1 State Operations Manual Appendix M - Guidance to Surveyors: Hospice - Transmittals for Appendix M (Rev. 149, ) Part I Investigative Procedures I - Introduction C - Post Survey Revisit Part II Interpretive Guidelines Subpart C - Conditions of Participation: Patient Care Definitions Condition of Participation: Patient's Rights (a) Standard: Notice of Rights and Responsibilities (b) Standard: Exercise of Rights and Respect for Property and Person (c) Standard: Rights of the Patient Condition of Participation: Initial and Comprehensive Assessment of the Patient (a) Standard: Initial Assessment (b) Standard: Time Frame for Completion of the Comprehensive Assessment (c) Standard: Content of the Comprehensive Assessment (d) Standard: Update of the Comprehensive Assessment (e) Standard: Patient Outcome Measures Condition of Participation: Interdisciplinary Group, Care Planning, and Coordination of Services (a) Standard: Approach to Service Delivery (b) Standard: Plan of Care (c) Standard: Content of the Plan of Care
2 418.56(d) Standard: Review of the Plan of Care (e) Standard: Coordination of Services Condition of Participation: Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement (a) Standard: Program Scope (b) Standard: Program Data (c) Standard: Program Activities (d) Standard: Performance Improvement Projects (e) Standard: Executive Responsibilities Condition of Participation: Infection Control (a) Standard: Prevention (b)Standard: Control (c) Standard: Education Condition of Participation: Licensed Professional Services Condition of Participation: Core Services (a) Standard: Physician Services (b) Standard: Nursing Services (c) Standard: Medical Social Services (d) Standard: Counseling Services Condition of Participation: Nursing Services Waiver Of Requirement That Substantially All Nursing Services Be Routinely Provided Directly by a Hospice Condition of Participation: Furnishing of Non-core Services Condition of Participation: Physical Therapy (PT), Occupational Therapy (OT), and Speech-Language Pathology (SLP) Waiver of Requirement-Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Speechlanguage Pathology and Dietary Counseling Condition of Participation: Hospice Aide and Homemaker Services (a) Standard: Hospice Aide Qualifications (b) Standard: Content and Duration of Hospice Aide Classroom and Supervised Practical Training (c) Standard: Competency Evaluation (d) Standard: In-service Training (e) Standard: Qualifications for Instructors Conducting Classroom And Supervised Practical Training
3 418.76(f) Standard: Eligible Competency Evaluation Organizations (g) Standard: Hospice Aide Assignments and Duties (h) Standard: Supervision of Hospice Aides (i) Standard: Individuals Furnishing Medicaid Personal Care Aide-Only Services under a Medicaid Personal Care Benefit (j) Standard: Homemaker Qualifications (k) Standard: Homemaker Supervision and Duties Condition of participation: Volunteers (a) Standard: Training (b) Standard: Role (c) Standard: Recruiting and Retaining (d) Standard: Cost Saving (e) Standard: Level of Activity Subpart D --Conditions of Participation: Organizational Environment Condition of Participation: Organization and Administration of Services (a) Standard: Serving the Hospice Patient and Family (b) Standard: Governing Body and Administrator (c) Standard: Services (d) Standard: Continuation of Care (e) Standard: Professional Management Responsibility (f) Standard: Hospice Multiple Locations (g) Standard: Training Condition of Participation: Medical Director (a) Standard: Medical Director Contract (b)Standard: Initial Certification of Terminal Illness (c) Standard: Recertification of the Terminal Illness (d) Standard: Medical Director Responsibility Condition of participation: Clinical Records (a) Standard: Content (b) Standard: Authentication (c) Standard: Protection of Information (d) Standard: Retention of Records
4 (e) Standard: Discharge or Transfer of Care (f) Standard: Retrieval of Clinical Records Condition of Participation: Drugs and Biologicals, Medical Supplies, and Durable Medical Equipment (a) Standard: Managing Drugs and Biologicals (b) Standard: Ordering of Drugs (c) Standard: Dispensing of Drugs and Biologicals (d) Standard: Administration of Drugs and Biologicals (e) Standard: Labeling, Disposing, and Storing of Drugs and Biologicals (f) Standard: Use and Maintenance of Equipment and Supplies Condition of Participation: Short-term Inpatient Care (a) Standard: Inpatient Care for Symptom Management and Pain Control (b) Standard: Inpatient Care for Respite Purposes (c)Standard: Inpatient Care Provided under Arrangements (d) Standard: Inpatient Care Limitation (e) Standard: Exemption from Limitation Condition of Participation: Hospices that Provide Inpatient Care Directly (a) Standard: Staffing (b) Standard: Twenty-four Hour Nursing Services (c) Standard: Physical Environment (d) Standard: Fire Protection (e) Standard: Patient Areas (f) Standard: Patient Rooms (g) Standard: Toilet/Bathing Facilities (h) Standard: Plumbing Facilities (i) Standard: Infection Control (j) Standard: Sanitary Environment (k) Standard: Linen (l) Standard: Meal Service and Menu Planning (m) Standard: Restraint or Seclusion (n) Standard: Restraint or Seclusion Staff Training Requirements (o) Standard: Death Reporting Requirements
