Internet Service Providers

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1 Internet Service Providers Laura Jeanne Knapp Networking Thomas M. Hadley Networking ISP_ 010

2 Connecting to the Internet Infrastructure ISP QWEST, Worldcom, Level3 Content ISP Exodus, Frontier, Service ISP AOL, MSN Internet Business ISP PSINet, C&W AT&T, Uunet Consumer ISP Mindspring, Earthlink ISP_ 020

3 Global Tiered Structure Internet Packet Exchange Sites First Tier Service Providers (National or International) Regional ISP Networks Local ISP Networks International ISPs National ISPs Long Distance Carriers On-Line Services Regional Phone Companies Regional ISPs Local ISPs Cable Companies... Corporate and user connection occur at any level of ISP network levels ISP_ 030

4 Global Internet Backbone Ameritech SBC PSINet AOL NAP AT&T UUNET Sprint Peer Digex MSN Earthlink Concentric AT&T NAP PSINet UUNET Flash Mindspring NAP C&W SAVIS LDDS Uunet Peer Backbone ISP Provide connections across long distances National and international Carry traffic for smaller ISPs High bandwidth packet exchange points Interconnection sites Network Access Points (NAPs) Commercial Internet Exchanges (CIXs) Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs) ISP_ 040

5 US Internet Backbone Providers ISP_ 050

6 Packet Exchange Points North America Europe MAE East (MFS) MAE West (MFS) MAE Chicago (Ameritec) MAE Houston MAE Dallas MAE LA (PacBell) MAE New York (Sprint) Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) Boston Exchange Boston MIX Philadelphia Internet Exchange Baltimore Internet Exchange Atlanta NAP Atlanta Internet Exchange PaloAlto Exchange Oregon Internet Exchange Puget Sound Regional Interconnect Northwest Internet Exchange Phoenix Internet Exchange Tucson Interconnect Nashville NAP Zions Hill The Arch Canada NAP Montreal Exchange Latin America InteRED Panama LNCC PIR Embratel PIR GT-ER PIR New Brazilian PIR MAE Paris MAE Frankfurt Amsterdam Internet Exchange (AMS-IX) French (GIX) Belgian IP Interconnection Point (X-router) Stockholm Exchange (DGIX) London Internet Exchange (LINX) Finnish CIX (ficix) Danish CIX (DIX) Deutsch CIX (decix) Africa/MidEast Israeli IIX Uniforums SA Internet Exchange ISPA SA Internet Exchange Telkom SA Internet Exchange Nordic exchange (dgix) Irish Data Internet Neutral Exchange CERN exchange (CIXP) Swiss exchange (SIX) Slovak Interexchange Czech Republic Internet Exchange Vienna Internet Exhcnage (VIX) Milan Inernet Exchange (MIXTRA) Roman NAP Spanish Neutral Interconnect Exchange Moscow (M9-IX) StPetersburg (SPB-IX) PAC Rim New Zealand Internet Exchange (NSIX) Hong Kong Internet Exchange (HKIX) Japanese Internet Exchange (NSPIXP) Imnet Neutral new Zealand (NZIX) Metro Manila (MM-MAP) Western OX Internet Exchange Sydney Internet Exchange Perth Internet Exchange Brisbane Internet Exchange Cost to interconnect between $10,000 - $250,000/yr ISP_ 060

7 MAE-East Packet Exchange See giga1/ gip-mae-e-fddi1-0.gip.net Giga1/ mae-east.ziplink.net Giga1/ mae-east.digex.net Giga1/ mae-east.wdc.compuserve.net giga1/ mae-east1.ans.net giga1/ mae-east3.cw.net giga2/ mae-east.telia.net Giga2/ f6.peer1.wdc1.genuity.net Giga2/ mae-east.att.net Giga2/ core1.mae-east.teleglobe.net ISP_ 070

8 Packet Exchange Peering Agreements Internet International ISP Networks Network Access Point ISP 1 ISP 2 ISP3 Regional ISP Networks Local ISP Networks No peering defined between 1 and 3 Transit agreement between 2 and 3 All traffic between 1 and 3 goes through NAP Settlements process still in development ISP s charge for peering services ISP_ 080

9 Hot and Cold Potato Routing Peering site for IGN and Mindspring through MAE-East Alternate interconnection site for IGN and Mindspring Connected to IGN IGN connection is 622 Mbps Mindspring connection is 150 Mbps Cold Potato Routing (Best Exit Routing) First network carries packet as far as possible Hot Potato Routing (First Exit Routing) Packets are sent to destination network as soon as possible ISP_ 090

10 How can ISP s Control Traffic Flow IGN Border system: Separately administered Limited information exchanged Uses exterior routing protocols like BGP4 Mindspring Autonomous system: Single administration control Extensive information eschange Uses interior routing protocols Uunet BGP routers send out periodic updates on networks it can reach both owned and through peering and transit agreements ISP can control BGP advertisements and path selection CIDR (classless Interdomain Routing) reduces number of routes that an ISP advertises by grouping IP addresses into groups ISP_ 100

11 Internet Service Providers Come in all sizes Prices vary widely GOODNET AOL AT&T Earthlink MSN Many won't succeed Mergers and acquisitions UUNET NAP NAP NAP DIGEX Access provider list PSINet MFS IGN MCI Level3 Concentric ANS C&W Frontier Sprint ISP_ 110

