Worker Injuries: The Effects of Workers Compensation and OSHA Inspections

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Worker Injuries: The Effects of Workers Compensation and OSHA Inspections"

Transcription

1 Worker Injuries: The Effects of Workers Compensation and OSHA Inspections Leon S. Robertson, Yule University, and J. Philip Keeve? Naval Research Laboratory Abstract. Detailed analysis of work exposure and worker attributes failed to explain changes in injury claims in three plants, each in a separate state, during When relative exposure to hazard and worker attributes are controlled, changes in injury rates are largely explained by increases in Workers Compensation greater than inflation and by inspections made by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Rises in Workers Compensation greatly increased the claims for injuries, while OSHA citations substantially decreased objectively verifiable injuries in the year following an inspection. Data on days lost due to injury in 167 industrial groupings in 20 states also indicate significant reductions of workdays lost in correlation with OSHA inspections, when increases due to Workers Compensation are controlled. The results thus appear to be generalizable. Previous studies of OSHA failed to adequately control for Workers Compensation effects, and thus underestimated the effects of OSHA. Government has attempted to prevent workplace injuries or reduce their severity by establishing safety standards and then carrying out inspections of workplaces for violations of the standards. The federal imposition and enforcement of standards has been the responsibility of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) since Fines may be imposed for violations, particularly if they are serious or repeated. Should an injury result in lost worktime, the employer is required by state regulations to insure that the worker is compensated according to a schedule of payments for particular disabilities (Workers Compensation). These payments vary from state to state, and there has been a trend in recent years toward increasing them at substantially more rapid rates than the rate of inflation. Large variations in incidence and severity of injuries are found among industries, and among plants and departments within the same industry. This study was supported by a grant to Yale University by the Atlantic Richfield Corporation. The analysis and interpretation of the data are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the University or Atlantic Richfield. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Vol. 8, No. 3, Fall by the Dept. of Health Administration, Duke University. 581

2 582 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the construction industry has the highest injury incidence rate, followed closely by manufacturing. Injuries resulting in one or more lost workdays are highest in manufacturing. Incidence as a percentage of all full-time equivalent workers was virtually constant during the 1970s, but lost workdays increased from less than 45 to more than 60 per hundred workers. These gross trends give the appearance that OSHA has had little effect on incidence, and even a possible adverse effect on lost workdays. Research studies on effects of the OSHA standards on worker injuries have also reported little or no effect. These studies, which have used a variety of strategies to control for problems with the injury data and for other factors that may influence fluctuations in worker injuries, are summarized here, and a major shortcoming in all of them is described. The criteria for reporting injuries were changed in 1970 when the Occupational Safety and Health Act was enacted. Thus before-after comparisons of aggregate series of injuries are of questionable validity. Mendeloff attempted to overcome this problem by looking at before-and-after rates of change in injuries, rather than absolute injury rates. Factors controlled in his model included new-hire rates, percent males 18-24, real hourly earnings, and general trend. He also attempted to separate those injuries that OSHA inspections were more likely to prevent. Comparing projected injury rates based on these factors to actual rates through 1974, he estimated that OSHA accounted for less than a 3 percent reduction in injuries in California.2 Smith compared data on industries with high injury rates that were targeted by OSHA for frequent inspections with others, controlling for prior rates and changes in employment. He found no significant improvement in injury rates in the targeted group.3 Di Pietro reached a similar conclusion, based on a lack of correlation between OSHA inspections in 1972 and changes in injury rates from 1972 to 1973 in selected ind~stries.~ But Smith later reported analysis of data on lost-workday injury rates in specific plants during Lagging the potential effects of inspections over three-month periods, he found about a 16 percent reduction in injury rates in 1973 and a 5 percent reduction in 1974, the latter not statistically ~ignificant.~ These results suggested a greater impact of OSHA than had previously been found. Viscusi used aggregated time-series data from in certain industries, and found inspections and violations uncorrelated with injury rates. Possible exogenous factors controlled were percent production workers; age, sex, and racial mixture; and changes in employment, hours worked per week, and overtime. He did find a significant downward trend in injury rates uncorrelated with inspections, which he interpreted as a possible result of the general effect on industry of OSHA s presence, rather than the specific result of inspection and citation activity of the agency. He noted that the actual fines imposed by OSHA are trivial and could not have forced compliance for

3 Robertson & Keeve Worker Injuries 583 strictly economic reasons.6 Bacow suggested that OSHA activities in general could have made workers more interested in injury prevention, independent of inspection activity. But Viscusi claimed that according to utility theory workers in environments made safer would actually take fewer precautions (however, he offered no empirical evidence of actual worker behavior under a variety of hazardous conditions). The failure of time-series models based on aggregated data to accurately forecast economic changes does not recommend them as adequate methodology for evaluation of the effects of regulation. One such model was used to generate expected rates of motor vehicle deaths and, when compared to actual rates, led to the conclusion that motor vehicle safety standards had no net effect on overall death rates.* Lower than projected occupant deaths were offset by higher than projected deaths of other road users, which was interpreted as the result of more intensive driving by those more protected. That invalid conclusion was the result of incorrect assumptions regarding the application of the regulations and the changing structure of the causal m0de1.~ Disaggregated data on all fatal crashes in the U.S. found large reductions in fatality rates attributable to the regulations when actually regulated vehicles were compared to non-regulated vehicles, controlling for use. The regulated vehicles struck fewer, not more, other road users per mile used than did unregulated vehicles, apparently because of crash avoidance standards in the regulation. lo Incorrect specification of the variables in a model often leads to false inferences, and the problem is particularly acute when aggregated data are used to test the model. The present study was undertaken partially to investigate the extent to which correlates of injuries to individual workers are predictive of aggregate rates. In the case of aggregated time-series analysis, the series would show little variation if one force acting to increase it were offset by another acting to decrease it. Because of the lack of variation, each could appear to have little or no effect, when in fact the effect of each is quite strong. In some of the noted studies there is an attempt at rigorous derivation of equations from utility theory that might explain worker and management behavior in response to OSHA. But in each case the actual choice of exogenous variables (those that also could contribute to injury rates) for use in the empirical analyses has been mainly ad hoc, based on availability of data and on some knowledge of their correlation to injury rates in prior studies. Despite the economic orientation of these studies, they failed to consider the possible effects of compensation on injury-related behavior. Chelius, noting a positive correlation between Workers Compensation and injury claims, went so far as to say that if there were 100 percent protection against all losses due to accidents, including full compensation for lost salary, pain, and loss of leisure, a worker would tend to be indifferent to accident prevention. 12 In contrast,

4 584 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law a National Commission on State Workmen s Compensation in 1972 recommended increased benefits and more experience-rating partly on the grounds that increased costs of Workers Compensation would be an incentive for employers to reduce hazards. l3 The narrow view that human behavior is driven by a hierarchy of utilities, with a sort of gyroscope in the brain that constantly adjusts behavior to their maximization, ignores a vast body of evidence on the complexity of behavior and its motivation. Certainly individuals have some awareness of risk of injury, and on occasion made some adjustment in behaviors that increase or decrease risks, thus making a marginal difference in injury rates in the aggregate. But the limited opportunities for individuals to obtain precise information on the relative risks of a wide variety of behaviors, and their limited ability to maintain constant attention and to react in adequate time, suggest that the marginal effect of deliberate choice of risks would be small. Injury is frequently related to alcohol and drug use that impairs brain function, in terms of both judgment and ability to react to hazardous conditions; addiction to these substances leads to uncontrolled use. Impulse, habit, and preoccupation with matters other than the task at hand are but a few of the other human characteristics that mitigate against constant vigilance and immediate reaction.14 Of course, the most important factor in injury severity is exposure to sufficient energy to do damage. The virtual lack of severe injuries among ofice personnel is mainly a result of the absence in the ofice environment of exposure to such concentrated energy. The major energy source present in damaging amounts in offices is electricity, which is well shielded from the workers. In factories, there is generally far more exposure to far more energy, with far less shielding. The setting and the design of the study The first phase of the present study involved three plants (in New York, Wisconsin, and Connecticut) that produce mainly metal sheets, tubes, rods, and wire. Factory operations include shredding, casting, shaping, molding, and slitting metals. The primary potential sources of injury are moving parts of machines, metal moving in and out of machines, and heat from furnaces and metals. Forklifts and large cranes, often loaded with tons of material, move about in the plants. In some cases, these machines can be operated by remote controls, but at other times the workers are in close proximity to substantial amounts of mechanical and thermal energy. From the logs submitted from each plant to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, all injuries reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration during the period were coded by date, description, anatomic site, number of days away from work, and number of days of restricted activity. Criteria for reporting an injury on these logs are one or more of the following:

