Watermarking, steganography and content forensics. Ingemar J. Cox

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1 Watermarking, steganography and content forensics Ingemar J. Cox

2 Introduction Watermarking Steganography Content forensics Ingemar J. Cox 2

3 Watermarking Watermarking is the practice of imperceptibly altering a Work (image, song, etc.) to embed a message about that Work. Ingemar J. Cox 3

4 Watermarking The primary motivation for watermarking has been to protect content Ingemar J. Cox 4

5 Ingemar J. Cox 5

6 Ingemar J. Cox 5

7 Muzak: the first commercial watermarking The first skyscraper was built in Chicago in 1885 Ingemar J. Cox 6

8 Muzak: the first commercial watermarking The elevator was an essential element In the 1930 s passenger elevators were new and frightening Music in elevators was introduced to calm passengers Muzak was the dominant supplier Nirvana - On a plain Rockabye Baby - On a plain Ingemar J. Cox 7

9 Muzak: the first commercial watermarking The elevator was an essential element In the 1930 s passenger elevators were new and frightening Music in elevators was introduced to calm passengers Muzak was the dominant supplier Nirvana - On a plain Rockabye Baby - On a plain Ingemar J. Cox 7

10 Muzak: the first commercial watermarking The elevator was an essential element In the 1930 s passenger elevators were new and frightening Music in elevators was introduced to calm passengers Muzak was the dominant supplier Nirvana - On a plain Rockabye Baby - On a plain Ingemar J. Cox 7

11 Muzak: the first commercial watermarking Emil Hembrooke, Identification of sound and like signals, US Patent 3,004,104 Filed 1954, Issued 1961 The present invention makes possible the positive identification of the origin of a musical presentation and thereby constitutes an effective means of preventing such piracy, i.e. it can be likened to a watermark in paper. In use until the mid 1980 s Ingemar J. Cox 8

12 Ingemar J. Cox 9

13 Applications of digital watermarking Broadcast Monitoring Nielsen/Digimarc Teletrax/Philips Owner Identification Verimatrix - IPTV Widevine Technologies Proof of Ownership Transaction Tracking Thomson/Technicolor (Philips) - Oscar screeners Cinea/Dolby - Digital cinema

14 Applications of digital watermarking Content Authentication Signum Technologies Copy Control Verance - HD-DVD, DVD-audio Legacy systems Tektronix - syncing sound and video (lipsync) MarkAny - syncing lyrics with music (mp3 players) Ingemar J. Cox 11

15 Watermarking Why not use cryptography? Cryptography assumes: 1. Alice and Bob trust one another 2. Communication between Alice and Bob succeeds However, Alice (Hollywood) cannot trust Bob (consumer) And if communication fails, watermark protection fails Ingemar J. Cox 12

16 Watermarking Watermarking is NOT cryptography Ingemar J. Cox 13

17 Watermarking Watermarking IS communications Ingemar J. Cox 14

18 Watermarking The content is more important than the message So the watermark/message must be imperceptible And often, the message payload is small But, to be practical, a watermark must also be robust Ingemar J. Cox 15

19 Watermarking Spread spectrum communications content modeled as noise high noise regime Communications with side information content modeled as side information Ingemar J. Cox 16

20 Watermarking as communications Noise + Transmitter message, m x y Receiver message, m x is limited by a power constraint x 2 [i] p 17

21 Watermarking as communications Noise Noise + + Embedder Detector message, m x y message, m x is limited by a power constraint x 2 [i] p 18

22 Spread spectrum communications Requirements: Unobtrusive Survive common distortions E.g. lossy compression Spread spectrum communications Originally developed for military communications Difficult for enemy to detect Difficult for enemy to jam

23 Spread spectrum communications Let s consider embedding an 8-bit message in an image

24 Spread spectrum communications Since we have an 8-bit message Spread each bit over all pixels Spread spectrum watermarking

