A Guide to the Garden-City. Horseshoe Grove. Anna Żukowska-Maziarska

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1 A Guide to the Garden-City Podkowa Leśna Horseshoe Grove Anna Żukowska-Maziarska

2 Copyright by Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Miasta-Ogrodu Podkowa Leśna Translated, edited, and expanded by Philip Earl Steele Photographs: Jacek Maziarski (and archival) On the cover: the newly restored Casino in Podkowa Leśna s City Park photographer: Tomasz Jakobielski Publisher: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Miasta-Ogrodu Podkowa Leśna Podkowa Leśna, ul. Świerkowa 1

3 Contents How to get to Podkowa Leśna 5 Introduction 6 Tourism 8 Cultural events and regularly held artistic happenings 12 Sporting activities 14 Protected natural treasures 15 Historical sites and monuments 19 A calendar of Podkowa Leśna s history 28 Famous Podkovians 34 A word about Podkowa Leśna s street names 42 Where to eat and where to stay 44 Important addresses and telephone numbers 45 Polish Pronunciation Guide 46

4 Hiking trails and bike paths in the Młochowski Forest

5 How to get to Podkowa Leśna: From downtown Warsaw it takes just some 40 minutes on the WKD commuter train to arrive at the Main Station in Podkowa Leśna, which means Horseshoe Grove. The WKD train is all the more convenient, as it departs from Warsaw every 30 minutes during weekday mornings and late afternoons/early evenings even twice as often. In fact, Podkowa Leśna has three WKD stations. On the way from Warsaw the first is Podkowa East (Wschodnia, in Polish). About one kilometer later is the Main Station (Główna). Ride another kilometer and you ll be at Podkowa West (Zachodnia). The WKD line is divided into three travel-time zones. To get to Podkowa Leśna from Warsaw you will need the ticket for zone III. As of March 2008 the cost is 6 złoties for adults and 3.80 zł for children. During school vacations the adult guardian and child pay only 3 zł each. Just ask for family tickets. By car the most direct route from Warsaw to Podkowa Leśna is along the Warsaw-Skierniewice highway (28 km).

6 Introduction The Garden-City of Podkowa Leśna (pronounced: poht-koh-vah LESH-nah) offers its residents the comfort of a natural setting, the graces of a refined cultural life, and the advantages of vibrant community activism. Moreover, Podkowa Leśna which means Horseshoe Grove is a wonderful get-away for Varsovians, be that because they love nature, wish to attend outstanding cultural events, or have an interest in history. Podkowa covers some 10.1 km² and has a population of 4,000. It is located in the Młochowski Forest, and is surrounded by woods on three sides from the east, the south, and the west. Thus, despite its proximity to the Warsaw metropolitan area, Podkowa is home to sizeable virgin stands of trees, as well as to many species of plants and animals. The natural virtues of the Podkowa area its fresh, foresty air and protection from the southwesterly winds eminently lent themselves to the decision more than 80 years ago to found Poland s first Garden-City. This was done in accord with the concept of the Englishman Ebenezer Howard, who a century ago developed what he envisioned as the ideal solution to urban congestion. Thus, here in this natural, forested setting an altogether unique town arose in the 1920s. Podkowa s instant allure drew many prominent figures from the world of the arts, science, and politics. And the climate of those times still makes itself known today, thanks to the homes and lasting legacy of those people. Indeed, Podkowa s early home architecture offers a rare opportunity to acquaint oneself with the styles and fashions of the interwar period and so do many of the town s other buildings, notable among them St. Christopher s Catholic Church, the WKD train station, and the trademark Casino in Podkowa s lovely park. The stately home of the literati Anna and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz which, together with its surrounding parkland, is known as Stawisko is host to concerts, exhibitions, and lectures throughout the year. Stawisko s rich cultural program is supported by the Parish in Podkowa, by The Friends of Podkowa Leśna Society, Podkowa s City Culture Center, the Federation of Podkovians, and numerous other NGOs.