5 Robertson & Keeve Worker Injuries 585 loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment (other than first aid). Personnel files in each plant were examined to determine the types of data available on each worker, the uniformity of the data among plants, and the coding system that would be needed to transfer the data into a form for electronic data processing. Data available from the workers job application forms included birth date, sex, years of formal education, military service, height, weight, and number of jobs held prior to employment with the company. Each file also contained a separate sheet for each time the worker was hired, changed jobs, or was terminated, along with dates and codes for departments and jobs in which the worker was employed. Although the present study, like all research, is limited by the data available, it does include correlations of the data on injuries to individuals with data on their histories and with attributes that are suspected or known to be correlated with injury incidence. Age of the worker is a proxy for a mix of impulsiveness, life experience, and world view: younger people are disproportionately involved in a variety of injuries. Formal education is a proxy for accumulation of knowledge and, controlling for age, interest in and ability for achievement: the better educated have been found to take greater precautions, such as use of seatbelts in cars. Military service and number of jobs held prior to employment in the present job may be somewhat indicative of personality types. Ratio of weight to height is a crude proxy for physical condition and physical ability to react quickly in an emergency. A coding scheme was developed to capture the data, and a research assistant was trained in the use of the files and the method of coding information from the application forms and job-change sheets. The research assistant then traveled to each plant and trained other assistants in the coding procedures. The research assistant participated in the coding and supervised the work of others, resolving any problems or incongruities in data with staff of the personnel departments and in telephone conversations with the principal investigator. Files of Workers Compensation claims were checked against injuries reported to OSHA, so as to be sure that trends were not a result of changes in interpretation of reporting criteria. The data were obtained for virtually every person who worked at an hourly rate in the New York and Wisconsin plants, and for a 50 percent random sample of such workers in the Connecticut plant, during the period. (White-collar workers, who are seldom injured on the job, were excluded from the study.) Analysis was accomplished in three stages. First, for each department the total number of injuries was divided by the number of person-years worked in that department. The result was an expected rate of injuries per year for an individual working in a particular area, given the general level of hazard in that area. Second, the difference between the number of injuries actually

6 586 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law experienced by each individual and the number expected for that individual based on time spent in various departments was correlated to worker attributes and background variables. Third, for each of the three plants the effects of departmental exposure to hazards and of individual factors contributing to variation from that expectation were combined and summed for each year, to obtain an expected number of injuries in each year for each separate plant. Actual variation from that expected number was then correlated to increased amounts of Workers' Compensation-corrected for inflation-and to number of OSHA citations. Analyses at the individual and plant levels Fatal injuries are very rare in these plants-only one occurred during the eight years of the study. The numbers of injuries and days lost due to injuries, along with rates per person-years worked during in the major departments, are presented in Table 1. (A person-year can be one person working a year, two persons each working six months, etc.) Among some 2,700 workers with about 11,000 person-years of exposure during the eight-year period, there occurred more than 2,500 injuries-about one injury for every 4.3 person-years (0.23 per year), including one lost-time injury for every ten person-years. Table 1. Rates (per Person-Year Worked) of Injuries and Days Lost in Departments with 50 or More Injuries, * Lost-time Department Injuries Rate Injuries Rate Days Lost Rate Casting Copper Mill Brass Mill Maintenance Copper Tube Rod Drawn Copper Alloy Tube Extrusion Tube Mill Machine Shop All Others** ,112 1,983 1, ,166 1, , Totals 2, , , 'Based on 2,711 workers who worked 1 1,055 person-years during the period **Includes unknown

7 ~~~~ ~ Robertson & Keeve - Worker Injuries 587 Table 2. A Comparison of Apparent Effect of Age on Injuries, Using Two Different Means of Accounting for Exposure Injury Rate Per Person- Year Worked: Teens 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s Average Standard Deviation F = 0.825, df = 5, p > 0.50 Total Injuries Per Person Minus Those Expected from Length of Departmental Exposures: Teens 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s Average Standard Deviation F = , df = 5, p < The injury rates and rates of days lost were calculated for each job classification within the departments, but the jobs were so finely categorized that the rates were too unstable statistically for analysis at the individual job level; only one job classification had more than 30 injuries during the eight years, and that job accounted for only 3 percent of the total injuries. Among departments, the injury rate varied from about one per seven person-years to one per three person-years. A total of 14,977 days of work were lost due to injury-more than a week on average per injury, and about 1.3 days per person-year. The highest rate of days lost in a number of departments is more than three times that of departments with the lowest rates. To control for differential exposure to hazard in different departments, the expected number of injuries for each worker was calculated by multiplying the injuries per person-year in each department where the worker was employed (from Table 1) times the number of years (or proportion of a year) that the worker was in the department. The total number of expected injuries was then subtracted from the actual number of injuries the worker experienced. This analysis was then repeated using data that included only losttime injuries. The decision to analyze variation from departmental averages was based on the premise that, although exposure to hazard is a necessary condition for injury, individual attributes contribute to variations in susceptibility to injury. Also, the technical issue of lack of homoscedasticity would have arisen had individual rates per person-year been used. Table 2 provides a good

8 588 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law illustration. It compares the data on effect of workers ages that appears when average injury rates are used (shown at the top of the table) with the effect of workers ages that appears when average number of injuries minus those expected from departmental exposures is examined. When injury rates are used, the standard deviations are highly variable, and age differences in rates are not statistically significant; also, the relation to age is erratic. In contrast, total injuries minus expected injuries yields more uniform distribution around the average in each age group. With the exception of workers in their 60s, the correlation is as expected from previous research, and the differences among age groups are now highly significant. Apparently, newly hired workers in their teens and twenties are assigned to less hazardous departments but, when exposure is taken into account, have higher than expected injuries than the average workers in those departments. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was limited to lost-time injuries. (It is interesting to note that Viscusi did not find a significant correlation of age and injury rates in his analysis of aggregated data, despite the known correlation of age to injuries at the individual level.) To consider the individual attributes and histories with respect to their predictive power, the data were fitted to the regression equation: I = a + b,a + b,e + b,w + b,m + b,n + b6j + b,-,,y + e where:i = actual minus expected injuries A = age E = formal education W = ratio of weight to height M = military service N = number of previous employers J = job changes in the plant before 1973 Y = years in a given department a = constant 6, = increment in injuries related to the i-th factor per unit of the i-th factor, other things being equal e = residual variation Sex of worker was not included in the equation because less than 4 percent (62) of the workers were women-too few to obtain valid results when distributed among all the possible combinations of the other variables. The number of years in a given department was included as a measure of the potential effect of experience on the job over and above exposure reflected in the expected injury variable. The regression coefficients (bi) are presented in Table 3. As anticipated, older workers and those with more years of formal education had fewer than the statistically expected number of injuries. Those with more previous em-

9 Table 3. Regression Analysis of Worker History and Actual Injuries Minus Injuries Expected from Exposure All Injuries Time-Loss Injuries R = R = < < > 0.50 > < > 0.50 <0.001 Factor Regression Coefficient t P Regression Coefficient t P Age Education No. of Previous Employers No. of Job Changes* Military Service Weight/Height Years in Brass Mill Years in Extrusion Years in Casting Years in Alloy Tube Years in Copper Tube Years in Copper Mill Years in Tube Mill Years in Drawn Copper Years in Maintenance Years in Rod k k k ? L L L k L < > > > * _ f _ * f * Within the plant, prior to 1973