25 Spread spectrum communications Each bit is represented by a chip sequence A pseudo random number sequence

26 Spread spectrum communications

27 Spread spectrum communications Detect each bit using linear correlation

28 Spread spectrum communications

29 Spread spectrum communications

30 Spread spectrum communications

31 Spread spectrum communications

32 Spread spectrum communications

33 Spread spectrum communications

34 Spread spectrum communications

35 Spread spectrum communications

36 Spread spectrum communications

37 Perceptual modelling In the previous example, the random pattern was added equally to all parts of the image But some areas are more (less) sensitive than others We can identify these areas using perceptual models Same models used for lossy compression Must embed in perceptually SIGNIFICANT regions to be robust to lossy compression

38 Original image

39 No perceptual modeling

40 Perceptual modeling

41 Original image

42 Communications with side information Spread spectrum watermarking models the cover Work as noise However, the cover Work is Not random Completely known at the time of embedding

43 Watermarking as communications Noise Noise + + Embedder Detector message, m x y message, m x is limited by a power constraint x 2 [i] p 35

44 Watermarking as communications Noise Noise + + Embedder Detector message, m x y message, m x is limited by a power constraint x 2 [i] p 36

45 Communications with side information Host signal need not interfere with watermark message Potential for much greater payloads Dirty Paper Coding

46 Writing on dirty paper 38

47 Writing on dirty paper 38

48 Writing on dirty paper 38

49 Writing on dirty paper A 38

50 Writing on dirty paper A 38

51 Watermarking with side information Communications one-to-one mapping between message and code Communications with side information one-to-many mapping between message and codes Implementations Quantization index modulation Chen and Wornell Dirty paper trellis coding 39

52 Ingemar J. Cox 40

53 Ingemar J. Cox 40

54 END OF PART ONE

55 Steganography Steganography is the practice of undetectably altering a Work, to embed a message. Ingemar J. Cox 42

56 Watermarking Watermarking is the practice of imperceptibly altering a Work (image, song, etc.) to embed a message about that Work. Ingemar J. Cox 43

57 Steganography Steganography is the practice of undetectably altering a Work, to embed a message. Ingemar J. Cox 44

58 Steganography Motivation Spies Dissidents Terrorism Organized crime Little or no evidence to support motivation Child pornography Little or no evidence to support motivation Ingemar J. Cox 45

59 The Technical Mujahid TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1: Covert Communications and Hiding Secrets Inside Images Section 2: Designing Jihadi Websites from A-Z Section 3: Smart Weapons, Short Range Shoulder-Fired Missiles Section 4: The Secrets of the Mujahideen, an Inside Perspective Section 5-6: Video Technology and Subtitling Video Clips send technical articles to Ingemar J. Cox 46

60 History of steganography Herodotus tatooing slave s shaved head Aeneas the Tactician modifying height of letters, marking letters with holes Cardan s Grille Francois Bacon italic and normal fonts Ingemar J. Cox 47

61 History of steganography SALT-II Signed June 18, 1979 by Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev Ingemar J. Cox 48

62 History of steganography The Prisoner s Problem ( G.J.Simmons) Alice Cover Work Warden Bob + Embedder Extractor message, m x y message, m y is limited by a statistical constraint Ingemar J. Cox 49

63 The science behind steganography Anderson and Petitcolas Thought experiment Imagine a perfect compressor for music Compressor Music in random string out Decompressor Random string in music out

64 The science behind steganography Then take message and encrypt it Input encrypted message into decompressor Outputs music! Alice sends music to Bob Bob now compresses music Output is encrypted message Decrypts to obtain message

65 Statistical Steganography Cachin Provided first information-theoretic definition for steganographic security Perfectly secure DKL(Pc Ps) = 0 ε-secure DKL(Pc Ps) ɛ

66 Statistical steganography Assumes the Warden knows the distribution of cover Works, i.e. PC

67 LSB embedding One of the earliest forms of digital steganography Simply flip the least significant bit to encode the hidden message Assumes that the LSB bits are random There re not!