7 Indeed, the community of people in Podkowa Leśna is altogether unique as regards civic spirit and cultural and artistic life. This no doubt reflects the fact that so very many artists, academics, musicians, architects, scientists, and engineers make their homes here. Not coincidentally, Podkowa Leśna boasts one of the highest percentages of people with university degrees and one of the highest voter-turnout rates in Poland. Podkowa and its environs may be explored on foot, on horseback, by car, by the WKD train and of course by bike on ever longer, specially prepared bike trails that wind through the neighboring towns and forests. In the winter Podkowa s City Park and the Młochowski Forest invite sledders and cross-country skiers. And so we have today s Podkowa Leśna Horseshoe Grove situated in a dense forest of oak, pine, beech, birch, hornbeam, larch, acacia, and alder and with such forest shrubs as juniper, spindle, bird cherry, buckthorn, and broom. A stroll in Podkowa s woods will delight with the blueberries, rare flowers, and many varieties of mushrooms to be seen growing on the forest floor as with the not infrequent sightings of foxes, hares, and martens. But more abundant are the birds, especially turtledoves, wood pigeons, and particularly on Podkowa s outskirts partridges and pheasants.

8 Tourism Bike trails Podkowa s Młochowski Forest has three lovely bike trails that loop out into the Forest. Each begin and end at the edge of the Forest on Krasiński street. The small loop is 4 kilometers long, the medium loop a kilometer longer. The large loop circles out a full 9 kilometers. The entrance to the Forest and the places where the trails diverge are posted with information signs that clearly show where you are and where you want to go. You may find a map of those forest trails on page 4 of this booklet. Horseback riding trails Podkowa s forests also include trails for horseback riders. For instance, the Młochowski Forest has 12 kilometers of horseback trails. They are shown on the map provided in this guidebook. Cross-country ski trails The Młochowski Forest is a favorite place for winter fun, too, drawing cross-country skiers to its scenic trails. In fact, these are the same trails described immediately below, ones groomed in the winter for skiing enthusiasts by the Młochowski s foresters. Hiking trails Winding through Horseshoe Grove and its environs are several carefully-marked trails that beckon all year-long. For instance, in the springtime Podkovians enjoy their forests wild lilies and violets and of course the carpet of windflower (a protected species!) in Bluejay Gulch. Nor can the spring s wonderfully blooming rhododendrons and azaleas be missed in many of Podkowa s home gardens.

9 A further spring attraction is that of the large pond dry throughout the rest of the year in Podkowa s rolling City Park, a favorite place for strolls not only during the warm seasons. In the autumn Podkowa s forests become simply glorious when the ivy (Virginia creeper) covering the entire trunks of old trees turns its stunning shades of red, from incandescent to crimson. Once the leaves have fallen it becomes easier to observe Podkowa s older homes, many of which have maintained their original form and gardens from the interwar period. Photo: Nathalie Bolgert And of course throughout the year winter, too Podkovians are ever accompanied by their town s plentiful birds and bright orange squirrels.

10 The Red Trail enters Podkowa from the north, from the town of Brwinów. It runs along Wiewiórek, Główna, Sarnia, and Myśliwska streets to Podkowa s Main Station (2 on the map on page 4 of this booklet). From there it runs south on Jan Paweł II street, past St. Christopher s Catholic Church (1). Just to the right of the trail on Iwaszkiewicz street is the historic villa Aida (6), which is eminently worth seeing. The Red Trail then turns east into Lipowa Avenue, and from the WWII monument to the Brzezinka Company of the Home Army (29) it runs along Prus and Krasiński streets to the Bolesław Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve in the Młochowski Forest, from where it continues on to Zaborów (near the mass grave of soldiers of the Home Army), and then on to the Na Dębaku Forest Ranger s Station near the BrwinówNadarzyn highway. Within the township of Horseshoe Grove the Red Trail is about 3 ½ km. long. The forest part of the trail, running from the Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve to the Ranger Station, is about 4 km. long. Incidentally, in the area where the Red Trail runs along Myśliwska street one is likely to notice a breed of dog unusually prevalent in various habitats of Horseshoe Grove. This stout, shortlegged, yapping but otherwise friendly dog resembles the Welsh corgi, and may in fact be its continental ancestor. Dogologists have labeled it canis familiaris podkoviensis, some believing that it originated on Miejska street, others on Helenowska.