10 590 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law ployers had greater than expected injuries. The effect of time spent in various departments is rather consistent among departments, reflecting slightly less injury among those with longer tenure in the same department. Weight-toheight ratio, military service, and job shifts in the plant explained no significant variation. (Since weight was obtained at time of first hire, it may not have been an accurate measure of current characteristics. Job changes in the plant are often not voluntary, occurring either because of bumping during periods of layoffs or reassignment depending on work to be done.) Despite the presence of several highly significant factors, the overall equation is not strongly predictive of individual differences in injuries that would not be expected from the average experience in the departments. The multiple correlation coefficient (R) of 0.26 for all injuries and 0.22 for lost-time injuries indicates that less than 7 percent (R2 X 100) of the inter-individual variation from injuries expected from exposure is predicted by the measured worker attributes and histories. The principal question addressed in this report is whether the trend of injuries in these plants during the study period can be explained either by changes in the number of people in more or less hazardous work, or by changes in the work force. To examine the effects of these two factors, an expected number of injuries in each year for each plant was calculated. First, the proportion of a year that each worker was employed in a given department was multiplied times the injury rate per person-year for that department. (Any time not worked, due to either a temporary or permanent termination or to injury, was excluded.) Second, the regression equation was used to calculate for each worker the number of injuries expected above or below those expected from exposure alone. The proportion of the total time worked in a given year was then multiplied by the variation from expected injuries predicted by the worker attributes and history. The first and second values were then added for all workers employed in the given year to obtain for each plant a total expected number of injuries in each year, as predicted by the time worked in given departments by workers with given attributes. To test the extent to which Workers Compensation and OSHA citations explain the variation in aggregate injuries that is not attributable to the cumulative effects of exposure to hazards in different departments and individual attributes or histories, the actual injuries in a year were regressed on expected injuries, maximum Workers Compensation per week corrected for inflati~n, ~ and number of OSHA inspections. The model includes lagged dummy variables for OSHA inspections so as to test for permanance of any effect. The model is: where: N, = number of injuries in year t in each plant E, = expected injuries from exposure and individual variables

11 Robertson & Keeve Worker Injuries 591 W, = ratio of maximum Workers Compensation payment per week in a given state to the GNP price deflator for personal consumption expenditures 0, = 1 if OSHA citation during or just before the beginning of the year, otherwise 0. L, = 1 if OSHA citation the year before, otherwise 0. M, = 1 if OSHA citation two years before, otherwise 0. bi = increment in N per increment in the i-th variable a = constant The coefficients and statistical tests for all injuries are presented in the first column of Table 4. Controlling for expected injuries, the actual number of injuries is significantly higher in association with increments in Workers Compensation above inflation, and significantly lower in years in which the plant received an OSHA inspection. The effect of OSHA is specific to the year and plant, and the effect does not extend to subsequent years. The fit of the data to the model is excellent-94 percent of the variation is explained. Not all injuries, however, are acute events resulting from immediate contact with a hazard. Back strain and pain can develop as the result of years of attempted lifting of weight greater than the musculo-skeletal system can tolerate.i6 Also, in contrast to acute injuries such as lacerations and fractures, cases of pain and strain are usually not objectively verifiable by a physician or nurse. If OSHA inspections result in changes in the workers behavior or environments that contribute to acute conditions, their effects should be more related to objectively verifiable, acute injuries than to strain and pain. Columns two and three in Table 4 provide separate estimates of the effects of the predictor variables on subjective and objective injuries respectively. The data indicate that OSHA inspections had no effect on subjective injuries, but are associated with an average reduction of from 23 to 40 objective injuries per inspection, other factors being equal. In comparison, Workers Compensation is unrelated to objective injuries, but is associated with an increase of from 38 to 60 subjective injuries per doubling of the maximum payment above inflation. The same analysis for lost-time injuries produced almost the same results. Column 4 of Table 4 suggests an increase of about 32 to 58 lost-day injury claims when Workers Compensation doubles above the inflation rate, and a reduction of such claims by about 14 to 33 claims in the year of an OSHA inspection. When subjective and objective injuries are considered separately in columns 5 and 6, the result for subjective lost-day injuries is similar to that for total injuries, except that claims for objective lost-day injuries show an increase associated with rises in Workers Compensation, in addition to the decline associated with OSHA inspections. During the period, the ratio of maximum weekly Workers

12 Table 4. Regression Analysis of Actual Injuries in Relation to Expected Injuries, Workers Compensation, and OSHA Inspections All Injuries Lost-Time Injuries Total Subjective Objective Total Subjective Objective k 6.5 (3.47)* t 5.17 (- 1.01) ( ) R Expected from Exposure and Worker Attributes 1.28 k (1 1.34)* 0.27 k 0.08 (3.29)* ( )* 1.19 k 0.22 (5.3 5)* 0.58 k 0.13 (4.32)* (5.5 6) * Workers Comp./ GNP Deflator (3.64)* (4.2 3) * (0.88)* (3.41)* 22.47? 8.02 (2.80)* First Year After OSHA Inspection (- 2.89)* (- 0.49)* * 8.34 (3.78)* (- 2.56)* k 5.59 (- 1.77) (-3.01)* Second Year After OSHA Inspection (0.84) (- 1.01) (-0.17) (- 1.22) Third Year After OSHA Inspection (0.27) k (- 0.29) 7.25? (0.72) (- 0.26) * 6.38 (- 1.19) (0.29) Figures in parentheses represent t values, significant values 0, < 0.05, df = 18) are indicated by asterisks.

13 Robertson & Keeve Worker Injuries 593 Compensation to the GNP price deflator (1972 = 100) increased in periodic increments from 0.96 to 1.48 in Connecticut, from 0.90 to 1.21 in New York, and from 1.22 to 1.84 in Wisconsin. These changes, through their effect on increased claims for subjective injuries, more than offset the reductions in objective injuries attributable to OSHA citations, and thus would mask OSHA s impact in an examination of aggregated data. The distributions of days lost attributable to injuries among individuals are too skewed for a valid statistical analysis at the individual level. Even yearto-year variation in a single plant can vary by several hundred days if, for example, a couple of injuries early in a year result in two workers not working for the remainder of the year. Thus the effect of OSHA and Workers Compensation on total days lost from injury must be examined by aggregation of a number of plants; but this aggregation must be done within states to account adequately for interstate variation in Workers Compensation. Interindustry and interstate variation To estimate the effects of Workers Compensation and OSHA on workdays lost due to injury, each manufacturing industry (by two-digit SIC code, codes 20-39) that had 5,000 or more production workers in a given state during 1975 was selected for analysis. The statistical instability from small numbers is thus lowered. The lost-day rates by two-digit SIC code in each state for 1975 and 1976 are published, * and OSHA provided a list of the number of inspections in those years for each two-digit industry in those states where data were available. OSHA inspection data were missing from several states, and some states with small populations did not have any industries with 5,000 workers. In total, 167 industries in 20 states were included in the analysis. In addition to maximum Workers Compensation payment2 and number of OSHA inspections, the effects of number of establishments,21 hours per worker,22 and number of production workers were included in the analysis. OSHA inspects establishments, not workers, and the number of inspections per worker-used as the primary data in previous studies-is potentially biased by number of establishments relative to number of workers per industry. Changes in hours per worker and number of production workers could be related to fatigue and inexperience, respectively, which may affect the number of injuries. The effects were estimated on the basis of year-to-year changes because of multicolinearity of the independent variables, which might have distorted the coefficients in a cross-sectional analysis. Injury rates and the decisions to inspect are both related to numbers of workers per establishment and to number of establishments in ways that could distort estimates of effects in a cross-sectional analysis of aggregate rates.

