1 Report to the Congress on Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards July 2014 BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
3 Report to the Congress on Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards July 2014 BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
4 This and other Federal Reserve Board reports and publications are available online at To order copies of Federal Reserve Board publications offered in print, see the Board s Publication Order Form( or contact: Publications Fulfillment Mail Stop N-127 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Washington, DC (ph) (fax) ( )
5 iii Preface: Implementing the Dodd-Frank Act The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System(Board) is responsible for implementing numerous provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act). The Dodd-Frank Act requires, among other things, that the Board produce reports tothecongressonanumberof topics. The Board maintains a Regulatory Reform website, which provides an overview of regulatory reform efforts implementing the Dodd-Frank Act and a list of the implementation initiatives completed by the Board as well as the most significant initiatives the Boardexpectstoaddressinthefuture. 1 1 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, About Regulatory Reform, reform_about.htm; Implementing the Dodd-Frank Act: The Federal Reserve Board s Role, newsevents/reform_milestones.htm.
7 v Contents ExecutiveSummary... 1 Background... 3 SurveyDataandResults... 5 Prevalence of Use... 5 Fees Collected by Issuers... 7 Fees Paid by Issuers... 10
9 1 Executive Summary Section 1075 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which added section 920 to the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), requires the Federal Reserve Board to report annually to the Congress on the prevalence of use of general-use prepaid cards in federal, state, and local government-administered payment programs and on the interchange fees and cardholder fees chargedwithrespecttotheuseof suchprepaid cards. 2 Federal, state, and local government offices commonlyuseprepaidcardstodisbursefundsatalower cost than checks(or other paper-based payment instruments such as vouchers or coupons) and to provide an alternative to direct deposit for payment recipients, especially those recipients who do not have bank accounts. Government offices contract with financial institutions or program managers to issue prepaid cards, disburse program funds, and provide customer service. The Board collected 2013 data from government offices and bank issuers on programs using prepaid cards as a method to disburse funds. Government offices reported on 247 programs, and issuers reported on 563 programs. 2 Subsections1075(b) (d)of thedodd-frankactamendbenefits statutes such that electronic benefit transfer(ebt) cards issued in connection with the relevant program are not subject to the provisions of section 920 of the EFTA. The amended benefits statutesarethefoodandnutritionactof 2008,theFarm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and the Child Nutrition Act of Although EBT cards issued in connectionwithrelevantprogramsarenotsubjecttosection920of the EFTA,theBoardbelievesthatitisappropriatetoincludeinthis report information about such EBT cards because they represent a significant portion of prepaid cards issued pursuant to government-administered programs. A program is considered government-administered regardless of whether a federal, state, or local government office operates the program or outsources some or all functions to third parties so longastheprogramisoperatedonbehalf of agovernment office. In addition, a program may be government-administered evenif afederal,state,orlocalgovernmentofficeisnotthe source of funds for the program it administers. For example, child support programs are government-administered programs even though they are funded by individuals. Across reported programs that provided a prepaid card option, government offices disbursed almost $1.1trillionin2013,14percentof whichwasdisbursed through prepaid cards. A comparison of 2012 and 2013 data from government agencies shows that therewasasmallincreaseintheproportionof funds disbursedthroughprepaidcardsfrom2012to This increase is consistent with an ongoing shift toward electronic payment methods within the government sector. Issuers collected more than $502 million in fee revenue during 2013 across reported programs, with 65 percent from interchange fees and 35 percent from cardholderfees. 4 Issuerscollected1.2percentof the value of purchase transactions in interchange fees for these programs in 2013, which is roughly equal to that collected by issuers for all exempt debit purchase transactions. 5 Althoughtheprepaidcardsprovided under government-administered programs usually offer cardholders one or more free automated teller machine(atm) cash withdrawals per month, ATM withdrawal fees constitute 58 percent of all card TheBoardanalyzedthesubsetof dataprovidedbythe77government offices that responded to the survey in both 2012 and The proportion of funds disbursed by prepaid cards across this subset of respondents increased 30 basis points, from 4.7percentin2012to5.0percentin2013.Forfurtherdiscussion,refertothe SurveyDataandResults sectionof this report. An interchange fee is any fee established, charged, or received byapaymentcardnetworkandpaidbyamerchantoramerchant acquirer for the purpose of compensating an issuer for its involvement in an electronic debit transaction(12 CFR 235.2(j)). Merchant acquirers typically pass these fees on to merchants. So interchange fees, in effect, become a cost to merchants and revenue to issuers. Regulation II(12 CFR 235) provides that an issuer subject to the interchange fee standards may not receive an interchange fee thatexceeds21centsplus5basispointsmultipliedbythevalue of the transaction, plus a 1-cent fraud-prevention adjustment, if eligible. The interchange fee standards of Regulation II do not applytothefollowingtypesof debitcards:debitcardsissuedby an issuer that, together with its affiliates, has assets of less than $10 billion( exempt issuers ); debit cards issued pursuant to a federal, state, or local government-administered payment program; and certain general-use, reloadable prepaid cards (12 CFR 235.5).