11 The Blue Trail begins at the PKP station in Brwinów and runs along Grodziska street past the villa Zagroda (once belonging to the writer Zygmunt Bartkiewicz) to Stawisko (17 the Anna and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz Museum), which lies on the border between Brwinów and Podkowa. From there it continues along Sokola, Ptasia, and Sępów streets to the protected Bluejay Gulch, and then across Słowicza street, through the wooded, picturesque low hills and under the WKD rails, past the prewar Casino (4) and alongside the City Park to Podkowa s Main Station, where it joins the Red Trail. The two trails runs together to the end of Lipowa Avenue, where the Blue Trail veers off along Sosnowa, Dębowa, Bukowa, and Wschodnia streets to Podkowa East. After that it goes along Jelenia street parallel to the rail line, crossing it in the town of Otrębusy, where it continues to Karolin (the headquarters of Mazowsze, the national folkloric song and dance troupe), then to the Młochowski Forest, the Zaborów Nature Preserve, and on to the towns of Nadarzyn and Komorów. The part of the trail that stretches across Podkowa is about 6 km. long. The Yellow Trail runs from Podkowa s Main Station (2) along the rail line and the City Park, then past the Casino (4) to Bluejay Gulch on the other side of the rails, from where it continues along Słowicza and Zachodnia streets to the train station Podkowa West, before going back through the Park to the statue of the Holy Virgin (8) at the conjunction of Parkowa, Kwiatowa, and Bluszczowa streets, where Podkowa s founding stone was laid. From there the trail follows Bluszczowa, Jan Paweł II, and Sienkiewicz streets to the Bolesław Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve, and then winds through the forest to Karolin (again, the headquarters of Mazowsze, the national folkloric song and dance troupe), after which it ends at Otrębusy s WKD station. The entire trail is 7 km. long the part that runs through Podkowa measures 4 km. The Green Trail runs through the forests surrounding Podkowa. It begins at the Main Station, from where it follows the Red Trail to the Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve. From there it goes through the forest to the village of Żółwin and the Na Dębaku Forest Ranger s Station. It then goes to Zosin and the WKD station in Otrębusy. The entire trail is about 8 km. long.

12 Cultural events and regularly held artistic happenings Throughout the year there are concerts and artistic happenings at the Anna and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz Museum in Stawisko, Gołębia 1 street. For information please call: Stawisko Manor boasts authentic residential interiors from the turn of the 19 th century, precious antique furniture (although the home was built in the late 1920s), an impressive collection of 19th-and 20th-century Polish paintings, and priceless photographs. It also holds the library and the archives of Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. Throughout the year the Stawisko Ladies Club and the Garden of Art and Learning organize exhibitions, classes in museum work, concerts, and lectures here at the Museum. Don t miss the summer concerts in the churchyard garden of St. Christopher s nor the special concerts for children. For information please call the parish chancellery: photo: Marcin Boratyn The City Culture Center MOK (right behind the Main Station) holds art exhibitions, stages theatrical performances, hosts concerts, and screens ambitious films. MOK also organizes evening dance classes of many types. During the academic year MOK is home to the crowd-drawing, weekly lecture series known as POKOLENIA, which reaches out to seniors in particular. Tel Beginning its work in 2008 is the Podkowa Civic Initiative Center in the freshly restored Casino in the City Park. Its mission is to encourage and energize cultural outreach programs of all types, and thereby to promote community integration.