5 Condition of Participation: Hospices that Provide Hospice Care to Residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID (a) Standard: Resident Eligibility, Election, and Duration of Benefits (b) Standard: Professional Management (c) Standard: Written Agreement (d) Standard: Hospice Plan of Care (e) Standard: Coordination of Services (f) Standard: Orientation and Training of Staff Condition of Participation: Personnel Qualifications (a) Standard: General Qualification Requirements (b) Standard: Personnel Qualifications for Certain Disciplines (c) Standard: Personnel Qualifications When No State Licensing, Certification or Registration Requirements Exist (d) Standard: Criminal Background Checks Condition of Participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and Local Laws and Regulations Related to the Health and Safety of Patients (a) Standard: Multiple Locations (b) Standard: Laboratory Services
6 I Introduction Part I Investigative Procedures Survey protocols and Interpretive Guidelines are established to provide guidance to personnel conducting surveys of hospices. They serve to clarify and/or explain the intent of the regulations. All surveyors are required to use them in assessing compliance with Federal requirements. The purpose of the protocols and guidelines is to direct the surveyor s attention to avenues of investigation in preparation for the survey, conducting the survey, and evaluating the survey findings. These protocols represent the view of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) on relevant areas and items that must be inspected/reviewed under each regulation. The use of these protocols promotes consistency in the survey process. The protocols assure that a facility s compliance with the regulations is reviewed in a thorough, efficient, and consistent manner so that at the completion of the survey, surveyors have sufficient information to make compliance decisions. Although surveyors use the information contained in the Interpretive Guidelines in the process of making a determination about a hospice s compliance with the regulations, these guidelines are not binding. Interpretive Guidelines do not establish requirements that must be met by hospices, do not replace or supersede the law or regulations, and may not be used alone as the sole basis for a citation. All mandatory requirements for hospices are set forth in relevant provisions of the Social Security Act and in regulations. The Interpretive Guidelines do however, contain authoritative interpretations and clarification of statutory and regulatory requirements and are used to assist surveyors in making determinations about a hospice s compliance. Survey Team The State survey agency (SA), or the CMS Regional Office (RO) for Federal teams, decides the size of the team. Each hospice survey team should include at least one RN with hospice survey experience. Other surveyors who have the expertise to determine whether the hospice is in compliance may be used as needed. Training for Hospice Surveyors Hospice surveyors should have the necessary training and experience to conduct a hospice survey. All hospice surveyors must attend a CMS sponsored Basic Hospice Surveyor Training Course. New surveyors may accompany the team as part of their training prior to completing the CMS Basic Hospice Surveyor Training Course.
7 Types of Hospice Surveys A - Initial Certification Prior to the initial Medicare certification survey, a prospective hospice should notify the RO and/or the SA that it wants to apply for Medicare certification. The prospective hospice must complete a Medicare enrollment application (Form CMS 855A). This form can be found at: pofpage. The assigned Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) will review the application, verify the information and notify the RO and SA of their enrollment recommendation. Additional information on this process is available in 2005A. Initial Medicare Certification Survey Before the SA or the National Accrediting Organization (AO) with deeming authority conducts the initial Medicare certification survey, the SA must have received written documentation submitted by the prospective hospice requesting an initial certification survey. At the time of the survey, the prospective hospice must: Be operational; Have completed the Medicare Enrollment Application Form CMS-855A and had this form verified by the assigned MAC; Have provided care to a minimum of 5 hospice patients (not required to be Medicare patients.) At least 3 hospice patients should be receiving care at the time of the initial Medicare certification survey. If the hospice is located in a medically underserved area, as determined by the CMS RO, the CMS RO may reduce the minimum number of patients from 5 to 2. At least 1 of the 2 required patients should be receiving care from the hospice at the time of the initial Medicare survey; Be providing all services needed by the patients actually being served; and Be capable of demonstrating the operational capability of all facets of its operations. In the event that the hospice patients being served at the time of the survey do not require the full scope of hospice services, verify that the hospice is fully prepared to provide all services necessary to meet the hospice CoPs.