14 594 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law The regression equation to which the data were fitted is: a + b,w, + b,o, + b,e, + b,h, + b,p, + e Change in days lost (1976 minus 1975) for injury in the j-th industry of the i-th state. Change in Workers Compensation in the i-th state Change in OSHA inspections of thej-th industry in the i-th state. Establishments of thej-th industry in the i-th state. Change in hours per worker of thej-th industry in the i-th state Change in production workers in thej-th industry in the i-th state. The results are presented in Table 5. As in the plant-level data, both Workers Compensation and OSHA Inspections showed significant effects, but in opposite directions. When a state s Workers Compensation maximum payment doubled above inflationary increases, lost workdays from injury claims increased by some 600 to 900 days in each industrial grouping in the state. Each OSHA inspection resulted in 1.7 to 3.1 fewer days lost due to injury. Number of establishments and changes in numbers of production workers were related to lost workdays, but hours per worker were not. A separate, similar analysis of changes in lost-time injuries produced essentially the same results, although the margin of error in the estimate of OSHA effects was larger than in the estimate of lost days. Considering the potential for biases in the estimation of effects from aggregate data, the results are remarkably consistent with the results at the plant level. Conclusions These results have several implications for public policy and policy analysts. Although the goal of more permanent changes in workplaces, which would Table 5. Regression Analysis of Changes in Days Lost from Injuries, Interstate and Interindustry-20 States in Change (1975 minus 1976) in Days Regression Lost Related To: Coefficient t Workers Compensation/GNP Deflator (1976 minus 1975) t * OSHA Inspections (1976 minus 1975) * Number of Establishments * Hours Per Worker (1976 minus 1975) Production Workers (1976 minus 1975) 0.9 t * *p <0.01 (d = 161), R = 0.57

15 Robertson & Keeve 9 Worker Injuries 595 extend the effect of an OSHA inspection beyond the year after it occurred, has apparently not been realized, the enforcement of OSHA standards did result in significantly reduced injuries and fewer days lost from injury in the year after each inspection. This apparent success was offset in the aggregate by increases in Workers Compensation above inflation; and in the case of lost workdays, the effect was more than offset. The relatively large reduction in injuries following an OSHA inspection could not have been simply a result of corrections of the relatively few hazards for which citations occurred in the three plants studied. Apparently, the embarrassment of being cited, or the fear of a large fine for repeated citation, resulted in general management attention (for a time) to hazardous conditions or worker behavior. The actual fines amounted to only a few hundred dollars each, and in some cases more money was spent in travel and time in an effort to reduce the fines than would have been spent to pay the fine. A review of correspondence associated with OSHA citations in the three plants revealed great concern for the cost of any suggestion by OSHA for modification to the workplace, and no reference whatever to the cost in compensation to the workers when hazards result in injuries. Prior to the period of the study, the company had adopted required use of safety glasses, helmets, and special shoes, although whether this was for economic or humanitarian reasons is not known. Unsystematic interviews with managers revealed no instance in which Workers Compensation costs had been factored into decisions about capital expenditures for less hazardous environments or equipment, the cost of which might have been more than offset by savings in Workers Compensation. (The company studied was self-insured, and was paying around $1OO,OOO per month for Workers Compensation in the three plants during 1980.) Apparently, future decisions to increase Workers Compensation ought to be based solely on consideration of fair compensation for injuries incurred and for associated lost worktime. There is no evidence that increasing Workers Compensation is an incentive for management to reduce hazards. Although the standard litany in neoclassic economists writings on behavior of the firm tells us that managers will act to reduce injuries to the extent that marginal costs of Workers Compensation and other reductions in profit are offset by the marginal costs of injury reduction,23 no evidence was found to support such beliefs. Indeed, increasing the costs to the firm of compensable injuries has a multiplier effect on the firm s expenses, with no benefit in reduced injuries: incrementing injury compensation to workers at a rate greater than inflation substantially increased both the number and the cost of injury claims. The data are insufficient to conclude that the additional claims are unjustified. Most of the claims of unverifiable pain and strain were for back injuries. Although the increases in compensation may have stimulated additional claims for back problems that actually originated outside the workplace, or

16 596 Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law may simply have provided greater incentive for malingering, it is also quite conceivable that workers with painful backs continued to work in spite of legitimate occupational injuries when Workers Compensation was insufficient to support them and their families. Total incidence of verifiable injuries was not related to Workers Compensation, but objectively verifiable time-loss injuries did increase in relation to increased compensation. Although those who believe that degree of worker caution is related to level of compensation may take heart in the latter finding, the lack of correlation to total incidence suggests an alternative explanation: workers may be more demanding of time off for an injury when the compensation is such that they can afford the time off, whereas they might continue to work with a similar injury when compensation is inadequate. The issue of the effect of compensation on caution would be better resolved by actually observing a set of relevant precautions taken by workers performing similar activities in states with widely differing compensation schedules. In this as in many other cases, both social science and public policy would be better served if social scientists were more cautious about imputing individual motives solely on the basis of theory or aggregated data. If a social scientist misspecifies an equation or makes an error in a computer program, he or she suffers no ill consequence, other than embarrassment if the error is discovered by others. If a worker in a metal-working plant inadvertently places a hand in the wrong place, the hand can be disabled or even lost. Social scientists might make fewer mistakes in generalizations about workers and managers if they would spend more time in workplaces. Both time spent in the workplace and properly disaggregated data lead to our final conclusion: OSHA inspections do appear to work in the short term; and, primarily, they seem to work not by permanently correcting specific safety violations, but by temporarily instilling a greater consciousness of transient factors related to injuries. While the analysis presented here does not make entirely clear whether an increase in the frequency of OSHA inspections would bring about a further reduction in the number of injuries (since at some level the increase in corrective actions might diminish as inspections became routine), it certainly does indicate that OSHA inspections are efficacious. That a further reduction of injuries in the workplace would occur, all other things being equal, if inspections were made more frequently, is a hypothesis well worth testing. Notes 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry, 1978 (Washington, D.C.: US. Department of Labor, 1980). 2. John Mendeloff, Regulating Safety: An Economic and Political Analysis of Occupational Safety and Health Policy (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1979). 3. Robert S. Smith, The Occupational Safety and Health Act: Its Goals and Its Achievements (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1976).

17 Robertson & Keeve Worker Injuries Aldona Di Pietro, An Analysis of the OSHA Inspection Program in Manufacturing Industries, , Mimeo. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1976). 5. Robert S. Smith, The Impact of OSHA Inspections on Manufacturing Injury Rates, The Journal of Human Resources 14 (Spring 1979): W. Kip Viscusi, The Impact of Occupational Safety and Health Regulation, Bell Journal of Economics 10 (Spring 1979): Lawrence S. Bacow, Bargaining for Job Safety and Health (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1980). 8. Samuel Peltzman, The Effects of Automobile Safety Regulation, Journal of Political Economy 83 (August 1975): Leon S. Robertson, A Critical Analysis of Peltzman s The Effects of Automobile Safety Regulation, Journal of Economic Issues 11 (September 1977): Leon S. Robertson, Automobile Safety Regulations and Death Reductions in the United States, American Journal of Public Health 71 (August 1981): Laura I. Langheim and Allan J. Lichtman, Ecological Inference (Beverly Hills, Cal.: Sage Publications, 1978). 12. James R. Chelius, Workplace Safety and Health: The Role of Workers Compensation (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1977). 13. Louise B. Russell, Safety Incentives in Workmen s Compensation Insurance, The Journal of Human Resources, Spring 1974, p Leon S. Robertson, Injuries: Causes, Control Strategies and Public Policy (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1983). 15. Economic Indicators, June, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Ofice, 1982). 16. Zdenek Hrubec and Blaine S. Nashold Jr., Epidemiology of Lumbar Disk Lesions in the Military in World War 11, American Journal of Epidemiology 102 (November 1975): Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Manufacturers: Statistics for States, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Large Industrial Counties and Selected Cities (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977). 18. Bureau of Labor Statistics, State Data on Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in 1976 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1979). 19. Data provided by the Office of Management Data Systems, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20. Analysis of Workmen s Compensation Laws (Washington, D.C.: Chamber of Commerce of the U.S., 1975, 1976). 21. Bureau of the Census, 1977 Census of Manufacturers, Volume IiI, Geographic Area (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1981). 22. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, States and Areas, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1979). 23. Smith, The Impact of OSHA Inspections.