13 The Polish College of Theology and Humanities, Seventh-Day Adventist Church, Jan Paweł II street 39. This, the only institution of higher learning in Grodzisk County, organizes a wealth of cultural and academic events open to all the whole year round. Among the most popular are the special evenings devoted to presenting the history, culture, and religion of the Bible lands from Greece, across the Levant, and to Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The Adventist College regularly holds concerts, and of course closely co-operates with Podkowa s City Authorities and civic groups in organizing and hosting a range of community cultural events. Tel The Pola Gojawiczyńska Public Library on Błońska street 50 regularly plays host to a variety of meetings and lectures. Tel , homepage: As the parish church in Horseshoe Grove is St. Christopher s the patron saint of travelers each year at 11 o clock on the first Sunday of May the parish priest blesses cars and other vehicles. On the preceding Saturday he blesses bicycles. And of course he again blesses all types of automobiles on July 25, which is Saint Christopher s Day. This ceremony is called Autosacrum, and it is one of the many events that give Podkowa its special charm. At the initiative of the Council of Europe European Heritage Days were organized throughout Poland in September, As this is one of the most important European programs for the promotion of culture, Horseshoe Grove has participated with characteristic enthusiasm every September since 2005 under the banner Open Gardens. The artistic, sporting, and educational events festivities organized in Podkowa as part of European Heritage Days have been very successful in drawing large crowds and fulfilling the aim of better acquainting the local community with its history, promoting Poland s cultural heritage, and calling attention to European culture s shared roots at the same distinctiveness of time as accentuating individual regions. the The organization of European Heritage Days entails an extraordinarily diverse, rich and difficult undertaking, but one to which numerous residents and societal organizations from Podkowa have heartily lent their support.

14 Sporting activities TKKF Horse-riding Club Podkowa Głogów street 11, tel LKS Horse-riding Club Wolta in the neighboring village of Żółwin, Nadarzyńska street 30. Open on Sundays from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m., tel The City Culture Center MOK, Świerkowa street 2/4 stunt-bicycling, skateboarding, medieval sword-fighting (on Saturdays), dancing and yoga classes, ping-pong, and pool, tel The Polish College of Theology and Humanities, Seventh-Day Adventist Church, Jan Paweł II street 39. Every year at Corpus Christi (usually in early June) the Adventists hold a soccer championship called The Rector s Cup. The teams competing usually represent various Christian confessions from the Baptists and the Pentecostals to the Catholics. Tel During winter there is an ice-rink at the schoolyard of the grade school and junior high, Jan Paweł II street 20. For sledding, head into the City Park to join the fun on the popular slopes there. And don t forget the trails for Nordic skiers in the Młochowski Forest!

15 Protected natural treasures Bluejay Gulch This wooded preserve of nearly 4 hectares extends along the narrow, picturesque gulch in the western part of Horseshoe Grove. Bluejay Gulch ( Parów Sójek, in Polish) embraces the remaining portions of the natural, broadleaved riparian forests within the township. The 130-year old oaks towering here share Bluejay Gulch with lindens, hornbeams, ash trees, and elms. In the forest undergrowth one can find the asarabacca variety of birthwort, lungwort, woundwort (betony), Busy Lizzie (balsam), and hops. Parów Sójek also abounds in a wide range of wild birds, not least of which are the bluejays from which the gulch gets its name. The Bolesław Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve The Hryniewiecki Nature Preserve begins on the eastern edge of Horseshoe Grove. It contains one of the oldest woodlands in Mazovia, with oaks and pines up to 170 years old. Among the forest animals living here are foxes, deer, hares, bats, squirrels, and moles among the birds there are bluejays, cuckoos, woodpeckers, thrushes, and hoopoe, with their beautiful red crests. On the forest floor are species typical for oak forests: cinquefoil (specifically, silverweed), lungwort, broom, and may lily. The Preserve covers 24.7 hectares and is open to explorers, hikers, and bicyclers but not to dogs! They must be left at home.