8 It is not necessary to inspect the facility where the inpatient services will be provided under arrangement or in space share with a Medicare certified facility. The contract for the inpatient services must be reviewed to ensure that it is valid and there is no doubt that the hospice will be able to provide the service when needed. The effective date of Medicare participation can be no earlier than the date the hospice is prepared to provide all of the required services and meets all hospice CoPs. In no case can the effective date be earlier than the date the hospice meets all the Federal requirements (42 CFR ). All initial hospice surveys are unannounced and must verify compliance with all the regulatory requirements contained in thru (See 2700A) B - Recertification Survey of Participating Hospices All recertification hospice surveys are unannounced and must verify compliance with all the regulatory requirements contained at thru If an existing certified hospice has a new inpatient unit or an inpatient unit that it wishes to relocate, verify compliance with the regulations at Routinely conduct the recertification survey at a multiple location of the hospice, if applicable, when that location serves more patients than the initial location issued the CMS certification number. Whenever possible, visit all locations of the hospice during the survey. Deficiencies found at any multiple location(s) are applicable to the entire hospice. C - Post-Survey Revisit In some cases, the SA may verify correction of deficiencies through mail, telephone or electronic contact in lieu of an on-site visit. However, an on-site visit is required for any condition level deficiency. Through the on-site visit or other contact, assess the hospice s correction of the deficiencies previously cited on the Statement of Deficiencies and Plan of Correction, Form CMS The purpose of the post-survey onsite revisit is to reevaluate the specific care and services that were cited during the survey that cannot be adequately assessed by mail, telephone, or electronic contact. The nature of the deficiencies dictates the necessity for and scope of the post-survey revisit. If deficiencies were originally identified during home visits, home visits may be necessary on the revisit. Conduct as many home visits as necessary to assess compliance. Assess the compliance of the hospice on all deficiencies cited on the Form CMS If a deficiency is subsequently corrected, the SA completes the Post- Certification Revisit Report, Form CMS-2567B, as appropriate. (Refer to 2732B for additional information.) If at the time of the post-survey revisit, some deficiencies have not been corrected, or additional deficiencies are identified, the SA completes another
9 Form CMS-2567 summarizing the deficiencies by data prefix tag. The SA may examine all conditions, as needed, to determine compliance status. The hospice must provide a plan of correction including completion dates for deficiencies identified during a postsurvey revisit. D - Complaint Investigations Investigation and resolution of complaints is a critical certification activity. Each complaint against a hospice must be documented, investigated and resolved. Follow the guidance in Chapter 5 for investigations of complaints. If the hospice is found to have one or more condition-level deficiencies during the complaint investigation, all conditions must be reviewed. Follow the Interpretive Guidelines contained in Part II of this Appendix. II The Survey Focus The hospice outcome-oriented survey process emphasizes the hospice s performance and its effect on patients. The process first directs the surveyor to focus on the services being provided, and then to examine the structures and processes that contribute to the quality of the services. The primary focus of the survey is on patient outcomes, the hospice s practices in implementing the requirements, and provision of hospice services. The intent of the survey is to evaluate each of the CoPs in the most efficient manner possible. The surveyor considers the interrelatedness of the regulations while evaluating compliance through observations, interviews, home visits, and record reviews. III - The Survey Tasks The hospice survey process consists of completing the following tasks with an assessment of the principal components listed below. Task 1 Pre-Survey Preparation; Task 2 Entrance Interview; Task 3 Information Gathering; Task 4 Information Analysis; Task 5 Exit Conference, and Task 6 Formation of the Statement of Deficiencies.