10 2 Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards holder fee revenue that issuers collected in Customer service and account servicing fees constitute the next largest source of cardholder fee revenue, at 15 percent and 14 percent, respectively. Revenue from overdraft fees decreased by 83 percent in 2013, largely, it appears, because of an EFTA provision that took effect in July The provision stipulates that a government prepaid card loses its exemption from the interchange fee standards if the cardholder mayincuroverdraftfees U.S.C. 1693o-2(a)(7)(B).
11 3 Background Prepaid cards are a ubiquitous disbursement mechanism in the government sector. Today, all states disburse Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)benefitsthroughprepaidcards. 7 Inaddition, nearly every state offers a prepaid card for child support, unemployment insurance, and Temporary AssistanceforNeedyFamilies(TANF)programs. 8 Asof April2013,10statesofferedprepaidcardsasa taxrefundpaymentoption. 9 Althoughmanygovernment offices continue to offer check payments, a number of offices now mandate that recipients receive payments electronically, through either a prepaidcardordirectdeposit.forinstance,asof March 2013, the U.S. Treasury requires all-electronic disbursement of funds under several major federal benefit programs, including Social Security and VeteransAffairsprograms. 10 Virginiaalsoeliminated paper checks as an option for individuals to receive tax refunds in 2013, offering only direct deposits and 7 StateagenciesadministeringSNAPhavedistributedfunds exclusively by prepaid card since See Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Electronic Benefits Transfer(EBT) Status Report by State, default/files/snap/electronic-benefits-transfer-ebt-status-reportstate.pdf. See also Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (2013), Report to the Congress on Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards(Washington: Board of Governors, July), government-prepaid-report pdf, for further historical information on SNAP. 8 Associationof GovernmentAccountants(2013) Government Prepaid Cards Lower Costs and Improve Access, Corporate Partner Advisory Group Research Series, Report No. 34(June), CPAG-Research-Report-34_VISA-Prepaid_final2.pdf. 9 Seenote8. 10 TheU.S.Treasury sruleprovidesforcertainlimitedwaivers from the all-electronic requirement. Waivers may be granted to recipients born prior to May 1, 1921, who received payments by checkonmarch1,2013.waiversmayalsobegrantedin instances where the requirement would be overly burdensome for the recipient, for example, in cases where the recipient suffers from a mental impairment or resides in a remote geographic location. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fiscal Service, Financial Management Service(2010), Management of Federal Agency Disbursements, final rule(rin 1510 AB26), Federal Register, vol. 75(December 22), pp prepaidcards. 11 Inaddition,stateagenciesadministering the Women, Infants, and Children(WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program are required to replace paper vouchers with an all-electronic disbursementsystembyoctober1, Asaresult of this shift toward electronic payments, the share of government disbursements made through prepaid cards continues to increase. Government offices generally contract with a bank issuer to implement a prepaid card payment program. Replacing paper checks with prepaid cards enables a government agency to outsource many administrative responsibilities associated with managing a payment program. Disbursing funds by check is resource intensive; government agencies must pay postage costs and hire personnel to physically handle checks and resolve transmission errors. In contrast, issuers typically assume the cost and responsibilities associated with operating a prepaid card program, including cardholder enrollment, card mailing, transaction processing, account servicing, and call center operations. A government office typically selects an issuer through a competitive bidding process. In its request for proposal(rfp), the government office stipulates required program services and limitations on cardholder fees. The government office then compares issuer proposals and selects the issuer that best fits the needs of the cardholders and government office VirginiaDepartmentof Taxation, VirginiaTaxRefundDebit Card, 12 Healthy,Hunger-FreeKidsActof 2010,Pub.L.No , 352(d), 121 Stat. 3183, 3255(2010). 13 Occasionally,third-partyprogrammanagersareinvolvedin government prepaid card programs. Program managers are often subcontracted by the issuer to provide services traditionally carried out by the issuer, for example, call center management and transaction processing. In certain cases, a program manager contracts directly with the government office and provides almost all functions that are traditionally carried out by an issuer. In these instances, the issuer s role is limited to maintaining an FDIC-insured bank account for program funds and providing the program manager with a connection to the relevant payment card network. Nonbank institutions are ineligible to
12 4 Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards Prepaid cards can be a convenient alternative to checks and other paper-based payment methods, such as vouchers and coupons, for payment recipients. Prepaid cards allow for faster disbursement of funds and allow recipients to receive benefits without depositing checks into bank accounts. For recipients who do not have bank accounts, prepaid cards eliminatetheneedtocashpaperchecksandcarrycash. join the Visa and MasterCard networks and require an intermediary bank to connect to these networks. Compared with paper-based payment methods, prepaid cards generally provide enhanced security. Funds disbursed by prepaid card are less susceptible to mail fraud than those disbursed by check. Most card issuers and payment card networks employ advanced analytics to identify potentially fraudulent activity. Further, prepaid cards generally offer enhanced liability protections to government agencies and cardholders for fraudulent activity.