16 The Zaborów Nature Preserve Just east of the Hryniewiecki Preserve is the Zaborów Nature Preserve. Its broadleaved forest gives nesting shelter to 26 bird species, including ones so rare as the northern three-toe woodpecker, the black woodpecker, the red-crested hoopoe, the small thrush, and the hawfinch. Also nesting here are the green woodpecker, the large northern three-toe woodpecker, the wryneck, the common treecreeper, nuthatch, the blue tit, the black-head tit, and the great tit. 18 of the 26 bird species nest in the hollows of the old oaks, lindens, and hornbeams so plentiful here. The Preserve covers km². Dogs are not allowed into the Preserve. The Żółwin-Nadarzyn forest road runs along its southern border. The City Park Horseshoe Grove s City Park stretches from Podkowa s Main Station to Podkowa West, the third of Podkowa s three WKD train stations. It contains 14 hectares of predominantly pine and oak forest that rises from gentle sandy-soil hills. The Park is home to a number of hares and abounds with squirrels and hedgehogs. In May the Park resounds with the song of nightingales. The City Park, with its lovely trails winding round the pond and about the rolling hills, is simply a perfect place for strolls. And in winter the slopes enjoyed for generations are just the thing for sledders and those learning to ski. The (albeit infrequent) sightings in the City Park of a lone buffalo (specifically a large Polish żubr) have never been confirmed. But the recent reports of a camel seen swiftly striding through the park, rider upon its back, are by no means a joke! The large camel is the unique possession of one of Podkowa s many animal lovers.

17 Lipowa Avenue Lipowa Avenue is unique for its three rows of towering lindens and the dirt road that runs parallel to it for bicyclists and pedestrians. Lipowa extends about 400 meters, from Jan Paweł II street to where the street forks at the monument to the soldiers of the Home Army, the Polish underground forces who so bravely resisted the Nazis during World War Two here in Podkowa Leśna and its environs, as well. The garden in the churchyard of St. Christopher s Parish Initially the garden at St. Christopher s was designed to be a green sanctuary extending out from the church proper. The garden was to hearken to religious symbolism and tradition. For instance, there was to be a Bible garden, nature scenes from past centuries, and a bird paradise. That plan was not carried out in full, but the result is entirely stirring nonetheless. The peacocks, the landscaped pond, the pergola, the display of boulders commemorating events of Polish heroism and martyrdom they all make the churchyard garden a must-see. While here, do also visit the Mother and Child Playground beside the churchyard where you can see the enormous linden, one of Horseshoe Grove s many historical monuments. The parkland at Stawisko At the western edge of Podkowa Leśna is an 18-hectare estate surrounding the home built by Podkowa s cofounder Stanisław Lilpop for his daughter Anna and her husband Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, both of whom are important Polish literati of the 20th century. This gently sloping area boasts numerous stands of trees well over a century-old. Certain individual trees are upwards of 200 years old. Five of the nine old pines that Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz called his muses and included in his works have survived to this day.

18 Originally the Stawisko estate was 35 hectares in size. The northern part was severed away in the 1960s by the Warsaw-Skierniewice highway and passed to a new owner. Stawisko s parkland might have been confiscated altogether after WWII. Indeed, Stanisław Lilpop was almost apologetic when in the late 1920s he told his daughter and her husband that he would build them a home on an estate of only 35 hectares. But Lilpop recognized the possible threat of radical agrarian reform. His perspicacity was soon to prove saving, as after the war the communists did in fact seize all such estates having 50 hectares and more... Some of the birds of our forests: Kos Blackbird Kwiczoł Fieldfare Szpak Starling Sójka Bluejay Sikora bogatka Great Tit Wrona Crow Wróbel Sparrow Dzięcioł Woodpecker Kowalik Nuthatch Kawka Jackdaw Dzwoniec Greenfinch Sroka Magpie Rudzik European Robin Gołąb grzywacz Wood Pigeon Grubodziób Hawfinch Słowik Nightingale

