Convection Resolving Model (CRM) MOLOCH. 1-Breve descrizione del CRM sviluppato all ISAC-CNR

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1 Convection Resolving Model (CRM) MOLOCH 1-Breve descrizione del CRM sviluppato all ISAC-CNR 2-Ipotesi alla base della parametrizzazione dei processi microfisici

2 Objectives Develop a tool for very high resolution-short range operational weather forecast and Nowcasting; Resolve explicitly atmospheric convection (without parameterization); Develop a tool for research purposes (simulation of thunderstorm development, flows over complex orography, physical processes responsible for intense precipitation,

3 Model dynamics non hydrostatic, fully compressible; Arakawa C grid; terrain-following coordinate time split, implicit for vertically propagating sound waves, FB for horizontal prop. waves advection: FBAS (Malguzzi & Tartaglione, 1999); also Weighted Average Flux WAF (Toro 1989; Hubbard & Nikiforakis, 2001) nested in BOLAM runs Model physics radiation, vertical diffusion, surface turbulent fluxes similar to BOLAM soil water and energy balance based on Pressman soil scheme cloud microphysics (partly based on Drofa, 2003) no dry and moist convection

4 du dt = 1 ρ dv dt = 1 ρ dw dt = 1 ρ P x fv K u P y fu K v P z g dt dt = T R ' C V V Q dp dt = P γ V P Q C V T γ = C P C V C V K T Governing equations P= ρ R ' T Effective gas constant R '=R d 1 1 /ε 1 q V q W q I ε = R d R V

5 Governing equations: Conservation of specific concentration of water species in air parcels dq k dt =δ kv K V k =V, Cw, Ci, Pw, Pi 1, Pi 2 Hydrometeors

6 d E dt Turbulent kinetic energy equation in H-coordinates = K E u i ' u j ' u i x j ς g θ V w ' θ ' V ε, u ' = u ' v ' ' = u ', u ' v ' w s' E= 1 2 u ' u' v ' v ' w ' w' ε= 1 l m C E E 3 Closure: Energy redistribution hypothesis u i ' u j ' = 2 3 δ ij E K u i x j u j x i K =l m C E E

7 Hybrid coordinates H

8 H-Coordinate Terrain following vertical coordinate 1 ζ / H z h H ζ =H 1 e h z The vertical scale H is given by the density scale height H = R d T 0 g

9 Microphysical hypothesis Liquid and solid cloud particles: gamma-distribution (Levi distribution) for the number of particles per unit volume and unit radius D: βα 1 N D = N 0 Γ α 1 Dα e βd Liquid and solid precipitation: Marshall-Palmer distribution N D = N 0 e λ D N 0 = (m -3 ) and α=6 for cloud drops N 0 = (m -3 ) and α=3 for cloud crystal β and λ are determined from the normalizing condition: where m is the mass of a particle of diameter D: β=[ N 0 aγ α b 1 ρqγ α 1 ] 1 b N 0 = (m -4 ) for precipitating drops N 0 function of crystal shape for precipitating ice m D =ad b 1 ρ N D m D dd=q and where a=π/6 ρ w, b=3 for cloud and precipitating water; a=100, b=2.5 for cloud ice; a and b function of crystal shape (temperature) for precipitating ice. The result is: λ=[ N 0 aγ b 1 ] ρq 1 b 1

10 The rate of change of the quantity q due to a particular microphysical process is given by: where m t dm dt =D q t = 1 m ρ 0 t N D dd is the rate of change of the mass of a single particle 2π F q v q sk 1 ρ 1 q sk χ L v k M w K a T L v k M w R T {1 1 Condensation-sublimation q sk 1 [ ρ L v k M w R T ]2[1 1 K a T v q sk χ L ρ k L v k M w R T q v 1 2 L v k M w R T L v k M w R T 1 2 ]} where F is the ventilation coefficient, equal to 0.8 for cloud particles. For precipitation particles the following expression is implemented: 1/3 F =0.78 Sc 1/3 DU ρ μ dif where µ dif is the dynamical molecular viscosity of air, U the terminal velocity of the particle, and Sc the Shmidt number (= 0.6). The suffix k can be w or i, indicating liquid water or ice, respectively. L w v and L i v are the condensation and sublimation latent heat, χ the coefficient of molecular diffusion of vapour into air, K a the thermal conductivity of air, M w the molecular weight of water, and R * the universal gas constant.

11 Fast microphysical processes Nucleation, condensation, and evaporation of liquid cloud particles Water vapour q V Nucleation, deposition growth, and sublimation of crystal cloud particles Freezing of liquid cloud particles Cloud water q Cw Melting of crystal cloud particles Cloud ice q Ci

12

13 where t denotes the mo del time st ep, and where the critical diamet er D0is set to the conventional size which separates cl oud particles from rain, namely m for cl oud wat er. For cl oud ice, D0is m at T=TTRand decreases with decreasing temperature. Autoconversion q Cw,Ci t = q Γ α b 1, βd 0 Cw,Ci Δt Γ α b 1

14 Fall of precipitation The terminal velocity of one precipitation particle: u D =kd n p 0 p 0. 4 where n=0.8 and k=842 m 1-n s -1 for rain and function of the type of ice particle for snow/hail Averaged terminal velocity: U = N D m D u D dd N D m D dd

15 Conclusioni

16 GLOBO GLObal version of the BOlam model ISTITUTO DI SCIENZE DELL'ATMOSFERA E DEL CLIMA, ISAC-CNR

17 Model dynamics Hydrostatic, primitive equations Arakawa C grid; terrain-following, hybrid coordinates Explicit time split, Forward-Backward for gravity waves Advection: Weighted Average Flux (Toro 1989; Hubbard & Nikiforakis, 2001) Fourth order horizontal diffusion and second order divergence damping Polar filter (spectral along longitude) Model physics: Radiation (Morcrette or Geleyn) Vertical diffusion (E-l scheme) Surface turbulent fluxes (Monin-Obuckov) Large scale precipitation and microphysics based on Shultz (1988) Moist convection based on the Kain-Fritsh parameterization Soil water and energy balance scheme based on Pressman (1994) Vegetation effects (Noilhan J., Mahfouf J.-F.,1996) Gravity wave drag

18 Case study : 2006/05/15 7-day forecast simulation, starting from ECMWF analysis at 00 UTC of May 15, D fields u, v, T, q extracted from MARS archive on 26 model levels and 1.0x1.0 lat-lon regular grid (12 Mbyte compressed). 2-D fields: soil temperature and water content (4 layers), snow height, log. of surface pressure, orography, and land sea mask. System time: 1 hour (8 hours) at 1.0 (0.5) resolution on AMD64x2 with PG Fortran and MPI

19 a b 974 MSLP - 24 h forecast a) GLOBO 1.0 resolution b) GLOBO 0.5 resolution c) ECMWF (~ 0.25 resolution) c 973

20 3-days Forecast GLOBO vs ECMWF 500 hpa geopotential height

21 ECMWF GLOBO 1.0x1.0 res.

22 ECMWF GLOBO 0.5x0.5 res.

23 Medium range forecast (7 days) Comparison of Globo at 1.0 and deg resolution versus the Ecmwf forecast and analysis

24 GLOBO 1.0x1.0 res. Analysis

25 GLOBO 1.0x1.0 res. analysis 2006/05/22

26 ECMWF analysis 2006/05/22

27 Objectives Develop a tool for medium range weather and ensemble forecast, to be used by weather services; AGCM to be used to study the general circulation of the atmosphere (role of water vapour, baroclinic instability, low-frequency variability, planetary waves,...) Tool for seasonal prediction (?) Climate model?

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