13 5 Survey Data and Results The Board distributed a survey to 151 government offices to collect prevalence of use data and another surveyto14issuerstocollectfeedataforprograms thatusedprepaidcardsasamethodtodisburse fundsincalendaryear Onehundredthree government offices and all issuers responded. Government offices reported data for 247 programs, and issuersreporteddatafor563programs. 15 Thesedata represent programs from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Because of the change in composition of reported programseachyear,someof thefiguresinthisreport are not comparable with corresponding figures in previousreports. 16 Asthepoolof reportedprograms stabilizes in future years, the Board intends to provide more information on general trends in these reports to the Congress regarding the governmentadministered prepaid card market. TheBoardexcludedprogramsthatdonotuseprepaidcardsfromtheuniverseof programsusedtocalculate prevalence of use and fee figures appearing in thisreport. 17 Further,theBoarduseddifferentsubsets of the reported program data for each calculation in this report because a few survey respondents did not provide complete data. Where possible and useful,thisreportnotesthenumberandtypeof programs included in a calculation. Prevalence of Use Calendar Year 2013 For calendar year 2013, 98 government offices administering 205 programs reported disbursing $1.054 trillion to recipients, of which $142 billion, or 13.5percent,wasdisbursedthroughprepaidcards. 18 Total funds disbursed and the proportion of funds disbursed through prepaid cards varied widely by programtype,asshowninfigure1.thesocialsecurity Administration disbursed more than $810 billion under Social Security programs, but it disbursed only 3.2percentthroughprepaidcards. 19 Similarly,government offices disbursed less than 1 percent of reported payroll program funds and less than 2 percent of veterans programs funds through prepaid cards. 20 Incontrast,stategovernmentofficesdistributed$75billionunderSNAP,allof whichwasdistributed through prepaid cards. Other government offices also distributed benefits almost exclusively through prepaid cards under programs such as TANF and WIC. 14 SeeBoardof Governorsof thefederalreservesystem, Payment Research, payres_papers.htm, for the two surveys, which are conducted annually to collect information for this report. The Board identified issuers to survey by consulting with relevant payment card networks. 15 Surveyrespondentsdidnotalwayslisttheprogramscoveredin their responses. The Board only counted programs that it could clearly identify from each response. As a result, the program counts in this report represent lower-bound approximations. 16 SeeBoardof Governorsof thefederalreservesystem, Payment Research, payres_papers.htm, for the Board s previous reports to the Congress on government-administered, general-use prepaid cards. 17 Forexample,unemploymentinsuranceprogramsthatdisburse paymentsonlybycheckordirectdepositarenotincludedinthe calculation used to generate the unemployment bar in figure 1 in this report. 18 Programsincludedinthesecalculationsarethoseforwhichgovernment offices reported both total funds disbursed by all payment methods and total funds disbursed through prepaid card. 19 Forthepurposesof thisreport,socialsecurityprograms include Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance(OASDI) and Supplemental Security Income(SSI). 20 Somegovernmentofficesreportedaggregatedataformultiple programs of different types, for example, unemployment insurance, TANF, and child support. Calculations by individual program type of total funds disbursed through all payment methods and the proportion of funds disbursed through prepaid cards exclude these responses because the data could not be disaggregated.