10 Task 1 Pre-Survey Preparation Prior to each survey, review the hospice s file in accordance with In addition, review the Interpretive Guidelines, which contain critical questions to ask during the entrance conference and throughout the survey. Task 2 - Entrance Interview (Rev. 104, Issued: , Effective: , Implementation: ) The entrance interview sets the tone for the entire survey. The surveyor must establish rapport with the hospice staff. During this interview, gather information to understand how the hospice organizes itself, and provides hospice care and services to patients. 1. Upon arrival at the hospice, complete the following primary activities: Present identification and introduce any survey team members; Request a meeting with appropriate staff based on the organizational characteristics of the hospice. Request a copy of the organizational chart; Inform the administrator or designee of the purpose of the survey; Ask the administrator or designee to explain the organization, services provided (directly and under arrangement) and the relationship to any corporate structure; Explain the survey process, and estimate the number of days onsite; Be aware that the unannounced survey may be disruptive to the normal daily activities of the hospice; Discuss the extent to which hospice staff may be involved during the survey; Set up the schedule for any necessary interviews with key staff (e.g., medical director, spiritual or pastoral counselor, bereavement counselor, volunteer supervisor, social worker, RN coordinator, etc.); Request that the hospice complete the Form CMS-417, Hospice Request for Certification in the Medicare Program (Exhibit 72) and return it to you as soon as possible, but no later than within 24 hours of the entrance conference, and Request space to work. Investigate any discrepancies in information obtained during the entrance interview through observation, interviews with key staff, and a review of source documents, as needed, during the survey. 2. Request the following information during the entrance interview: Verification of addresses of all locations and/or short term inpatient facilities used by the hospice (either directly or under arrangements);
11 Access to clinical records and the equipment necessary to read any clinical records maintained electronically. The hospice must also produce a paper copy of the record, if requested by the surveyor; Information given to the patient on admission to hospice; Documentation of hospice aide training and/or competency evaluations and inservice training; Information concerning services not provided directly; Number of unduplicated admissions for the entire hospice during the recent 12 month period, including Medicare/Medicaid and private pay patients; Number of current patients who are receiving hospice care at home, in an inpatient facility, SNF/NF, ICF/IID or other facility; List or access to names of patients scheduled for a home visit during the survey; Access to all active patient names (Medicare/Medicaid/private pay) receiving hospice services that identifies the election date, diagnosis, and date the initial and comprehensive assessment was completed. This will aid in selecting the sample for home visits and record reviews; Access to bereavement records for expired patients who received services during the last 12 months; List of current employees and volunteers, including name and title; List of contracts as applicable (e.g., SNF/NF, DME, Pharmacy, Inpatient facilities; Names of key staff (e.g., RN coordinator(s) for IDG(s), and persons most knowledgeable about the hospice aides, homemakers, volunteers, infection control, quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI), in-service training, clinical supervision, bereavement); Clinical staff person who will be the primary resource responding to the surveyor s questions; Documentation of grievances/complaints that the hospice received during the past 12 months; Personnel files, policies and procedures, and CLIA certificate (if applicable, and Date(s) and time(s) of IDG reviews and plan of care updates. Task 3 - Information Gathering This task includes an organized, systematic, and consistent gathering of information necessary to make decisions concerning the hospice s compliance with the CoPs. Review each condition using the Interpretive Guidelines to assist you. Throughout your survey maintain an open and ongoing dialogue with hospice personnel. Discuss your observations, as appropriate, with team members and hospice personnel. Give the hospice the opportunity to provide additional information. Fully investigate the issues of concern through further observation, interviews and document reviews before making
12 compliance decisions. Pay particular attention to the following areas related to patient care and organizational environment. A Patient Care Is there evidence during the survey that: The hospice promotes and protects the rights of its patients. The hospice interdisciplinary group (IDG) gathers the appropriate patient/family information needed to perform accurate comprehensive assessments and necessary updates to the assessment. The IDG works together to develop and update the individualized plan of care for each patient, based on the assessments, to meet the identified patient/family needs and goals. (During the survey, it is helpful to attend at least a part of the scheduled IDG reviews of the patients plans of care, if possible.) The hospice involves the patient and/or family in developing the plan of care. (Interviews with staff, patients and family can be helpful in determining how the hospice involves patient/families in developing the plan of care.) All members of the IDG and all relevant patient care providers (e.g., hospice aide, volunteer etc.,) share current relevant information regarding each patient/family s status. The hospice provides education to the patient/family about the patient s disease process, the palliation and management of the patient s symptoms, the safe and effective use of medication and medical equipment used by the patient, and the physical, psychosocial and spiritual aspects of the dying process. All personnel are qualified and furnish services to the patient in accordance with accepted professional standards of practice. The hospice assures that hospice aides are competent to provide care to their patients and supervised by a registered nurse. The hospice s infection control program protects patients, families, visitors, and hospice personnel by preventing and controlling infections and communicable diseases. The hospice develops, implements, and maintains an effective, ongoing, hospicewide data-driven quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI) program. B Organizational Environment Is there evidence during the survey that: The governing body ensures the hospice has an ongoing program to promote quality assessment and performance improvement; The hospice administrator assumes full responsibility for the day-to-day operations of the hospice;
