University 1. Columbia University 2. China Europe International 2. New York University 3. University of Pennsylvania 3. Harvard University 4. Columbia University 4. University of Pennsylvania 5. Stanford University 5. Stanford University 6. New York University 6. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 7. York University 7. University of California Berkeley 8. University of Toronto 8. University of Southern California 9. Chinese University 9. Chinese University of Hong Kong 10. Yale University 10. University of Chicago Chinese examinees continued to send the bulk of their score reports to schools in the United States in TY In total, eight of the top 10 schools to which they sent scores were in the United States. The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology rounded off the list. The MBA program at the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) was the tenth-ranked program by Chinese citizens in TY 2008 and the only non-us program in their top 10. Table 11: Top 10* Programs to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY Harvard University, MBA 2. Columbia University, MBA 3. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 4. Stanford University, MBA 5. New York University, MBA 6. University of Chicago, MBA 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 8. University of California Berkeley, MBA 9. Yale University, MBA 10. CEIBS (China Europe International Business School), MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 15

18 SOUTH KOREA South Korean Citizens The number of South Korean GMAT tests taken both by citizenship and candidate location has averaged modest annual growth since TY South Korean citizens took 7,591 GMAT exams in TY 2008, the fourth-highest number of GMAT exams taken by any citizen group that year. Figure 7: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location South Korea GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,000 7,591 7,000 6,453 6,511 6,977 6,811 6,073 6,000 5,278 5,513 5,758 5,459 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 South Korea Location South Korean Citizenship Table 12: Top 10* Countries to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 12, % 1. United States 12, % 2. United Kingdom % 2. United Kingdom % 3. Canada % 3. China % 4. France % 4. France % 5. Korea % 5. Canada % 6. Switzerland % 6. Singapore % 7. Australia % 7. Korea % 8. Netherlands % 8. Australia % 9. Spain % 9. Switzerland % 10. China/Singapore % 10. Spain % Total Scores Sent 13, % Total Scores Sent 14, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.1 in TY 2004; 1.9 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

19 SOUTH KOREA Citizens of South Korea sent the majority of their score reports to programs in the United States in both years analyzed, but the proportion of scores sent to the US decreased from 92% in TY 2004 to 86% in TY Programs in Canada also lost a share of the South Korean examinee market over this period. These declines were due to increased interest by South Korean citizens in programs located in the United Kingdom, China, France, and Singapore. Programs in South Korea continued to receive minimal score reports from domestic citizens less than 1% of total scores sent by South Korean examinees went to South Korean programs in TY Table 13: Top 10* Schools to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Harvard University 1. University of Pennsylvania 2. University of Pennsylvania 2. Columbia University 3. Columbia University 3. Harvard University 4. Stanford University 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4. University of Texas Austin 5. New York University 6. New York University 6. University of California Berkeley 6. University of California Berkeley 7. Stanford University 8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8. Northwestern University 9. Northwestern University 9. Cornell University 10. University of Michigan Ann Arbor 10. University of Chicago Despite the decline in market share for US schools noted above, all of the top 10 schools and programs to which South Korean citizens sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in the United States. All of the top programs to which South Koreans sent scores in TY 2008 were MBA programs. Table 14: Top 10* Programs to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY University of Pennsylvania, MBA 2. Columbia University, MBA 3. Harvard University, MBA 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 5. Stanford University, MBA 6. New York University, MBA 7. University of California Berkeley, MBA 8. Northwestern University, MBA 9. University of Chicago, MBA 10. University of California Los Angeles, MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 17

20 TAIWAN Taiwanese Citizens The number of exams taken by Taiwanese citizens and examinees located in Taiwan has fallen slightly from a peak reached in TY 2006, yet the number of exams taken in TY 2008 was well above TY 2004 levels. A decrease in the average number of score reports sent by Taiwanese citizens, however, resulted in fewer score reports sent in TY 2008 relative to TY Figure 8: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location Taiwan 6,000 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,032 5,401 5,218 5,173 5,000 4,203 4,074 4,303 4,187 4,092 4,000 3,362 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Taiwan Location Taiwnese Citizenship Table 15: Top 10* Countries to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 15, % 1. United States 14, % 2. United Kingdom % 2. United Kingdom % 3. Canada % 3. France % 4. France % 4. Netherlands % 5. Netherlands % 5. Canada % 6. Taiwan % 6. Spain % 7. Germany % 7. China % 8. Australia % 8. Taiwan % 9. Japan % 9. Hong Kong % 10. China % 10. Japan % Total Scores Sent 16, % Total Scores Sent 15, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.9 in TY 2004; 3.0 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