14 6 Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards Figure 1. Proportion of government-administered payments made through prepaid cards in 2013 Billions $0 $300 $600 $900 $1,200 Total 13.5% Social Security 3.2% SNAP Veterans Administration Unemployment Child support 100.0% 1.1% 59.5% 39.2% Prepaid card Other payment types Payroll Disability Tax refund 0.5% 91.9% 9.4% Millions $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 TANF WIC 99.1% 92.4% Section 8 housing Energy assistance Prisons/corrections Disaster relief 6.2% 100.0% 44.4% 66.4% Year-over-Year Comparisons To measure year-over-year trends in government prepaidcarduse,theboardcompared2012and2013 data provided by the 77 government offices that responded to the survey in both calendar years. As shown in table 1, the proportion of funds disbursed by prepaid cards across this subset of respondents increased30basispoints,from4.7percentin2012to 5.0percentin Thisincreaseisconsistentwith the increased use by government offices of electronic payment methods to distribute program funds. The proportion of funds disbursed through prepaid cards increased in most program types, including child support, Section 8 housing, and TANF. The proportion was unchanged in WIC and payroll programs, and it decreased in unemployment insurance programs. 21 TheBoardexcludedSNAPdataobtainedfromtheFoodand Nutrition Service(FNS) from the total year-over-year calculationintable1tohighlighttheincreaseduseof prepaidcards across all other government offices that reported data in both 2012 and As discussed earlier in this report, state agencies administering SNAP have distributed funds exclusively through prepaid cards since In addition, SNAP distributions account for more than half of all funds disbursed through prepaid cards across all reported programs. Because of the program's large size relative to other reported programs, including SNAP in the total year-over-year calculation in table 1 diminishes the overall increase in the proportion of funds disbursed byprepaidcardsto2basispoints,from11.98percentin2012to percent in 2013.
15 July Table 1. Comparison from previous year: proportion of government-administered payments made through prepaid cards Program type Proportion 2012(percent) Proportion 2013(percent) Social Security Veterans Administration Unemployment Child support Payroll TANF WIC Section 8 housing Total Change Factors that Influence Prepaid Card Use Issuers indicated that several factors influence the proportion of funds disbursed through prepaid cards under a given program. For example, legal, regulatory, or policy mandates to disburse funds electronically influence the use of prepaid cards to disburse program funds. The U.S. Treasury s policy of disbursing program benefits electronically largely accounts for the increased use of prepaid cards to disburse Social Security payments(see table 1). Issuersalsoindicatedthatuseof prepaidcardsasa method of disbursement may be more prevalent in programs with a large number of unbanked payment recipients, such as TANF. Additionally, certain government offices, such as SNAP and WIC, traditionally issued paper vouchers or coupons to restrict the useof programfundstospecificretailersortypesof goods and services. These agencies have largely replaced vouchers and coupons with prepaid cards thatofferfunctionalitytorestrictcertainpurchases. 22 Fees Collected by Issuers Issuers receive revenue from at least two sources: interchangefeesandcardholderfees. 23 In2013,issuers reported collecting $327 million in interchange fees and $175 million in cardholder fees from 563 programs. Figure 2 illustrates the various sources of 22 Forexample,WICprogramsgenerallyloadafood prescription onto prepaid cards rather than dollar funds. The prescription specifies food items that a recipient may purchase. Similarly, TANF offices often configure their prepaid cards to prohibit purchases at establishments where program funds are not intended to be used. 23 Althoughuncommon,issuersmayalsocollectmanagementfees from government offices. In addition, issuers may receive revenue from payment card network incentives and interest on programfunds.theboarddoesnotgatherdataonthesesourcesof revenue. As discussed in the background section of this report, issuers sometimes enter into arrangements with third-party program managers to manage customer call centers or provide other cardholder services and may share interchange or cardholder fee revenue with program managers as compensation for their services. Figure2.Issuerrevenuebyfeetype Other $6M Penalty $18M Account servicing $24M Customer service inquiry $26M Interchange Cardholder $327M $175M (65%) (35%) ATM $101M