The proportion of all nonfatal

The proportion of all nonfatal Restricted work due to workplace injuries: a historical perspective In anticipation of upcoming data on worker characteristics and on case circumstances surrounding workplace injuries that result in job

More information

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2012. minnesota department of. labor & industry. research and statistics

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2012. minnesota department of. labor & industry. research and statistics Minnesota Workers' Compensation System Report, 2012 minnesota department of labor & industry research and statistics Minnesota Workers Compensation System Report, 2012 by David Berry (principal) Brian

More information

Workers Compensation and the Aging Workforce

Workers Compensation and the Aging Workforce December 2011 by Tanya Restrepo and Harry Shuford Workers Compensation and the Aging Workforce There is widespread concern about the potential adverse impact on workers compensation loss costs as the baby

More information

Occupational Electrical Accidents in the U.S., 2003-2009 James C. Cawley, P.E.

Occupational Electrical Accidents in the U.S., 2003-2009 James C. Cawley, P.E. An ESFI White Paper Occupational Electrical Accidents in the U.S., 2003-2009 James C. Cawley, P.E. INTRODUCTION The Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI) is a non-profit organization dedicated

More information

H. The Study Design. William S. Cash and Abigail J. Moss National Center for Health Statistics

H. The Study Design. William S. Cash and Abigail J. Moss National Center for Health Statistics METHODOLOGY STUDY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM RECALL PERIOD FOR THE REPORTING OF MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTAL INJURIES William S. Cash and Abigail J. Moss National Center for Health Statistics I. Introduction

More information

VOL. XLVIII, Part I No. 89 PROCEEDINGS. May 3-5, 1961 RESERVES FOR REOPENED CLAIMS ON WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION INTRODUCTION

VOL. XLVIII, Part I No. 89 PROCEEDINGS. May 3-5, 1961 RESERVES FOR REOPENED CLAIMS ON WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION INTRODUCTION VOL. XLVIII, Part I No. 89 PROCEEDINGS May 3-5, 1961 RESERVES FOR REOPENED CLAIMS ON WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BY RAFAL J. BALCAREK INTRODUCTION Reopening of closed claims occurs in most lines of insurance,

More information

Workplace Injuries: Controls & Recordkeeping

Workplace Injuries: Controls & Recordkeeping Workplace Injuries: Controls & Recordkeeping Health and Safety Management Professional Certificate in Human Resources Injuries, Controls & Recordkeeping Defining a workplace Injury Workplace Illnesses

More information

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF A KENTUCKY DUI ACCIDENT COUNTERMEASURE PROGRAM

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF A KENTUCKY DUI ACCIDENT COUNTERMEASURE PROGRAM BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF A KENTUCKY DUI ACCIDENT COUNTERMEASURE PROGRAM Glenn C. Blomquist University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A. Summary. The purpose of this paper is to apply a general model

More information

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2011. minnesota department of. labor & industry. research and statistics

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2011. minnesota department of. labor & industry. research and statistics Minnesota Workers' Compensation System Report, 2011 minnesota department of labor & industry research and statistics Minnesota Workers Compensation System Report, 2011 by David Berry (principal) Brian

More information

Nebraska Occupational Health Indicator Report, 2013

Nebraska Occupational Health Indicator Report, 2013 Occupational Health Indicator Report, 213 Occupational Safety and Health Surveillance Program Department of Health and Human Services Web: www.dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/occhealth/ Phone: 42-471-2822 Introduction

More information

Introduction. Work, 2009 (2010). 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away from

Introduction. Work, 2009 (2010). 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Requiring Days Away from Comments on Small Business Teleconferences Regarding Occupational Injury and Illness Recordkeeping Requirements, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 29 CFR Part 1904, May 17, 2011, Docket No. OSHA-2009-0044

More information

Predicting and Preventing Severe Workplace Injuries

Predicting and Preventing Severe Workplace Injuries A PMA Companies Thought Leadership Publication April 2012 Predicting and Preventing Severe Workplace Injuries for Risk Management Professionals www.pmacompanies.com Member of Old Republic Companies Predicting

More information

Using a RMIS to Get Ahead of Workers Comp Litigation

Using a RMIS to Get Ahead of Workers Comp Litigation Using a RMIS to Get Ahead of Workers Comp Litigation By Sam Gabal, Sales Executive, Origami Risk The keys to getting ahead of Workers Comp Litigation are effective incident reporting, efficient workflows,

More information

Elements of an Effective Health and Safety Program. Health and Safety Program Management Guidelines

Elements of an Effective Health and Safety Program. Health and Safety Program Management Guidelines Elements of an Effective Health and Safety Program Health and Safety Program Management Guidelines Effective Health and Safety Programs It has been found that effective management of worker health and

More information

Estimating the effect of projected changes in the driving population on collision claim frequency

Estimating the effect of projected changes in the driving population on collision claim frequency Bulletin Vol. 29, No. 8 : September 2012 Estimating the effect of projected changes in the driving population on collision claim frequency Despite having higher claim frequencies than prime age drivers,

More information

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2006. minnesota department of. labor & industry. Policy Development, Research and Statistics

Minnesota Workers' Compensation. System Report, 2006. minnesota department of. labor & industry. Policy Development, Research and Statistics Minnesota Workers' Compensation System Report, 2006 minnesota department of labor & industry Policy Development, Research and Statistics Minnesota Workers Compensation System Report, 2006 by David Berry

More information

March 7, 2013. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA Docket Office. Docket No. OSHA-2013-0023; RIN 1218-AC49. U.S. Department of Labor

March 7, 2013. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA Docket Office. Docket No. OSHA-2013-0023; RIN 1218-AC49. U.S. Department of Labor March 7, 2013 Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA Docket Office Docket No. OSHA-2013-0023; RIN 1218-AC49 U.S. Department of Labor Room N-2625 200 Constitution Avenue NW Washington, DC 20210

More information

Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers. Rebecca E. Trempel

Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers. Rebecca E. Trempel Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim Frequencies of Teenage Drivers Rebecca E. Trempel November 2009 ABSTRACT Objectives. This study examined the effect of different graduated

More information

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CLAIM COSTS

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CLAIM COSTS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CLAIM COSTS Prepared by Associated Economic Consultants Ltd. August 30, 2000 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...1 FIGURE 1...4 2. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC FACTORS...5 2.1 Population,

More information

Indicator 3: Fatal Work-Related Injuries

Indicator 3: Fatal Work-Related Injuries Indicator 3: Fatal Work-Related Injuries Significance i Fatal work-related injuries are defined as injuries that occur at work and result in death. Each year, over 4,600 cases of work-related fatalities

More information

CHAPTER 30: EMPLOYEE INJURIES

CHAPTER 30: EMPLOYEE INJURIES CHAPTER 30: EMPLOYEE INJURIES INTRODUCTION TO JOB SAFETY Our legal system has developed three ways of handling employee injuries: A. NEGLIGENCE SUITS Was developed under common-law where the injured employee

More information

A Discussion of Highway Accident Data Collection and Statistics

A Discussion of Highway Accident Data Collection and Statistics A Discussion of Highway Accident Data Collection and Statistics Prepared by Carola Cowan, Bureau of Labor Statistics Programs Supervisor; Valerie Davis, Senior Economist; and Sara Saulcy, Senior Economist

More information

The Relationship Between Accident Report Lag and Claim Cost in Workers Compensation Insurance

The Relationship Between Accident Report Lag and Claim Cost in Workers Compensation Insurance The Relationship Between Accident Report Lag and Claim Cost in Workers Compensation Insurance By Thomas Sheppard Actuarial Consultant NCCI In 2000, a study by The Hartford, using its own data, found that

More information

Injury & Illness (IIPP)

