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1 Introduction to Imaging 3 Giulia Festa Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata 27 September 2010

2 Contents Prompt gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging combined with Neutron Tomography (PGAI/NT) PGAI/NR of archaeological sample G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

3 Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

4 PGAA Based on radiative capture of neutrons (Z A + n Z A+1 + γ) Exciting energy = sum of binding energy and kinetic energy of absorbed neutron Prompt Time Decay: s G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

5 Prompt-γ: measurements during sample irradiation (due to the de-excitation of the compound nucleus) Delayed-γ: due to the beta decay of the new-formation instable nucleus γ spectra: characteristic for any element used for elemental composition and isotope s identification G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

6 From PGAA to PGAI It is a neutron-based tool for non-destructive bulk elemental analysis A method to obtain the spatial distribution of the elements is to scan the sample with a highly collimated neutron beam and γ-detector Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging (PGAI) method PGAI is combined with Neutron Radiography (NR) or Neutron Tomography (NT) that produces high-resolution 2D/3D images characterisation of the geometrical structure and neutron attenuation features of the object G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

7 Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging combined with Neutron Tomography (PGAI/NT) G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

8 PGAI/NT developed within the ANCIENT CHARM European research Project (FP6) Analysis by Neutron resonant Capture Imaging and other Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Research Neutron Energy Resonances Cross section NRCA E γ T 1/2 Eγ PGAA (I)NAA Emerging Neutron Techniques: new Methods n + A 1 * X A + X A + 1 X + γ G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

9 PGAI/NT set up PGAI Neutron Tomography G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

10 PGAI/NT at FRM II (January 2007) PGAI/NT station 10/24

11 The PGAI/NT Data acquisition system Radiography detector PGAA detector Step motors movements G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

12 Measurements on disk fibula Object name: Disc fibula Date: end 6th-beginning 7th AD Owner/institute/museum: Hungarian National Museum Site: Kölked-Feketekapu, Grave A279 Material: Fe; Au; bronze; garnet; Size: D: 3,1 cm; D of inlays: 2,4 cm; H: 2 cm Weight : 20,08 g G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

13 Au elemental distribution G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /

14 Cu elemental distribution G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

15 S elemental distribution G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

16 PGAI/NR of archaeological sample G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

17 The sample Object name: Prophet Head (Hereafter named Head 1) Author: Lorenzo Ghiberti Date: Owner/institute/museum: Opera di S. Maria del Fiore, Florence Site: Mounted on the Porte del Paradiso Gates of Paradise of the Battistero di Firenze, Italy Material: gilded bronze Size: diameter: f =13 cm, height: 7cm Weight : 2700 g 17/24

18 The Baptistery, San Giovanni in Florence - Religious building in Florence (Tuscany), Italy, which has the status of a minor basilica. - Renowned for its three sets of artistically important bronze doors with relief sculptures by Lorenzo Ghiberti. These doors were named by Michelangelo "the Gates of Paradise" because of their beauty, and they were said to have begun the Renaissance. G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /

19 Conservation problems: A critical aspect concerning the state of conservation regards the chemical and physical stability of the gold layer on the bronze alloy. Copper corrosion compounds (i.e. copper oxides, chlorides and sulphates) are located immediately below the gold layer. Copper corrosion below the gilding produces excrescences, pitting and in some cases micro-lifting, which have damaged the gold layer. Restoration over the last 20 years has focused on selectively removing some of the corrosion compounds under the gold layer and the black crusts above it. In the case of the East door two types of cleaning methods were chosen: a chemical agent bath (Rochelle salt solution - sodium potassium tartrate) and laser ablation. G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

20 Measurements: Measurements performed in order to map the elemental composition along and through the surfaces, down to approximately 1 mm in depth PGAI measurements were performed on three selected areas of the Head treated with different cleaning procedures (laser ablation, chemical agent and un-cleaned) Neutron beam positioned tangentially to the surface in order to probe layers of several hundreds of microns below the surface reconstruction of composition down to a depth about 1 mm from the surface NR measurements designed in order to obtain an image of the irradiated area during each measurement For each position a set of several measurements was performed at different depths (steps of 0.25 mm) G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

21 Irradiated areas obtained through the neutron transmission image recorded by the CCD camera during PGAI measurements. Study of irradiated area These profiles were compared with the image of the beam profile without sample the difference between the beam profiles with and without the samples gives the irradiated sample area. (pixel size=70 mm x 70 mm, neutron beam spot area=4.41 mm 2, pixel illumination threshold=20.4 of the gray scale with 255 corresponding to white and 0 to black) G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

22 PGAI/NR Results: Position Depth Elements Irradiated area (mm 2 ) ± 0.1 Laser 1 Au, Cu, Hg 1.2 Laser 2 Au, Cu, Hg 1.5 Laser 3 Au, Cu, Hg 1.8 Laser 4 Au, Cu, Hg 1.9 Laser Sum Au, Cu, Cl, Hg - Non pulita Sum Cu, Au, Cl - Chemical 1 Au, Cu 0.9 Chemical 2 Au, Cu 1.0 Chemical 3 Au, Cu, Hg 1.1 Chemical Sum Au, Cu, Hg - Chemical 1 Au, Cu, Hg 0.9 Chemical 2 Au, Cu, Hg 1.0 Chemical 3 Au, Cu, Hg 1.1 Chemical Sum Au, Cu, Hg - Chemical Sum Au, Cu, Hg - - Four positions were chosen covering the three cleaningareas - Each position was measured at different depths in 0.25 mm steps starting from the surface - Chlorine: not detected in areas treated with chemical agents detected in area treated with laser ablation. G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

23 References: [1] T. Belgya, Z. Kis, L. Szentmiklósi, Zs. Kasztovszky, P. Kudejova, R. Schulze, T. Materna, G. Festa, P. A. Caroppi and the Ancient Charm Collaboration, First elemental imaging experiments on a combined PGAI and NT setup at the Budapest Research Reactor Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 278, No.3 (2008) [2] G. Festa, C. Andreani, M. P. De Pascale, R. Senesi, G. Vitali, S. Porcinai, A. M. Giusti, R. Schulze, L. Canella, P. Kudejova, M. Mühlbauer, B. Schillinger and the Ancient Charm Collaboration, A non destructive stratigraphic and radiographic neutron study of Lorenzo Ghiberti's reliefs from Paradise and North doors of Florence Baptistery. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, No.4 (2009) [3] G. Gorini and Ancient Charm collaboration, 'Ancient Charm: a research project for neutron-based investigation of cultural heritage objects' Nuovo Cimento, 30, N. 1, 47, DOI /ncc/i , (Gennaio-Febbrario 2007) [4] G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

24 G. Festa - X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci /24

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