13 The hospice understands the principles surrounding quality assessment and implements effective ongoing performance improvement projects utilizing data collected; When the hospice identifies trends that indicate potential or actual problems, it takes follow up actions to resolve the issue(s); The hospice provides care that optimizes the patient s comfort and dignity and is consistent with the patient and family needs and goals; The hospice assumes overall professional management responsibility for all services provided directly and under arrangement; Nursing services, physician services, drugs and biologicals are routinely available on a 24-hour basis, 7 days a week. Other covered services are available on a 24- hour basis when reasonable and necessary to meet the needs of the patient and family; The on call system is operational on a 24 hour basis so that patients can contact the hospice as necessary; Drugs, treatments and medical supplies are provided as needed for the palliation and management of the terminal illness and related conditions, and The hospice makes arrangements for any necessary inpatient care according to , and retains professional management responsibility for services furnished by inpatient facility staff. C Clinical Records The minimum number of clinical records to be reviewed during the hospice survey will be the sum of the number of clinical records without home visits and the number of clinical records with home visits. See chart below. Unduplicated Admissions Min # Of Record Reviews Without Home Visit Min # Of Record Reviews With Home Visit Total Record Reviews < or more Selection of Clinical Records The number of record reviews without home visits, based on the total number of unduplicated admissions during a recent 12-month period, is as follows:
14 Number of Unduplicated Hospice Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period Less than ,251 or more 15 or more Minimum Number of Record Reviews Without Home Visits of Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period The sample is selected to capture the different types of settings in which the hospice provides care (i.e., routine home care in a private residence or nursing facility, as well as inpatient care provided directly or under arrangement), and to include patients with different terminal diagnoses. In addition to the sample of records selected, review a record of a hospice patient who has been discharged from a nursing home and a patient who has revoked the hospice benefit if there are concerns about discharge or revocation. In addition, review a sample of 2-3 bereavement plans of care from a list of patients who have died within the past 12 months to determine if the bereavement services provided reflected the needs of the bereaved. 2. Clinical Record Review The arrangement and format of clinical records vary among hospices. To minimize time spent in reviewing a clinical record and to maximize the substantive information that can be obtained, use the following approach: Review the arrangement and format of one or two clinical records with the hospice staff person designated to answer your questions about how services are organized, delivered, and evaluated. Ask him/her where you are likely to find the information in the clinical record. If the record is maintained electronically, the hospice must provide all equipment necessary to read the record in its entirety. The hospice must also produce a paper copy of the record, if requested by the surveyor. Determine if the patient s comprehensive assessment and updates to the assessment were timely and accurately reflect the patient/family s status. Review the plan of care to identify whether the IDG used the comprehensive assessment and assessment updates to make sound care planning decisions appropriate to the patient/family needs. Determine if the plan of care is current and reflects the participation of all members of the IDG. Evaluate the hospice s ability to coordinate care and services that optimize patient comfort and dignity. Review a sample of clinical notations by all personnel providing services. Determine if the plan of care and frequency of visits by hospice personnel support
15 the findings of the comprehensive assessment and updates to the assessment. Did the agency s interventions follow the plan of care? Was the documentation specific to changes in the patient/family s status? Determine how the hospice ensures coordination of services among and between the IDG members and other personnel providing services. What evidence is found in the clinical record(s) that this is occurring? Determine if hospice aide clinical notes document the status of the patient. Do the hospice aides report changes in the patient s condition to a registered nurse? If you cannot find information or you have questions about the content of the clinical record, ask the hospice staff to either find the information or help you understand its content. D - Hospice Home Visit Procedures Home visits must be made to a sample of hospice patients during a hospice survey. In the event that the hospice is part of another provider type (e.g., HHA) be sure that the patients selected for the home visit during the hospice survey are receiving hospice services from the hospice, not palliative care or home health services from the HHA. Terminally ill patients who do not wish to elect the Medicare hospice benefit and are admitted to a Medicare HHA for services under a dually-certified HHA/Hospice are considered HHA patients. These patients may not be selected for clinical record reviews or home visits during the Medicare hospice certification survey. Home visits yield valuable information about how the hospice: Promotes and protects the rights of patients; Conducts the initial and comprehensive assessments; Updates the assessment; Implements the plan of care; Promotes patient/family satisfaction; Provides drugs, treatments, services and durable medical equipment (DME); Uses volunteers, and Provides the required level of care related to the needs of the patient. 1 - Patient Selection for Home Visit. The number of record reviews with home visits, based on the total number of unduplicated admissions during a recent 12-month period, is as follows: Number of Unduplicated Hospice Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period Less than Minimum Number of Record Reviews With Home Visits of Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period