19 Historical sites and monuments Use the map on page 4 and the numbers below to locate these must-sees 1. St. Christopher s Catholic Church (Jan Paweł II street 7) was designed by Bruno Zborowski and was built in 1933 thanks to important funding from the Polish Automobile Club and the Polish Aero-Club. For after all, St. Christopher is the patron saint of travelers particularly automobile drivers and pilots. The church was subsequently expanded together with the growth of Horseshoe Grove s population. It presents a captivating spatial plan with the way the interior of the church opens out into the churchyard and the pergola overgrown with ivy, something which as befits the concept of a garden-church in a gardenchurch creates a green sanctuary. At the altar a fresco presents the church s patron St. Christopher, painted by Jan Henryk Rosen. Rosen, who is the author of the frescos in the Armenian Cathedral in Lvov, also designed the four stained-glass windows with images of saints. Both the black marble of the altar and the granite from which the external stairs were built come from the Orthodox Cathedral that was torn down on Warsaw s Saski Square in the 1920s. On the north side is a domed chapel with an image of the Holy Madonna. Directly on the left as you enter the church is the Soviet Bloc s first plaque commemorating the anticommunist uprising in Hungary in It was placed there in Outside in the churchyard garden is the monument commemorating the Soviets massacre of over 20,000 Polish officers at Katyń Forest in The monument is called Poland s Calvary, and was designed by Jerzy Kalina. On the outside wall of the chapel is a plaque dedicated to the memory of the employees of the railway running through Podkowa Leśna who lost their lives during World War Two.

20 2. The Main Station Building, Podkowa Leśna Główna, was built of masonry in It has a ticket-window brattice and a large, covered waiting area. The façade of the main building is decorated with elements hearkening to the Polish Renaissance. 3. The monument commemorating Polish and Hungarian brothers-in-arms who fell in Podkowa Leśna during World War Two. It is located on Polish-Hungarian Friendship Square in the small park across from Podkowa s City Hall on Akacjowa street. This is one of many examples of how Podkovians cultivate their deep respect and fondness for Hungarians. That respect arose the summer of 1944, when the 100 Hungarian soldiers conscripted by the Nazis and stationed in Podkowa Leśna showed its residents not only leniency, but sympathy and outright friendship. Indeed, in September 1944 the Germans executed three Hungarian soldiers in Podkowa for collaborating with the Polish underground. 4. The Casino in the City Park. Podkowa s trademark was designed by Juliusz Dzierżanowski, who modeled his work on the architectural style of Western European health spas, especially Vichy. It was built in 1928 and in all certainty has never been as stunning as it is today, as in 2007 Horseshoe Grove s City Authorities completed a 2.5 million złoty restoration. 75% of that sum was obtained from the European Union s Regional Development Fund. The Casino will now be home to a wealth of activities, notably those of the newly founded Podkowa Civic Initiative Center, whose mission is to encourage and energize cultural outreach programs of all types, and thereby to promote community integration.

21 Certain Podkovians are known to claim that on unusually clear days you can see the stunning Tatra Mountains in southern Poland from the Casino s rooftop lookout. That claim does, however, have its skeptics people who cite the distance of 350 km., the Earth s curvature, etc. 5. The Hunting Lodge was built by Podkowa s co-founder Stanisław Lilpop. It stands on the corner of Modrzewiowa and Jan Paweł II streets. Lilpop built the Lodge during the first decade of the 20th century. Later, following a reconstruction, it belonged to the Gayczak family. For many years during the postwar period it housed a preschool. 6. Aida is the name of the charming wooden villa on Iwaszkiewicz street. It was built by the Lilpops around the year 1900, when the entire area of today s Podkowa was still a vast hunting ground. In the 1920s Anna née Lilpop and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz spent their summer months here, regularly receiving guests notable among them literati from that period s influential group of poets known as Skamander.