16 8 Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards revenue collected by issuers in Compared with 2012, issuers collected a slightly larger share of their totalrevenuefrominterchangefees. 24 Cardholder behaviors and program attributes can affect issuers revenue. Cardholders who regularly use prepaidcardstomakepurchasesatthepointof sale generate relatively high levels of revenue for the issuer through interchange fees. Issuers note that cardholdersaremorelikelytouseprepaidcardslikeatraditional debit card when a program involves regular disbursements over a long period, such as child support.theserecipientsarealsomorelikelytousethe prepaid card s service offerings that generate additional cardholder fee revenue for the issuer. Conversely, cardholders who withdraw all or most disbursedfundsfromaprepaidcardaccountinasingle transactionatanatmoroverthecounter(otc) with a bank teller typically generate little interchange or cardholder fee revenue for the issuer. Issuers note that cardholders are more likely to withdraw all of their funds in a single transaction when a program involves frequent, low-value disbursements, such as weekly unemployment insurance, or infrequent disbursements, such as annual income tax refunds. Interchange Fees Asshownintable2,theinterchangefeesfromprepaid card purchase transactions have been relatively stable since the Board began collecting these data in 24 Theratioof interchangefeerevenuetocardholderfeerevenue was65:35in2013comparedwith62:38in Acrossallprogramsfrom2012to2013,the average interchange fee per purchase transaction increased by 2 cents, while the average purchase transactionvaluefellby5cents.asaresultof these changes, the average interchange fee as a percent of purchase transaction value increased marginally from 1.1percentin2012to1.2percentin2013. The average interchange fee as a percent of purchase transaction value remained at 1.1 percent for federal programs in It increased slightly, to 1.3 percent, for state and local programs in 2013 compared with 1.2percentin2012.Asapercentof purchasetransaction value, the average interchange fee decreased 0.1 percentage point across single-message transactions and increased 0.2 percentage point across dualmessage transactions. Like other year-over-year comparisons in this report, the calculations of average purchase transaction value and the average interchange fee per purchase transaction are sensitive to changes in the pool of reported programs, which differsfromyeartoyear. Transactions made using government prepaid cards are generally exempt from the interchange fee standards of Regulation II. The average interchange fee as a percent of purchase transaction value for government prepaid card transactions is similar to that for all debit card transactions exempt from the interchangefeecapsof RegulationII. 25 In2013,theaver- 25 SeeBoardof Governorsof thefederalreservesystem(2014), Average Debit Card Interchange Fee by Payment Card Network, Table 2. Average purchase transaction value, average interchange fees Averagevalueofpurchasetransaction 1 (dollars) Average interchange fee per purchase transaction 2 (dollars) Average interchange fee as percentage of purchasetransactionvalue 3 (percent) Total Federal programs State and local programs Dual-messagetransactions Single-messagetransactions Average value of purchase transaction: value of settled purchase transactions divided by the number of settled purchase transactions. 2 Average interchange fee per purchase transaction: total interchange fees divided by the number of settled purchase transactions. 3 Average interchange fee as percentage of purchase transaction value: total interchange fees divided by the value of settled purchase transactions. 4 Dual-message transaction: transaction type by which the issuer receives authorization information in one message and clearing information in a separate message. Dual-message transactions normally require signature authentication, although a subset of these transactions(such as small-value purchases) may not require any cardholder authentication. Some issuers classify a single-message transaction routed over a network that primarily processes dual-message transactions as a dual-message transaction. 5 Single-message transaction: transaction type by which the issuer receives authorization and clearing information in one message. Single-message transactions normally require personal identification number authentication, although a subset of these transactions(such as small-value purchases) may not require any cardholder authentication.
17 July age interchange fee as a percent of purchase transaction value for government prepaid cards was 1.5 percent for dual-message transactions and 0.9 percent for single-message transactions. The average interchange fee as a percent of purchase transaction value forallexemptdebitcardswas1.4percentfordualmessage transactions and 0.7 percent for singlemessage transactions in Cardholder Fees The data provided by issuers show that cardholder fee revenue as a percentage of program funds disbursed by prepaid card declined from 0.26 percent in 2012to0.23percentin Thisdeclineisconsistent with the anecdotal observations of some issuers and government offices that tougher contract negotiations and increasingly stringent contractual requirements have put downward pressure on cardholder fees over the past several years. For example, in2008andagainin2014,aconsortiumof states interchange-fee.htm. Government-administered, general-use prepaid card transactions constitute approximately 4.5 percent of all exempt transactions. 