68 LSB steganalysis Histogram attack H(i) is the frequency of intensity i Assume we embed a bit in every LSB Then half the time we change on odd number to an even number e.g. 1 0, 3 2, And half the time we change on even number to an odd number e.g. 0 1, 2 3, Then Hs(2i)=Hs(2i+1) for i=0,127

69 First-order statistics Stochastic modulation Maintains first-order statistics But not higher-order statistics Various algorithms are available, e.g. OutGuess

70 Model-based steganography Sallee Split cover Work, c, into two parts c a - unaltered c b altered Model the conditional distribution P(c b c a ) Generate distribution using an arithmetic entropy encoder/decoder

71 Choosing the cover text Message more important than the cover Work Given a message, we can choose which cover Work to hide it in Not possible for watermarking Correlated steganography

72 Choosing the cover text If our hidden message is an image, X choose a cover image, Y, that is similar The number of bits needed to encode X is H(X) The number of bits needed to encode X given Y is H(X Y) Thus the number of bits needed to encode the hidden image may be much less

73 Minimizing the embedding distortion Matrix embedding Wet paper codes 60

74 Communications with side information Coding for defective memory Imagine I have a USB memory stick It can store 3-bits of information Worse still, it s faulty One of the bits is stuck at 1 I can therefore send you 2-bits of information But which 2-bits did I send?

75 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding 62

76 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

77 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

78 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

79 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

80 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

81 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

82 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

83 Matrix embedding/wet paper coding

84 Wet paper codes Several differences between coding for defective memory and steganography The number of stuck at elements is much greater The number of stuck at elements varies Real-time performance not required Syndrome codes LT-codes

85 Blind steganalysis How does the Warden know the distribution of cover Works, PC? Analytic models Machine learning Neural networks Support vector machines (SVM) etc.

86 END OF PART TWO

87 Content forensics How can we be certain that an image, audio conversation or video is authentic? Active technology Insert authentication signature cryptography Watermarking Passive (non-intrusive) technology Content analysis

88 Recent history: 2003 LA Times

89 Recent history: 2004 US Democratic Presidential Nomination

90 Recent history: 2005 The Star, May

91 Recent history: 2006 Reuters August

92 Digital forensics On August 7 th 2006, Reuters withdrew all 920 photographs by a freelance Lebanese photographer from its database after a review showed Adnan Hajj had altered two images.

93 Content forensics Like steganalysis, look for statistical anomolies in the content. 72

94 Content forensics: source identification Identify which camera took an image CCD cameras exhibit several sources of noise dark current, shot noise photoresponse non-uniformity noise (PRNU) Estimate PRNU (a naturally occurring watermark) detect using correlation Lukas, Fredrich and Goljan Bayram, Sencar and Memon 73

95 Content forensics: detecting re-sampling Detecting re-sampling linear, bi-cubic, etc. Introduces correlation between neighboring pixels Use EM algorithm to estimate both the re-sampling amount and the correlation Popescu and Farid 74

96 Content forensics: double JPEG compression Introduces artifacts in the histogram of the DCT coefficients 75

97 Content forensics Detecting lighting inconsistencies estimate light source direction 76

98 Content forensics: copy-move forgery Copy-move forgery copy portion of image and paste in another location introduces correlation! 77

99 THE END

DIGIMARC CORPORATION 9405 SW Gemini Drive Beaverton, Oregon 97008 www.digimarc.com

DIGIMARC CORPORATION 9405 SW Gemini Drive Beaverton, Oregon 97008 www.digimarc.com DIGITAL WATERMARKING: FOSTERING AND ENHANCING LEGITIMATE PEER-TO-PEER (P2P) ECOSYSTEMS DIGIMARC CORPORATION 9405 SW Gemini Drive Beaverton, Oregon 97008 www.digimarc.com Copyright 2006 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS

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