Injury & Illness (IIPP) Associated Students, Inc. Injury & Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) Created on September 26, 2005 ASSOCIATED STUDENTS, INCORPORATED CALIFORNIA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY, POMONA EMPLOYEE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

More information

OSHA LIABILITY FEDERAL

OSHA LIABILITY FEDERAL 131 South Dearborn Street Writer s direct phone (312) 460-5877 Writer s e-mail mlies@seyfarth.com Writer s direct fax (312) 460-7877 Suite 2400 Chicago, Illinois 60603 (312) 460-5000 fax (312) 460-7000

More information

Employer-sponsored long-term disability insurance

Employer-sponsored long-term disability insurance Employer-sponsored long-term disability insurance Long-term disability insurance provides income for disabled workers until retirement or a specified age ; however, payments usually are offset by Social

More information

This PDF is a selection from a published volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research

This PDF is a selection from a published volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research This PDF is a selection from a published volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: Fiscal Policy and Management in East Asia, NBER-EASE, Volume 16 Volume Author/Editor: Takatoshi

More information

PROGRAM OVERVIEW OSHA RECORDKEEPING SAFETY PROGRAM REGULATORY STANDARD - OSHA - 29 CFR 1904

PROGRAM OVERVIEW OSHA RECORDKEEPING SAFETY PROGRAM REGULATORY STANDARD - OSHA - 29 CFR 1904 PROGRAM OVERVIEW OSHA RECORDKEEPING SAFETY PROGRAM REGULATORY STANDARD - OSHA - 29 CFR 1904 INTRODUCTION: Records provide employers and OSHA with statistical data to determine where emphasis should be

More information

Worker's Compensation Insurance in Wisconsin THE SYSTEM, THE BENEFITS, THE COSTS A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS

Worker's Compensation Insurance in Wisconsin THE SYSTEM, THE BENEFITS, THE COSTS A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS Worker's Compensation Insurance in Wisconsin THE SYSTEM, THE BENEFITS, THE COSTS A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS This guide is intended to provide a general, non-technical explanation to help employers

More information

Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute.

Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute. osition Official Title and Summary Prepared by the Attorney General Requires drug and alcohol testing of doctors and reporting of positive test to the California Medical Board. Requires Board to suspend

More information

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends The The mission of the (TIRF) is to reduce traffic related deaths and injuries TIRF is a national, independent, charitable road safety institute.

More information

Railroad Safety Data Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Railroad Safety Data Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Railroad Safety Data Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Table of Contents Railroad Classifications and Groupings...3 How are railroads classified on this site and what definitions are used for those classifications?...

More information

Corporate Consulting Services, Ltd. Workers Compensation in Today s Environment

Corporate Consulting Services, Ltd. Workers Compensation in Today s Environment Corporate Consulting Services, Ltd. Workers Compensation in Today s Environment 2014 Corporate 2014 Corporate Consulting Consulting Services, Services, Ltd. Ltd. Forces Impacting Workers Compensation Today

More information

Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute.

Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute. Proposition 46 Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute. Yes/No Statement A YES vote on this measure means: The cap on medical malpractice damages for such things

More information

Elements of an Effective Safety and Health Program

Elements of an Effective Safety and Health Program Elements of an Effective Safety and Health Program Voluntary Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector Healthy Workplaces 1 Effective Safety and Health Programs

More information

Will No-Fault Insurance Cost More Or Less?

Will No-Fault Insurance Cost More Or Less? Catholic University Law Review Volume 21 Issue 2 Winter 1972 Article 13 1972 Will No-Fault Insurance Cost More Or Less? C. Arthur Williams Jr. Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarship.law.edu/lawreview

More information

Contractor Safety Evaluation

Contractor Safety Evaluation Contractor Safety Evaluation Contractor Name Address Standard Industry Code (SIC) Telephone Number Fax Number Today's Date Health & Safety Contact Name Specialty Trade (Company) is committed to working

More information

Open Competition, Workers Compensation Costs, and Injury Rates *

Open Competition, Workers Compensation Costs, and Injury Rates * Open Competition, Workers Compensation Costs, and Injury Rates * by Anthony J. Barkume and John W. Ruser U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics May, 1998 * This paper has benefited greatly from the comments of

More information

VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF BANKING, INSURANCE, SECURITIES, AND HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION

VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF BANKING, INSURANCE, SECURITIES, AND HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF BANKING, INSURANCE, SECURITIES, AND HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION TECHNIQUES TO STABILIZE VERMONT WORKERS COMPENSATION PREMIUM COSTS AND MINIMIZE THE IMPACT OF LARGE CLAIMS Prepared

More information

The Vermont Legislative Research Shop

The Vermont Legislative Research Shop The Vermont Legislative Research Shop Workers' Compensation Reform What it is? Workers' compensation laws are created and maintained on a state-by-state basis with an attempt to provide money and medical

More information

MEASURING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS

MEASURING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS Economic Development Research Group April 1997 MEASURING ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS GLEN WEISBROD, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH GROUP BURTON WEISBROD, ECONOMICS DEPT., NORTHWESTERN UNIV.

More information

Evaluating Company Safety Policies

Evaluating Company Safety Policies Evaluating Company Safety Policies Dr. Daryl L. Orth, Ph. D., Dr. Carl Miller, Ph. D., and Ms. Abigail Miller Northern Kentucky University Highland Heights, Kentucky A safety survey was conducted of electrical

More information

Reserving Issues for Workers Compensation Managed Care by Susan E. Witcraft, FCAS

Reserving Issues for Workers Compensation Managed Care by Susan E. Witcraft, FCAS Reserving Issues for Workers Compensation Managed Care by Susan E. Witcraft, FCAS 273 Reserving Issues for Workers Compensation Managed Care by Susan E. Witcraft Abstract Managed care is becoming an integral

More information

AIHA's View of the Use of OHS Performance Criteria In Contracting and Procurement White Paper

AIHA's View of the Use of OHS Performance Criteria In Contracting and Procurement White Paper AIHA's View of the Use of OHS Performance Criteria In Contracting and Procurement White Paper AIHA believes that consideration of OH&S performance history in the awarding of contracts not only help ensure

More information

Effective Federal Income Tax Rates Faced By Small Businesses in the United States

Effective Federal Income Tax Rates Faced By Small Businesses in the United States Effective Federal Income Tax Rates Faced By Small Businesses in the United States by Quantria Strategies, LLC Cheverly, MD 20785 for Under contract number SBAHQ-07-Q-0012 Release Date: April 2009 This

More information

The Economic Impact of Texas State University

The Economic Impact of Texas State University The Economic Impact of Texas State University James P. LeSage 1 Fields Endowed Chair for Urban and Regional Economics McCoy College of Business Administration Department of Finance and Economics Texas

More information

Enhanced Worker s Compensation. Violations or Employer Misconduct

Enhanced Worker s Compensation. Violations or Employer Misconduct Enhanced Worker s Compensation Awards or Penalties Based on Safety Violations or Employer Misconduct Richard J. Swanson Macey Swanson and Allman 445 N. Pennsylvania Street, Suite 401 Indianapolis, IN 46204

More information

Employers costs for total benefits grew

Employers costs for total benefits grew Costs Benefit Costs Comparing benefit costs for full- and part-time workers Health insurance appears to be the only benefit representing a true quasi-fixed cost to employers, meaning that the cost per

More information

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA BOARD OF SUPERVISORS POLICY

PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA BOARD OF SUPERVISORS POLICY PIMA COUNTY, ARIZONA BOARD OF SUPERVISORS POLICY D 23.17 1 of 6 Background It is the policy of the Board of Supervisors that all of its managers and supervisors are versed in the requirements of the Fair

More information

WAGE REPORTS FOR WORKERS COVERED BY FEDERAL OLD-AGE INSURANCE IN 1937

WAGE REPORTS FOR WORKERS COVERED BY FEDERAL OLD-AGE INSURANCE IN 1937 WAGE REPORTS FOR WORKERS COVERED BY FEDERAL OLD-AGE INSURANCE IN 937 JOHN J. CORSON* 3 DURING 937 approximately 3 million men and women worked in employment covered by Federal old-age insurance. They received