12 Some Things to Understand About an ISP Longevity Focus Infrastructure Speed (150 Mbps, 622 Mbps, Gigabit) Technologies (ATM, Frame, Sonet) How many nodes How many dial POPs How many NAP connections Who do they peer with With whom do they have transit agreements Backup, high availability Services Web hosting DNS Blocking SPAM prevention 24x7 help desk and network operations Web Servers/personal domain name Security services Daily list of network outages Guaranteed service level Driving high speed to homes/businesses Support for emerging technologies (IPv6, multicast, QOS) ISP_ 120

13 ISPs and Top Web Servers Percentage of Web Sites Uunet C&W Exodus GTE AT&T Sprint Frontier Qwest Other Data on top 500 web sites from Media Matrix and MIDS ISP_ 130

14 ISP Latency and Packet Loss Latency Packet Loss America Online AT&T Cable and Wireless Concentric Network Digex Exocus Frontier Globalcenter Uunet Latency less than 25 ms Packet loss less than 3% Latency 125 ms to 250 ms Packet loss 3% to 6% Latency greater than 250 ms Packet loss greater than 6% Based on MIDS methodology (US based) ISP_ 140

15 ISP : Caching and Load Balancing Capability Director Distributing public WEB servers is very popular Distributor products receive request to access WEB server and direct request to closest or least busy server: local and remote distribution Mirroring techniques can keep server information synchronized Investigate option of keeping WEB servers on ISP ISP_ 140

16 High Level Overview of ISP Telephone Companies On-line Service Providers National ISPs Local and Regional ISPs Cable Companies Strengths Money, name recognition infrastructure, experts in network services, have sophisticated billing, business units in place Many POPs, understand content and consumer dara services, consumer support structure, use whats available Name recognition, focus, experience in large-scale networking, fairly well funded, increasing POPs Close proximity to customers, local content, adapt to local conditions, lean with low overhead Many POPs in place, home access, healthy budgets, billing and support infrastructures Weaknesses Inexperience with data networks, internet knowledge, internal decision on internet importance Perception as not being real internet providers, not focused on business access Limited budgets, acquisitions and mergers Acquisitions and mergers, heavy competition, little capital for growth, small staff Infrastructure challenge, IP and data networking inexperience, reputations as unresponsive ISP_ 180

17 ISP Financials Expect change - many ISPs eliminating flat rate fees ISP s pay for IP addresses as of 1/1/98 0-8,192 =$ 2,500/yr 8,192-65,535 =$ 5,000/yr 65, ,143 =$10,000/yr over 262,144 =$20,000/yr Backbone ISPs requiring payment for peering Sprint - Lateral Exchange Networking $6,000 one time setup fee $2,000 monthly maintentance $8,600 to $25,800 monthly fees Users $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Flash Net, NANDOnet, NetCom, Mindspring, MSN, AOL, Compuserve, Sky Net, Consumer ISPs $$$$$$$$$$$ UUnet Must connect with 45 Mbps line Peer in at least 4 locations Have a 24x7 help desk Many ISPs will offer premium services at a price MFS, Sprint, PacBell Ameritech, Uunet, PSInet IGN, GoodNet, ATMnet Backbone ISPs $$$$ ISP_ 190

18 ISP Functional Offerings Access to public Internet Intranet Extranet Private Virtual Networks Server Functions World Wide Web (WWW) Domain Name Services (DNS) News groups Mail Services ecommerce servers Streaming video servers Voice servers Desktop Videoconferencing servers Web hosting Security Network management Certificate of authority management Advanced functions Transaction processing Database access Groupware access Terminal emulation Roaming internet service VPN services ISP_ 200

19 ISP Operations Support and Services Education and training Consulting Implementation Network management User services Design and needs assessment Pricing Direct access lines Port costs Dial access lines Traffic costs Premium services Applications charges User registration User administration Service Level Aggreement Availability Dropped connection Latency Throughput Time to logon Access links Capacity (aggregate) Exchange point access How many? How fast? Redundancy? Utilization statistics Guaranteed service levels ISP_ 210

20 ISP Interoperability Your ISP DNS Server WWW Server Client/Browser Corporate Network Secure Corporate Network Not-secure Domain Name Servers Registering your network name Internet Router Firewall Clients Servers (WWW and others) Public WWW Server Obtaining IP addresses Client/Browser Inter-operating with your IP addresses Router compatibility Network management ISP_ 220

21 Physical Connection to an ISP User Analog modem ISDN Cable Modems ADSL V90 Organization Analog modem ISDN LAN connection Dedicated lines Satellite Emerging technologies Cable Modems ADSL V90 ISP_ 250

22 Internet Problems General slowdown Power lost to half of MAE-West Fiber cuts in Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Baltimore Faulty DNS top-level-domains sent out Syn floods hit several ISPs Mail server outages by several ISPs Router table errors Spamming Internet traffic causing voice network gridlock Rat causes power outage at Mae-West Infamous 19 hour AOL outage ISP_ 260

23 ISP Response IOPS.ORG formed Implement ways to resolve operational and reliability problems Have central point of contact for Internet problems Work with existing industry groups on resolving issues Work closer with product vendors to produce internet ready products Charter members: ANS Communications, AT&T, BBN Corporation, Earthlink Network Inc., GTE, MCI, Netcom, PSINet, UUNET ISP_ 270

24 ISP and Intranetworking WWW server Engineering Human Resources WWW server Mail server Internet ISP Manufacturing WWW server Marketing ISP_ 280

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