26 Consistentwithpreviousreports,whencalculatingcardholder fee revenue as a percentage of total funds disbursed by prepaid cards, the Board used all program data except SNAP. SNAP prohibits issuers from charging cardholder fees and is the second-largest reported program in terms of total funds disbursed by all payment methods. jointly issued an RFP for prepaid card services to obtain lower fees and more favorable terms from prospective issuers. In addition to negotiating cardholder fee rates, government offices often restrict the number and type of cardholder fees that an issuer can charge. Most government offices require issuers to offer cardholders a certainnumberof freeatmorotccashwithdrawals and prohibit issuers from charging cardholders certain types of fees, such as monthly maintenance fees. 27 Occasionally, issuers provide cardholders with more favorable terms than those mandated by government offices, such as unlimited in-network ATM and OTC withdrawals. Indeed, issuers rarely charge purchase transaction fees and may waive cardholder fees under certain circumstances. Figure 3 illustrates the total revenue issuers collected and the average charge per occurrence by cardholder 27 SeeBoardof Governorsof thefederalreservesystem(2013), Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Card Survey, FR 3063a, OMB No , pp , for definitions of the various cardholder fees mentioned in this report. Figure 3. Cardholder Fees Average fee (dollars) $24.0M $1.0M Routine monthly $1.0M Purchase transaction $1.4M OTC $2.0M Overdraft $17.6M Penalty Account servicing Note: Size of bubble represents total revenue from fee. Position of black dot on vertical-axis represents average fee when charged. $26.5M Customer service inquiry $100.8M ATM
18 10 Government-Administered, General-Use Prepaid Cards feetypein TheBoardexcludedtransactions forwhichnofeewasassessedfromtheaveragefee calculations. In 2013, issuers collected $100.8 million on ATM cash withdrawals, accounting for 58 percent of revenue issuers received from cardholder fees. The averagefeechargedbyanissuerforanatmcash withdrawal was $1.19 per transaction. Customer service inquiry fees represent roughly 15 percent of total cardholder fee revenue, while account servicing, penalty, overdraft, and OTC cash withdrawal fees largely account for the remaining 27 percent of total cardholder fee revenue. Account servicing fees are the highesttypeof cardholderfee,atanaverageof $6.01 per occurrence. As of July 21, 2012, prepaid cards that may incur overdraft fees are ineligible for the exemption from the interchange fee standards of RegulationII. 29 Itappearsthat,ratherthanlosethe exemption, issuers have largely abandoned overdraft fees; in 2013, issuers collected $2.0 million in overdraft fee revenue, an 83 percent decline from the $11.8 million collected in Theuniverseof programsincludedinthetotalrevenueand average fee calculations is different for each cardholder fee type: routine monthly: 59 programs; purchase transaction: 76 programs; OTC: 448 programs; overdraft: 58 programs; penalty: 437 programs; account servicing: 461 programs; customer service inquiry: 481 programs; and ATM: 558 programs. 29 Pursuanttosection920(a)(7)(B)of theefta,theexemption from the interchange fee standards of Regulation II does not applyif,onorafterjuly21,2012,theissuermaychargethe cardholderanoverdraftfeewithrespecttothecard,oranatm feeforthefirstwithdrawalpercalendarmonthfromanatm thatispartof theissuer snetwork(15u.s.c. 1693o- 2(a)(7)(B)). Although figures 2 and 3 illustrate the distribution of cardholder fee revenue on an aggregate level, this distribution is not representative of any particular program. Government offices and issuers negotiate a cardholder fee schedule for each program. Furthermore, the proportion of transactions resulting in the assessment of a cardholder fee depends heavily on thetypeof program.asaresult,thereissignificant heterogeneity in cardholder fees across programs that use prepaid cards to disburse funds. Fees Paid by Issuers Issuers pay fees to third parties when a cardholder withdraws cash from an out-of-network ATM or bank. 30 In2013,issuersreportedpayingapproximately$100millioninfeestothirdpartiesforATM withdrawals and approximately $29 million in fees to thirdpartiesforotccashwithdrawals IssuerspayfeestoATMoperatorsforeachATMcashwithdrawal to compensate the operator for the costs of deploying and maintaining the ATMs and of providing cash services to the issuers cardholders. Issuers pay fees to banks for each OTC cash withdrawal to compensate the bank for the costs of staffing the teller window and providing cash services to the issuers cardholders. InadditiontoATMandOTCfees,issuerspayfeestopayment card networks(such as switch, license, and connectivity fees). The Board does not survey issuers of government-administered prepaid cards regarding network fees. Across all debit cards, issuers paid networks approximately 4.4 cents per transaction in See Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (2014), Average Debit Card Interchange Fee by Payment Card Network, for further information. 31 IssuersreportedpayingATMandOTCfeesforcashwithdrawals with respect to 555 and 536 programs, respectively. On average, issuers paid approximately 52 cents per ATM cash withdrawaland$4.77perotccashwithdrawalin2013.becauseof limited data, the Board approximated the number of ATM and OTC withdrawals resulting in a fee. Therefore, the calculations of averageatmandotcfeespaidbyissuersareestimates.
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