22 7. House number zero, where Lipowa Avenue meets Jan Paweł II street. Today home to the small general store Zabytek (which means monument ), this wooden building is the sole survivor of the summer cottage settlement known as Stanisławów, which arose in the 1870s along the present Lipowa Avenue. Bogdan Wróblewski, the historian of early Podkowa, calls Stanisławów the seed of the future [ ] Podkowa Leśna and the harbinger of the GardenCity. 8. The statue of the Holy Virgin (at the intersection of Bluszczowa, Kwiatowa, and Parkowa streets) stands at the site where Podkowa Leśna s founding stone was laid. The statue was made by Aurelia Jaworska, a talented young sculptress of the interwar period. 9. Borowin, the home at Borowin street 5. This summer cottage was built in During the Nazi occupation the Niemyski family concealed and cared for a large number of Jews here. Indeed, in 2000 Lucjan, his wife Barbara, and his sister Janina joined the over 6,000 Poles honored as Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem Institute. A Home Army radio transmitter was also hidden at Borowin. 10. Zarybie, at Młochowska 1. This is the former manor house of Halina and Janusz Regulski. It was expanded in the early 1930s according to the design of Juliusz Dzierżanowski, who gave the manor a baroque and classical form. Zarybie was one of the centers of conspiracy against the Nazis. Czesław Miłosz, the 1980 Nobel Laureate for literature, spent time here during World War II. After the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944 Zarybie became a shelter for dozens of those fleeing the ruined capital. In 1959 Zarybie was sold to the Seventh-Day Adventist Church together with its surrounding grounds (which include parts of a scenic park). Today it is the Rectory for the college operated by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, and has just undergone a complete restoration and remodel.

23 11. Żółwin Manor, in the village of Żółwin just next to Podkowa. In 1940 it was purchased by Henryk Witaczek, the creator and propagator of the natural silk industry in Poland. In 1924 he founded the Central Silk Experimentation Station in neighboring Milanówek. During the Nazi occupation this 19th-century classicist manor gave shelter to many of those fleeing the destruction of Warsaw. 12. Przedwiośnie Spring Dawn, the former pensione at Parkowa street 21, was built in The villa of Karol Bertoni on Storczyków street 24 was built between 1927 and It borrows from the exquisite style developed by Polish highlanders in the Tatras. During the Nazi occupation it was the home of Stanisław Wachowiak, who was then the head of the largescale charitable organization that functioned in Poland during both world wars, the Rada Główna Opiekuńcza. 14. The villa designed by Stanisław Futasewicz on Parkowa 37 is a fine example of Polish manor architecture. 15. Krychów, the villa at Kwiatowa street 20, originally belonged to Tadeusz Baniewicz, the director of what is today s WKD commuter train line. The villa was built in according to the design of Jan Szperling. In the desperate period of the Warsaw Uprising s collapse Baniewicz handed his home over to serve as a surgical ward. Hundreds and hundreds of the injured were treated here. In the postwar period Baniewicz s daughter Krystyna lived at Krychów with her husband Kazimierz Michałowski, the world famous archaeologist and Egyptologist. For long years their home included a laboratory of the Mediterranean Archaeology Section of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

24 16. The statue of Jesus at the intersection of Gołębia and Bażantów streets is dedicated to the memory of Jan and Stanisław Lilpop, both of whom died during World War Two. 17. Stawisko, Gołębia street 1. This magnificent manor house was built by Stanisław Wilhelm Lilpop in 1928 according to the design of Stanisław Gądzikiewicz. It was the home of Lilpop s daughter Anna and her husband Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, both of whom spent the rest of their lives here Anna passing away in 1979, and Jarosław in Jarosław wrote many of his greatest works at Stawisko, and indeed, the Iwaszkiewicz home figures in the works and memoirs of many of Anna and Jarosław s friends and guests. Among them were the composer Karol Szymanowski, Stanisław Baliński, Jerzy the Liebert, poets Antoni Słonimski, Jan Lechoń, and the writer Jerzy Rytard. During World War Two, and especially after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising in the early autumn of 1944, many of the people notable in Polish culture found safety at Stawisko. Today Stawisko and its parkland is the Anna and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz Museum, where concerts and artistic happenings are organized throughout the year. 18. Korabinek, the villa at Ptasia street 6, was built in 1926 for the family of Henryk Karpiński, professor of chemistry and the chairman of Centropapier. Korabinek is modeled on the Italian renaissance villa.

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