16 Number of Unduplicated Hospice Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period or more 5 Minimum Number of Record Reviews With Home Visits of Patients Admitted During Recent 12 Month Period The surveyor identifies and selects patients who will receive hospice services during the remaining days of the survey. Additional home visits may be made as desired or indicated to determine the scope of any concerns initially identified by home visits or record reviews. Conduct a record review of each patient selected for a home visit either before or after the visit. The sample is selected to capture the different types of settings in which the hospice provides routine home care (i.e., private residence, nursing facility, etc.,) and include patients with different types of terminal diagnoses. NOTE: Home visits are not required to be limited to patients receiving routine home care. If in reviewing contracts or other documentation (e.g., clinical records, plans of care), questions arise concerning the hospice s provision of inpatient care, either directly or under arrangements, conduct an onsite visit to the institution providing the inpatient services to review the care provided. See Patient s Consent You may visit patients from all payment sources that have given permission for the visit. Patients must understand that a home visit is voluntary and refusal to consent to a home visit will not affect Medicare/Medicaid benefits to which the beneficiaries are entitled. Have the patient (or representative) sign the hospice consent form before beginning the visit. You may obtain this signature upon arrival at the patient s residence if prior verbal consent has been obtained. (See Model Consent for Hospice Home Visit form (Exhibit 128). It is important to contact the patient before you arrive at the home or place of residence, if possible, because the first onsite contact may be intimidating to the patient/family or may generate some fear that would interfere with access to the patient s home or the quality of the interview. In most situations, the hospice representative who provides care or services should contact the patient/family to request permission and make the arrangements for the home visit. However, you may choose to contact the patient/family directly. The contact requesting the visit should be made in a neutral, non-alarming manner, without suggesting that there is a problem. 3 - Visit Procedure
17 Work with the hospice administrator or designee to develop a visit schedule that is the least disruptive to the usual scheduling of visits. If a patient refuses to have the surveyor accompany the hospice representative, select an alternate patient. A home visit is more effective in assessing the scope and quality of care being provided if you observe how hospice personnel implement one or more parts of the patient s plan of care. In order to observe the delivery of care, attempt to schedule home visits at a time when the hospice is actually providing services. Use the following procedures to select patients for home/residence visits: Identify and select patients who will be visited by the hospice during the days of the scheduled survey, and who meet the criteria for patient selection. The sample size should include a few more patients than the number of proposed visits to accommodate possible refusals and include different individuals providing the services (e.g., nurse, social worker, hospice aide). Request a copy of the most recent plan of care for each patient selected for a home visit. If the hospice does not have any visits scheduled, invite the hospice to have one of its employees accompany you on home visits to patients that you have selected. However, there may be circumstances (i.e., complaints) that should be reviewed during a home visit without the hospice representative being present. 4 - Home Visit At the patient s home you may talk with the patient, family/caregiver or both. Indicate that the primary purpose of the home visit is to evaluate the effectiveness of the hospice s services. Conduct the visit with sensitivity and understanding of the life crises that the patient and caregiver are experiencing. Refer to the Interpretive Guidelines for questions to use during the home visit to help you understand the patient/family satisfaction with the hospice care/services and to assess the scope, quality and effectiveness of the plan of care and services delivered. The following additional questions may be useful during the home visit: Who comes to see you from the hospice? How frequently do you receive care and services? Has the nurse talked with you about treating your pain and/or other uncomfortable symptoms?
18 Have there been any instances where the hospice failed to respond to the patient s request for pain medication or symptom management? Have you ever had to wait long to get medication for discomfort? If yes, how long was the wait? Has someone from the hospice given you a chance to talk about your religious or spiritual beliefs or concerns? Have you ever needed to call the hospice on weekends, evenings, nights, or holidays? What was your experience with this? Have you received care in any other setting while under hospice care? If so, what was your experience? Since you have been receiving care from the hospice, have you had any out-ofpocket expenses for your health care? If yes, what kind? How satisfied are you with the services provided? Do you have any suggestions for improvement? Would you recommend this hospice? Observe, but do not interfere with, the delivery of care or the interactions between the hospice representative and the patient/family and/or caregiver. Be continuously aware that as a guest in a patient s home/residence, courtesy, common sense, and sensitivity to the importance of an individual s own environment is absolutely essential, regardless of the condition. Additional general information about facility personnel accompanying surveyors and physical contact of patients by surveyors is included in 2713A and 2713B of this manual. Discontinue the interview if: The patient shows signs of being uncomfortable or seems reluctant to talk, and if after asking the patient, they would rather discontinue the discussion; or The patient appears tired, overly concerned, agitated, etc., and would like to end the interview; or In your judgment, it appears to be in the patient s best interest to end the interview.