21 TAIWAN The score-sending preferences of Taiwanese examinees remained somewhat stable from TY 2004 to TY Programs in the United States and United Kingdom continued to attract the overwhelming majority of Taiwanese scores US and UK programs received nearly 95% of those sent in TY Spain and Hong Kong also appeared as top 10 destinations in TY 2008, replacing Germany and Australia. Canada experienced the greatest decline in scores received from Taiwanese examinees, falling from third to fifth on their list. Table 16: Top 10* Schools to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. City University of New York Baruch 1. New York University 2. University of Illinois Urbana 2. University of California Los Angeles 3. University of Texas Dallas 3. University of Illinois Urbana Champaign 4. New York University 4. University of South California 5. San Francisco State University 5. Columbia University 6. University of California Berkeley 6. University of California Berkeley 7. University of California Los Angeles 7. Boston University 8. State University of New York at Buffalo 8. University of Washington Seattle 9. Columbia University 9. University of Pennsylvania 10. University of Texas Austin 10. University of Texas Austin As in TY 2004, all of the top 10 schools and individual programs to which Taiwanese examinees sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in the United States. Table 17: Top 10* Programs to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY New York University, MBA 2. University of California Los Angeles, MBA 3. Columbia University, MBA 4. University of California Berkeley, MBA 5. University of Southern California, MBA 6. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 7. University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, MBA 8. Boston University, MBA 9. Stanford University, MBA 10. University of California Riverside, MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 19

22 JAPAN Japanese Citizens Since TY 2004, Japan has averaged an annual decline of more than 10% in number of GMAT exams taken. This decline resulted in 1,700 fewer Japanese citizens in the GMAT student pipeline in TY 2008 relative to TY Figure 9: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location Japan GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,000 4,679 4,500 4,168 4,000 3,858 4,070 3,500 3,000 3,594 3,506 3,417 2,935 3,034 2,500 2,649 2,000 1,500 1, TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Japan Location Japanese Citizenship Table 18: Top 10* Countries to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 7, % 1. United States 4, % 2. United Kingdom % 2. United Kingdom % 3. France % 3. France % 4. Japan % 4. Japan % 5. Canada % 5. Spain % 6. Netherlands % 6. Canada % 7. Spain % 7. Switzerland % 8. Switzerland % 8. Singapore % 9. Italy % 9. Netherlands % 10. Australia % 10. Hong Kong % Total Scores Sent 9, % Total Scores Sent 5, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.0 in TY 2004; 2.0 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

23 JAPAN Sharp declines in the number of tests taken have reduced overall score sending by Japanese citizens, who already had one of the lowest averages in the region for number of scores sent per examinee. Switzerland and Spain were the only countries to receive more score reports from Japanese examinees in TY 2008 than they did in TY The proportion of scores sent to US programs by Japanese citizens fell from 83% in TY 2004 to 77% in TY At the same time, programs in Japan, the United Kingdom, France, and other areas of Western Europe posted relative gains. By TY 2008, Singapore and Hong Kong joined Japan as the only other Asian destinations in the top 10 for Japanese citizens. Table 19: Top 10* Schools to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Northwestern University 1. Stanford University 2. University of California Berkeley 2. University of California Berkeley 3. Columbia University 3. Columbia University 4. Stanford University 4. University of California Los Angeles 5. University of Pennsylvania 5. University of Pennsylvania 6. Harvard University 6. Northwestern University 7. Cornell University 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8. University of California Los Angeles 8. New York University 9. University of Southern California 9. Harvard University 10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 10. INSEAD In TY 2004, all of the top 10 schools to which Japanese citizens sent score reports were located in the United States. In TY 2008, INSEAD appeared at number 10 (ninth when examining at the program level). Stanford University was the top school destination for Japanese score reports in TY 2008, climbing from fourth overall in TY The unique program to receive the most score reports from Japanese examinees in TY 2008 was the MBA program at the University of California-Berkeley. Table 20: Top 10* Programs to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY University of California Berkeley, MBA 2. Stanford University, MBA 3. Columbia University, MBA 4. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 5. University of California Los Angeles, MBA 6. Northwestern University, MBA 7. Harvard University, MBA 8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 9. INSEAD, MBA 10. New York University, MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 21

24 THAILAND Thai Citizens Thailand has remained a relatively stable testing region over the previous five years, growing marginally since TY This growth, however, did not translate into increased score-sending numbers because the average number of score reports sent per examinee decreased from 3.2 to 2.9 over this period. As a consequence, the total number of scores sent in TY 2008 by Thai citizens was nearly identical to the number sent in TY Figure 10: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location Thailand 2,500 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,000 2,075 2,068 2,091 2,146 1,909 1,500 1,397 1,491 1,470 1,526 1,258 1, TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Thailand Location Thai Citizenship Table 21: Top 10* Countries to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 5, % 1. United States 5, % 2. Thailand % 2. Thailand % 3. United Kingdom % 3. United Kingdom % 4. Canada % 4. France % 5. Australia % 5. Canada % 6. Germany % 5. China % 7. France % 7. Japan % 8. Singapore % 8. Singapore % 9. Japan % 9. Switzerland % 10.Switzerland % 10. Australia % Total Scores Sent 6, % Total Scores Sent 6, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.2 in TY 2004; 2.9 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