More information

Introduction. Current methodology

Introduction. Current methodology Estimation of Software in the U.S. National Accounts: New Developments by Carol Moylan Bureau of Economic Analysis U. S. Department of Commerce Washington, DC 20230, USA Introduction In 1999, as part of

More information

The Steelworker Perspective on Behavioral Safety

The Steelworker Perspective on Behavioral Safety The Steelworker Perspective on Behavioral Safety Comprehensive Health and Safety vs. Behavior-Based Safety United Steelworkers Five Gateway Center Room 902 Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Telephone -- 412/562-2581

More information

This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research

This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: Factors in Business Investment Volume Author/Editor: Robert Eisner Volume Publisher: NBER

More information

Cost implications of no-fault automobile insurance. By: Joseph E. Johnson, George B. Flanigan, and Daniel T. Winkler

Cost implications of no-fault automobile insurance. By: Joseph E. Johnson, George B. Flanigan, and Daniel T. Winkler Cost implications of no-fault automobile insurance By: Joseph E. Johnson, George B. Flanigan, and Daniel T. Winkler Johnson, J. E., G. B. Flanigan, and D. T. Winkler. "Cost Implications of No-Fault Automobile

More information

Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance

Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance A Response to Comments Response to Critiques of Mortgage Discrimination and FHA Loan Performance James A. Berkovec Glenn B. Canner Stuart A. Gabriel Timothy H. Hannan Abstract This response discusses the

More information

Measuring workplace safety and health: General considerations and the US case. Invited paper submitted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics 1

Measuring workplace safety and health: General considerations and the US case. Invited paper submitted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics 1 Distr. GENERAL CES/SEM.48/8 22 May 2002 ENGLISH ONLY STATISTICAL COMMISSION and ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICIANS STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES (EUROSTAT)

More information

ACCIDENT PREVENTION PLAN. A Sample Plan for Counties

ACCIDENT PREVENTION PLAN. A Sample Plan for Counties ACCIDENT PREVENTION PLAN A Sample Plan for Counties TABLE OF CONTENTS MANAGEMENT COMPONENT... 1 Safety Policy Statement Safety Committee Members Authority and Accountability Statement RECORDKEEPING COMPONENT...

More information

TECHNICAL APPENDIX ESTIMATING THE OPTIMUM MILEAGE FOR VEHICLE RETIREMENT

TECHNICAL APPENDIX ESTIMATING THE OPTIMUM MILEAGE FOR VEHICLE RETIREMENT TECHNICAL APPENDIX ESTIMATING THE OPTIMUM MILEAGE FOR VEHICLE RETIREMENT Regression analysis calculus provide convenient tools for estimating the optimum point for retiring vehicles from a large fleet.

More information

CHAPTER 2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NO-FAULT INSURANCE AND DRIVER BEHAVIOR

CHAPTER 2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NO-FAULT INSURANCE AND DRIVER BEHAVIOR -5- CHAPTER 2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NO-FAULT INSURANCE AND DRIVER BEHAVIOR Under a traditional tort system, at-fault drivers are liable for the economic and noneconomic damages they inflict on third

More information

Quick Guide to Workers Compensation

Quick Guide to Workers Compensation Quick Guide to Workers Compensation What Is Workers Compensation Insurance? Workers compensation insurance covers businesses for their statutory and legal obligations for employee expenses that are a direct

More information

Injuries at work are fewer among older employees

Injuries at work are fewer among older employees Injuries at work are fewer among older employees Previous studies offer conflicting results in determining the age groups more prone to accidents on the job; but new data show young workers are hurt more,

More information

THREE RIVERS COMMUNITY COLLEGE PERSONNEL REGULATION

THREE RIVERS COMMUNITY COLLEGE PERSONNEL REGULATION Last Revision: 03/30/10 Page 1 of 7 Workers Compensation The purpose of this regulation is to ensure that employees of Three Rivers Community College injured within the course and scope of their employment

More information

Employee s Report of Injury Form

Employee s Report of Injury Form Employee s Report of Injury Form Instructions: Employees shall use this form to report all work related injuries, illnesses, or near miss events (which could have caused an injury or illness) no matter

More information

FY 2013 State of Wisconsin Risk Management Benchmarking Report. Developed By: State of Wisconsin Bureau of State Risk Management

FY 2013 State of Wisconsin Risk Management Benchmarking Report. Developed By: State of Wisconsin Bureau of State Risk Management FY 2013 State of Wisconsin Risk Management Benchmarking Report Developed By: State of Wisconsin Bureau of State Risk Management FY 2013 State of Wisconsin Risk Management Benchmarking Report Table of Contents

More information

DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND

DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO ROAD CRASHES IN THAILAND Paramet LUATHEP Research Associate Asian Institute of Technology PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 THAILAND Fax: +66-2-524-5509 E-mail:

More information

perspective The Workers Compensation Insurance Industry Prospective Abstract

perspective The Workers Compensation Insurance Industry Prospective Abstract perspective The Workers Compensation Insurance Industry Prospective Abstract Worker s Compensation industry by its inherent complexity and coupled with the recession is on the cusp. Combined ratio is low,

More information

DEFENSE BASE ACT PROGRAM

DEFENSE BASE ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE BASE ACT PROGRAM Thank you for your recent request for information on the Defense Base Act Insurance. We hope that the following summary will aid you in understanding DBA coverage. Rutherfoord

More information

KEY CAL/OSHA STANDARDS THAT APPLY TO MOST EMPLOYERS

KEY CAL/OSHA STANDARDS THAT APPLY TO MOST EMPLOYERS KEY CAL/OSHA STANDARDS THAT APPLY TO MOST EMPLOYERS FACTSHEET 1 Below are some key Cal/OSHA standards that apply to most employers: A. INJURY AND ILLNESS PREVENTION PROGRAM STANDARD (Title 8 California

More information

HAWAII ADMINISTRATIVE RULES TITLE 12 DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SUBTITLE 8 HAWAII OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DIVISION PART 1

HAWAII ADMINISTRATIVE RULES TITLE 12 DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SUBTITLE 8 HAWAII OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DIVISION PART 1 HAWAII ADMINISTRATIVE RULES TITLE 12 DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SUBTITLE 8 HAWAII OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DIVISION PART 1 GENERAL, LEGAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL

More information

THE CONTROL OF ACCIDENTS THROUGH WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION RATING

THE CONTROL OF ACCIDENTS THROUGH WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION RATING 44 THE CONTROL OF ACCIDENTS THE CONTROL OF ACCIDENTS THROUGH WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION RATING BY ROBERT S, HULL Workmen's Compensation is a social service having for its immediate object the care and support

More information

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Security Guards. Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities. Fact Sheet. June 2009 www.bls.gov

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Security Guards. Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities. Fact Sheet. June 2009 www.bls.gov Bureau of Labor Statistics Security Guards Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities Fact Sheet June 2009 www.bls.gov Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities among Security Guards Security guards face a set of hazards

More information

Risk Management & Assessment at UQ

Risk Management & Assessment at UQ Risk Management & Assessment at UQ Course Overview: This training module has been developed for workers at the University of Queensland, and forms part of the OH&S training program at UQ. The aim of this

More information

POLICY FOR A DRUG AND ALCOHOL-FREE WORKPLACE

POLICY FOR A DRUG AND ALCOHOL-FREE WORKPLACE POLICY FOR A DRUG AND ALCOHOL-FREE WORKPLACE I. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Crossroads of Western Iowa recognizes the problems of substance abuse in society and in the workplace. Substance abuse poses a serious

More information

WCIRB REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE CALIFORNIA WORKERS COMPENSATION INSURANCE SYSTEM

WCIRB REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE CALIFORNIA WORKERS COMPENSATION INSURANCE SYSTEM STATE OF THE SYSTEM WCIRB REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE CALIFORNIA WORKERS COMPENSATION INSURANCE SYSTEM Introduction The workers compensation insurance system in California is over 100 years old. It provides