19 E - Follow-Up Procedures Check any specific patient/family complaints concerning the hospice s delivery of items and services with the hospice to be sure that there are no misunderstandings and that the patient s plan of care is being followed. If hospice deficiencies are identified as a result of a home visit and/or clinical record review, cite these deficiencies on the Form CMS These deficiencies could include, but are not limited to: Failure to promote and protect the patient s rights; Failure to accurately conduct a patient-specific comprehensive assessment that identifies the patient/family s need for hospice care and services, and the patient/family s need for physical, psychosocial, emotional, and spiritual care; Failure to develop and implement a plan of care that meets the needs identified in the initial or comprehensive assessment; Failure of the IDG to meet the physical, medical, psychosocial, emotional, and spiritual needs of the hospice patient/family; Failure to provide all covered services, as necessary, including the continuous home care level of care, respite care and short-term inpatient care; Failure to provide nursing and physician services, drugs and treatments on a 24- hour basis; Failure to retain professional management responsibility for all hospice services provided under contract to patients, and Failure to develop, implement, and maintain an effective, ongoing, hospice-wide data-driven QAPI program. Task 4 - Information Analysis A General The information analysis process requires surveyors to review the information gathered during the survey and make judgments about the compliance of the hospice. Do not make an evaluation of whether a finding constitutes a deficiency or whether a condition level deficiency exists until all necessary information has been collected. Additional activities and investigation through record review, home visit observations and interviews should substantiate and support any findings of non-compliance with the CoPs. Review all your findings and use your professional judgment to decide whether further information gathering is necessary. B Analysis Analyze your findings relative to each requirement for the:
20 Effect or potential effect on the patient(s); Degree of severity; Frequency of occurrence, and Impact on the delivery of services. An isolated incident that has little or no effect on the delivery of patient services may not warrant a deficiency citation. Conversely, a condition may be considered out of compliance for one or more deficiencies if, in your judgment, the deficiency constitutes a significant or serious problem that adversely affects, or has the potential to adversely affect the patient(s). A deficiency must be based on the statute or the regulations. Citation of a deficiency must not be based on a violation of a guideline alone. In each case you must determine, based on the facts and circumstances existing at the time and any further investigation as may be warranted, whether a deficiency exists based on the applicable statutory or regulatory provision. The surveyor s role is to assess the quality of care and services the hospice provides and relate those findings to the statutory and regulatory requirements. When deficiencies are found during a survey, the surveyor should explain to the provider what the deficiency is so the provider understands why the requirement is not met. It is not the surveyor s job to provide consultation on how to fix the deficiencies. See 4018 for further information on the regulatory role of the surveyor. Task 5 - Exit Conference The exit conference is held at the end of the survey in accordance with The purpose of the exit conference is to inform the hospice of observations and preliminary findings of the survey. Because of ongoing dialogue between the surveyor(s) and hospice staff during the survey, there should be few instances where the hospice is not aware of the surveyor concerns prior to the exit conference. Implement the following guidelines during the conference: Conduct the exit conference with the hospice administrator, clinical supervisors and other staff invited by the hospice; Describe the regulatory requirements that the hospice does not meet and the findings that substantiate these deficiencies. Avoid using data tag numbers when referring to your findings; Present the Form CMS-2567 onsite, or in accordance with the State agency s policy, but no later than 10 working days after the exit conference, and Provide instructions and time frame for submitting a plan of correction. The plan of correction must be submitted to the SA within 10 calendar days after receipt of the Form CMS (Refer to 2724 and 2728 for additional information).
21 Refer to 2724 for additional information on the exit conference, presence of counsel, taping of the conference, and situations that would justify refusal to conduct or continue an exit conference. Task 6 - Formation of the Statement of Deficiencies Follow 2728 for preparation of the Statement of Deficiencies and Plan of Correction. Refer to the document Principles of Documentation for the Statement of Deficiencies for detailed instructions on completing the Form CMS-2567.
22 Part II Interpretive Guidelines (Rev. 149, Issued: , Effective: , Implementation: ) NOTE: in the regulations or guidance which follow, in every instance where the following terms appear: spouse means an individual who is married to another individual as a result of marriage lawful where entered into, including a lawful same-sex marriage, regardless of whether the jurisdiction where the hospice is located, or in which the spouse lives, permits such marriages to occur or recognizes such marriages. marriage means a marriage lawful where entered into, including a lawful samesex marriage, regardless of whether the jurisdiction where the hospice is located, or in which the spouse lives, permits such marriages to occur or recognizes such marriages; family includes, but is not limited to, an individual s spouse (see above); and relative when used as a noun, includes, but is not limited to, an individual s spouse (see above). Furthermore, except where CMS regulations explicitly require an interpretation in accordance with State law, wherever the text of a regulation or associated guidance uses the above terms or includes a reference to a patient s representative, surrogate, support person, next-of-kin, or similar term in such a manner as would normally implicitly or explicitly include a spouse, the terms are to be interpreted consistent with the guidance above. A hospice is expected to recognize all lawful marriages and spouses for purposes of compliance with the Conditions of Participation, regardless of any laws to the contrary of the state or locality or other jurisdiction where the hospice is located or where the spouse lives Definitions. For the purposes of this part Attending physician means a (1)(i) Doctor of medicine or osteopathy legally authorized to practice medicine and surgery by the State in which he or she performs that function or action; or (ii) Nurse practitioner who meets the training, education, and experience requirements as described in (b) of this chapter.
