In General: The ancestors of modern Koreans came from Siberia through Manchuria The clearest evidence for this is their language: it is in the Altaic

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1 KOREA

2 Geography Korea is a peninsula off mainland China, separated by the Yalu River 3000 islands, mainly western and southern coasts Only 16% of land is able to be cultivated agriculture develops late Mountains running down the middle of Korea: prevent political unity and communication is difficult About the size of Great Britain (22,154 sq. km) Bordered by China, Russia, Yellow Sea, Korean Strait, and the East Sea (Sea of Japan).

3 In General: The ancestors of modern Koreans came from Siberia through Manchuria The clearest evidence for this is their language: it is in the Altaic family group not related to Chinese. Early Koreans were tribal: hunting, fishing, and gathering. Gradually moved to farming (influence of China) Although influenced by China, Korea kept a separateness from China: Hereditary privilege remained in Korea Matrilocal ties in Korea: husbands moved in with wife s family. Women received ½ of inheritance Food, dress, architecture remained Korean As Chinese influence grew, these differences lessened (Korea accepted many Chinese attitudes/structures) Rice, bronze, and iron enter Korea via China Little is known about early Korea most information comes from Chinese sources

4 2 stories: Beginnings Korea was founded in 2333 BC by a ruler (Dangun) who was the son of the Divine Creator and a female bear turned human (not very plausible) and form Gojoseon (Old Choson) BC, OR A royal refugee from the Shang Dynasty (China) founded the Gojoseon state in Korea (Gojoseon or Old Choson - is an early name for Korea). (This is more plausible because of the contact between China and Korea). Lake where Dangun s father descended

5 Early Korea The capital of Choson (Gojeoson) was Wanggeom-seong (Pyongyang) Pottery and burial monolith from the Gojeoson (Choson) period In 194 BC, Wei Man of China (Han Dynasty) fled to Korea, and became leader of the Choson. They became a tribute state of China. In 108 BC the Han Dynasty (under Wudi) conquer the northern 2/3 of Korea Korea divides into 3 states. Chinese influence continued (and was sought by Koreans) After the fall of the Han, Chinese settlers were overrun by the 300 s AD

6 3 Kingdoms Period 1 st C. BC 7 th C. AD 3 rival kingdoms emerge Koguryo (Goguryeo) in the North: Started as a confederation of mounted warriors along Manchurian border. Moved, raided to the south occupied the Northern 2/3 of peninsula Basically put a final end to the Han/Chinese colonization

7 Paekche -- Southwestern part of peninsula Ancestors related to Koguryo but they migrated earlier and began a rival kingdom Silla Southeastern part of peninsula Another group of tribes Held off Koguryo push to south (Kaya) A league of tribes with close ties to Japan never very strong Not considered part of the 3 Kingdoms (Japan)

8 Chinese influence on 3 Kingdoms The fall of the Han sent many refugees fleeing into Korea Each Kingdom hoped to use Chinese to strengthen their kingdom [Buddhism arrives, Chinese characters (writing) arrives] Koguryo moves its capital to Pyongyang (427) and began a Chinese style government (bureaucratic system) Paekche had sea connection to China (Buddhism end of 4 th C.) Silla was more isolated from China but they sent emissaries to China in 381. Koguryo tomb mural Paekche Incense burner Silla crown

9 Continued Paekche had the best agricultural land, but their government was never well organized (nor were they as militarily strong as Koguryo) (tried alliances with Silla and Kaya [and Japan]) Silla was more isolated held onto tribal aristocratic governing style (a source of strength) later they developed hereditary kings during 6 th C kings begin adopting Chinese bureaucratic system (more control) END OF 3 Kingdoms Silla allied with Paekche against the Koguryo in the 550 s - Take some Koguryo land, then turn against the Paekche then Silla takes out Kaya then form alliance with T ang in the 660 to take out the rest of Paekche, then conquer the rest of Koguryo in 668 Then Silla gets Korea to unify against the T ang Silla now leads a unified Korean state ( ) they become a tribute state to China which leads to more Chinese influence In Silla, the rich begin to vie for power in 780 the Silla king is killed (20 succesors in and out of power quickly) [the T ang could offer no help because they were collapsing]

10 Koryo a rich merchant named Wang Kon began to take over the peninsula (beginning in the north) he established the Koryo state (shortened Koguryo ) Korea comes from Koryo He sets up a Chinese bureaucratic system an examination system (but only the rich could take the test) Became a tribute to the Liao Dynasty This was the height of Korean Buddhism The first Korean, histories of Korea were written ( History of the 3 Kingdoms ) By the 1200 s, Koryo was weakening from within (corruption) 1231 Mongols attack Koryo tries to fight 1259 Koryo surrenders 1274 & 1281 the invasion attempts of Japan (Koryo had to finance) Mongol rule through puppet Koryo emperors

11 Yi (Joseon) Dynasty In 1388, A Koryo general named Yi Song-gye was sent out to fight the Ming. He decided to attack the Koryo state instead. He established the Yi (or Joseon) Dynasty. Yi became a tributary of the Ming Adopt Neo-Confucianism: which destroys the matriarchal aspects of Korean society. Capital was moved to Seoul creation of a Korean law code Still, only the wealthy could take bureaucratic exams: Yangban upper Chungin middle people Yangmin peasants Ch onmin base people

12 1433 Invention of Han gul Phonetic writing system The most accurate writing system in the world Chinese remained the language of the government Sejong

13 The Yangban (upper class) gradually become as powerful as the king. There is competition between Yangban for influence over the king = paralysis in the government. In 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Japan) invades. Yi is too weak to defend themselves get help from Ming = stalemate Toyotomi dies, Japan retreats, but Korea is weakened more Ming collapse, Qing attack and by 1637, Yi become a tributary to Qing Improvements: 2 rice crops per year = increase in population Merchants allowed more freedom (increase in trade ) Cash replaces barter Merchants buy into the Yangban Christianity is introduced into Korea By 1836, there s a push toward Practical Learning : Western Teachings

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