More information

Chapter 6 Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships

Chapter 6 Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships Chapter 6 Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships Solutions to Questions 6-1 The contribution margin (CM) ratio is the ratio of the total contribution margin to total sales revenue. It can be used in a variety

More information

Managing the Safety of Contingent Workers: A Study of Contract Workers in the Petrochemical Industry

Managing the Safety of Contingent Workers: A Study of Contract Workers in the Petrochemical Industry Managing the Safety of Contingent Workers: A Study of Contract Workers in the Petrochemical Industry Thomas A. Kochan, Michal Smith, John C. Wells, and James B. Rebitzer July, 1992 WP#: 3442-92-BPS Managing

More information

SAFECARE BC MEMBERS INJURY TRENDS PROFILE BY ORGANIZATION SIZE

SAFECARE BC MEMBERS INJURY TRENDS PROFILE BY ORGANIZATION SIZE SAFECARE BC MEMBERS INJURY TRENDS PROFILE BY ORGANIZATION SIZE March 2015 Page 1 of 36 TABLE OF CONTENTS About SafeCare BC...3 Executive Summary...4 Purpose...5 Limitations...5 Industry Snapshot: Long

More information

Employer Profile Summary SCHOOL DISTRICT #71 (COMOX VALLEY) (37606)

Employer Profile Summary SCHOOL DISTRICT #71 (COMOX VALLEY) (37606) Employer Profile Summary SCHOOL DISTRICT #71 (COMOX VALLEY) (37606) 765008 - Public School District Performance Scorecard Measure Period Actual Rank Better Comparison vs. Peers Worse Experience Rating

More information

Do Commodity Price Spikes Cause Long-Term Inflation?

Do Commodity Price Spikes Cause Long-Term Inflation? No. 11-1 Do Commodity Price Spikes Cause Long-Term Inflation? Geoffrey M.B. Tootell Abstract: This public policy brief examines the relationship between trend inflation and commodity price increases and

More information

Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88)

Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) Chapter 5: Analysis of The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) Introduction The National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) followed students from 8 th grade in 1988 to 10 th grade in

More information

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel 6. Road Safety Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel Road safety continues to be a core priority both nationally and locally reflecting the very high human and other costs

More information

SAMA Working Paper: POPULATION AGING IN SAUDI ARABIA. February 2015. Hussain I. Abusaaq. Economic Research Department. Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency

SAMA Working Paper: POPULATION AGING IN SAUDI ARABIA. February 2015. Hussain I. Abusaaq. Economic Research Department. Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency WP/15/2 SAMA Working Paper: POPULATION AGING IN SAUDI ARABIA February 2015 By Hussain I. Abusaaq Economic Research Department Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency The views expressed

More information

WCB-Alberta. 2014 Premium Rates

WCB-Alberta. 2014 Premium Rates WCB-Alberta 2014 Premium Rates Foreword The Alberta Workers Compensation Board sets premium rates annually for each industry. This guide is meant to provide a basic understanding of the process for setting

More information

THE EFFECT OF NO-FAULT ON FATAL ACCIDENT RATES

THE EFFECT OF NO-FAULT ON FATAL ACCIDENT RATES -xiii- SUMMARY Thirteen states currently either mandate no-fault auto insurance or allow drivers to choose between no-fault and tort insurance. No-fault auto insurance requires individuals to carry personal

More information

October 9, 2009. Honorable Orrin G. Hatch United States Senate Washington, DC 20510. Dear Senator:

October 9, 2009. Honorable Orrin G. Hatch United States Senate Washington, DC 20510. Dear Senator: CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE U.S. Congress Washington, DC 20515 Douglas W. Elmendorf, Director October 9, 2009 Honorable Orrin G. Hatch United States Senate Washington, DC 20510 Dear Senator: This letter

More information

Business and Technology Incubator Economic Impact Analysis

Business and Technology Incubator Economic Impact Analysis Missouri University of Science and Technology Business and Technology Incubator Economic Impact Analysis Prepared by: The Office of Technology Transfer and Economic Development May 19, 2009 2009 Table

More information

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM

MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM 2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1

More information

Chapter 11 Auto Insurance in the United States (continued)

Chapter 11 Auto Insurance in the United States (continued) Chapter 11 Auto Insurance in the United States (continued) Overview Compensating innocent motorists who have been injured in auto accidents is an important issue for society. Private insurers are not anxious

More information

Accident Reporting Company Procedures

Accident Reporting Company Procedures Accident Reporting Company Procedures Accident reporting: FMCSA requirements Part 390.15 fatality injury tow away Accident Register keep for three year following a recordable accident. State Reporting

More information

Workers' Compensation Insurance Purchasing Guide

Workers' Compensation Insurance Purchasing Guide Workers' Compensation Insurance Purchasing Guide Introduction to the Workers' Compensation Insurance Buying Process What s inside: Trends Types Terms & Criteria Choosing a Provider Businesses that have

More information

The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period

The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period 1994-2003 March 2004 Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Land Transport and Shipping

More information

VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES

VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES DOT HS 809 952 January 2006 Technical Report VEHICLE SURVIVABILITY AND TRAVEL MILEAGE SCHEDULES Published By: NHTSA s National Center for Statistics and Analysis This document is available to the public

More information

Note: It is suggested that you examine your current Policies and contact your Insurance Broker before answering the following questions.

Note: It is suggested that you examine your current Policies and contact your Insurance Broker before answering the following questions. FORM 1 Page 1 of 2 INSURANCE COST INFORMATION WORKSHEET All Contractors, Subcontractors, and Sub subcontractors of every tier, are required to complete this worksheet and submit as part of your bid. Note:

More information

Social Security Eligibility and the Labor Supply of Elderly Immigrants. George J. Borjas Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research

Social Security Eligibility and the Labor Supply of Elderly Immigrants. George J. Borjas Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research Social Security Eligibility and the Labor Supply of Elderly Immigrants George J. Borjas Harvard University and National Bureau of Economic Research Updated for the 9th Annual Joint Conference of the Retirement

More information

Moral Hazard in the French Workers Compensation System

Moral Hazard in the French Workers Compensation System The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 1998, Vol. 65, No. 1, 125-133. Moral Hazard in the French Workers Compensation System Thomas Aiuppa James Trieschmann ABSTRACT The study investigates the level of moral

More information

INCIDENT RATES DEFINITIONS:

INCIDENT RATES DEFINITIONS: INCIDENT RATES Incident rates are an indication of how many incidents have occurred, or how severe they were. They are measurements only of past performance or lagging indicators. Incident rates are also

More information

Pension & Health Benefits Committee California Public Employees Retirement System

Pension & Health Benefits Committee California Public Employees Retirement System California Public Employees Retirement System Agenda Item 9 ITEM NAME: Proposition 46 Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors and Medical Negligence Lawsuits PROGRAM: ITEM TYPE: Legislation State Initiative

More information

Injury and Work- Related Illness Prevention Program

Injury and Work- Related Illness Prevention Program Associated Students, California State University, Northridge, Inc. Injury and Work- Related Illness Prevention Program 1. PURPOSE STATEMENT It is the intention of the Associated Students, California State

More information

Public and Private Sector Earnings - March 2014

Public and Private Sector Earnings - March 2014 Public and Private Sector Earnings - March 2014 Coverage: UK Date: 10 March 2014 Geographical Area: Region Theme: Labour Market Theme: Government Key Points Average pay levels vary between the public and

More information

US FIRE DEPARTMENT PROFILE 2013

US FIRE DEPARTMENT PROFILE 2013 US FIRE DEPARTMENT PROFILE 2013 Hylton J. G. Haynes Gary P. Stein November 2014 National Fire Protection Association Fire Analysis and Research Division US FIRE DEPARTMENT PROFILE 2013 Hylton J. G. Haynes

More information