23 (2) Is identified by the individual, at the time he or she elects to receive hospice care, as having the most significant role in the determination and delivery of the individual's medical care. Bereavement counseling means emotional, psychosocial, and spiritual support and services provided before and after the death of the patient to assist with issues related to grief, loss, and adjustment. Cap period means the twelve-month period ending October 31 used in the application of the cap on overall hospice reimbursement specified in Clinical note means a notation of a contact with the patient and/or the family that is written and dated by any person providing services and that describes signs and symptoms, treatments and medications administered, including the patient's reaction and/or response, and any changes in physical, emotional, psychosocial or spiritual condition during a given period of time. Comprehensive assessment means a thorough evaluation of the patient s physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual status related to the terminal illness and related conditions. This includes a thorough evaluation of the caregiver s and family s willingness and capability to care for the patient. Dietary counseling means education and interventions provided to the patient and family regarding appropriate nutritional intake as the patient s condition progresses. Dietary counseling is provided by qualified individuals, which may include a registered nurse, dietitian or nutritionist, when identified in the patient s plan of care. Employee means a person who: (1) works for the hospice and for whom the hospice is required to issue a W-2 form on his or her behalf; or (2) if the hospice is a subdivision of an agency or organization, an employee of the agency or organization who is assigned to the hospice; or (3) is a volunteer under the jurisdiction of the hospice. Hospice means a public agency or private organization or subdivision of either of these that is primarily engaged in providing hospice care as defined in this section. Hospice care means a comprehensive set of services described in Section 1861(dd)(1) of the Act, identified and coordinated by an interdisciplinary group (IDG) to provide for the physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and emotional needs of a terminally ill patient and/or family members, as delineated in a specific patient plan of care. Initial assessment means an evaluation of the patient s physical, psychosocial and emotional status related to the terminal illness and related conditions to determine the patient s immediate care and support needs.
24 Licensed professional means a person licensed to provide patient care services by the State in which services are delivered. Multiple location means a Medicare-approved location from which the hospice provides the same full range of hospice care and services that is required of the hospice issued the certification number. A multiple location must meet all of the conditions of participation applicable to hospices. Palliative care means patient and family-centered care that optimizes quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering. Palliative care throughout the continuum of illness involves addressing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs and to facilitate patient autonomy, access to information, and choice. Physician means an individual who meets the qualifications and conditions as defined in Section 1861(r) of the Act and implemented at of this chapter. Physician designee means a doctor of medicine or osteopathy designated by the hospice who assumes the same responsibilities and obligations as the medical director when the medical director is not available. Representative means an individual who has the authority under State law (whether by statute or pursuant to an appointment by the courts of the State) to authorize or terminate medical care or to elect or revoke the election of hospice care on behalf of a terminally ill patient who is mentally or physically incapacitated. This may include a legal guardian. Restraint means (1) Any manual method, physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment that immobilizes or reduces the ability of a patient to move his or her arms, legs, body, or head freely, not including devices, such as orthopedically prescribed devices, surgical dressings or bandages, protective helmets, or other methods that involve the physical holding of a patient for the purpose of conducting routine physical examinations or tests, or to protect the patient from falling out of bed, or to permit the patient to participate in activities without the risk of physical harm (this does not include a physical escort); or (2) A drug or medication when it is used as a restriction to manage the patient s behavior or restrict the patient s freedom of movement and is not a standard treatment or dosage for the patient s condition. Seclusion means the involuntary confinement of a patient alone in a room or an area from which the patient is physically prevented from leaving. Terminally ill means that the individual has a medical prognosis that his or her life expectancy is 6 months or less if the illness runs its normal course.
25 L Condition of Participation: Patient s rights L501 The patient has the right to be informed of his or her rights, and the hospice must protect and promote the exercise of these rights. L (a) Standard: Notice of rights and responsibilities. (1) During the initial assessment visit in advance of furnishing care the hospice must provide the patient or representative with verbal (meaning spoken) and written notice of the patient's rights and responsibilities in a language and manner that the patient understands. Interpretive Guidelines (a)(1) When reference is made to patient in the Guidelines, it also refers to any person who may, under State law, act on the patient s behalf when the patient is unable to act for him or herself. That person is referred to as the patient s surrogate or representative. If a court has formally declared the patient incompetent, the surrogate or representative is whomever the court guardian, conservator, or committee appointed. The hospice should verify that the representative has the necessary authority. For example, a court-appointed conservator might have the power to make financial decisions, but not health care decisions. All hospice patients should be aware of their rights and responsibilities before the hospice begins to provide care. The hospice must verbally explain the patient rights and responsibilities to all patients accepted for care (or explain the rights to the patient s representative if the patient is physically or mentally incapacitated).