25 THAILAND When compared with other citizen groups in Asia in TY 2008, Thai citizens sent a moderate number of score reports to domestic programs. In that year, nearly 5% of score reports went to programs in Thailand, down slightly from TY Programs in the United States still generated the greatest interest among Thai examinees and captured 86% of their score reports in TY The United Kingdom saw a notable increase during this period, while programs in Canada and Australia experienced decreases in the proportion of scores received by Thai examinees. Table 22: Top 10* Schools/Programs to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. Chulalongkorn University 1. Chulalongkorn University 2. San Francisco State University 2. University of California Berkeley 3. University of Illinois Urbana 3. Northwestern University 4. San Diego State University 4. University of California Los Angeles 5. University of California Berkeley 5. New York University 6. California State University Long Beach 6. University of Illinois Urbana Champaign 7. Northwestern University 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8. Thammasat University 8. University of Pennsylvania 9. California State University Los Angeles 9. Columbia University 9. California State University Fullerton/University of 10. Depaul University Texas Arlington In both TY 2004 and TY 2008, the top school to which Thai examinees sent score reports was in Thailand. Thai examinees joined Indian and Singaporean examinees as the only citizen groups identified in this report to send the greatest number of their score reports to a domestic school or program in TY The remaining schools and programs on the top 10 list for Thai examinees in TY 2008 were located in the United States. Table 23: Top 10* Programs to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY Chulalongkorn University, MBA 2. University of California Los Angeles, MBA 3. University of California Berkeley, MBA 4. Northwestern University, MBA 5. New York University, MBA 6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 7. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 8. Columbia University, MBA 9. Harvard University, MBA 10. San Diego State University, MBA Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 23

26 SINGAPORE Singaporean Citizens The number of exams taken by Singaporean citizens and residents has increased significantly over the last five years. There were 79% more exams taken by Singaporean citizens in TY 2008 than in TY 2004, and despite a large decrease in their average number of score reports sent per examinee from 3.0 to 2.6 Singaporean citizens still sent 52% more score reports in TY 2008 than in TY Figure 11: GMAT Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location Singapore 2,500 GMAT Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY ,000 1,841 1,995 1,500 1,228 1,190 1,434 1,548 1,000 1, TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008 Singapore Location Singaporean Citizenship Table 24: Top 10* Countries to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports Country Scores Sent Percent Country Scores Sent Percent 1. United States 1, % 1. Singapore 1, % 2. Singapore % 2. United States 1, % 3. United Kingdom % 3. United Kingdom % 4. France % 4. France % 5. Australia % 5. Australia % 6. Canada % 6. Canada % 7. Germany % 7. Hong Kong % 8. China % 8. China % 9. Hong Kong % 9. Switzerland % 10. Belgium/Japan/Switzerland % 10. Spain % Total Scores Sent 2, % Total Scores Sent 4, % *Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.0 in TY 2004; 2.6 in TY Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. Asian Geographic Trend Report

27 SINGAPORE Singaporean citizens were the only group studied in this report that sent more score reports to domestic programs when compared with international programs. In TY 2008, 46% of score reports sent by Singaporean citizens were sent to business programs located in Singapore, up from just 32% in TY This shift was accompanied by diminished market share for programs in English-speaking countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Despite sending 52% more score reports overall in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004, Singaporean examinees actually sent fewer scores to programs in Australia and Canada over this period. Table 25: Top 10* Schools to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports 1. National University of Singapore 1. Singapore Management University 2. Nanyang Technological University 2. National University of Singapore 3. Singapore Management University 3. Nanyang Technological University 4. Nanyang Technological University, MSc 4. INSEAD 5. Harvard University 5. Harvard University 6. INSEAD 6. Columbia University 7. Stanford University 7. Stanford University 8. University of Pennsylvania 8. University of Pennsylvania 9. Columbia University 9. University of Chicago 10. London Business School 10. London Business School *Based on number of score reports received The top four schools to which Singaporean examinees sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in Singapore. Additionally, seven of the top 10 programs were in Singapore two of which were specialized master s programs at Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University. Table 26: Top 10* Programs to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY National University of Singapore, MBA Part Time 2. Nanyang Technological University, MBA Part Time 3. INSEAD, MBA 4. Harvard University, MBA 5. Singapore Management University, MBA Part Time 6. Nanyang Technological University, MSc Financial Engineering 7. National University of Singapore, MBA 8. Singapore Management University, MS Applied Finance 8. Columbia University, MBA 10. Stanford University, MBA *Based on number of score reports received Asian Geographic Trend Report Graduate Management Admission Council. All rights reserved. 25

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