DEPARTEMENT SIGNAL ET TELECOMMUNICATION

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1 DEPARTEMENT SIGNAL ET TELECOMMUNICATION Réseaux Hauts Débits Réseaux Optiques 5 ème Année B IRT Stephan ROULLOT

2 Agenda Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I - PDH, SDH, Carrier Ethernet, FTTx Stéphan Roullot Alcatel-Lucent Optical Networking Division Introduction Alcatel-Lucent. Transport Protocols in Public Networks. Multiplexing techniques 4. PDH Overview 5. SDH Overview & Advantages of SDH 6. Basic SDH Frame Structure and Transmission Principles 7. SDH Multiplexing Structure 8. SDH Pointer Function 9. Overheads 0. Synchronization. Protection Mechanisms : MSP, MS-SPRING, SNCP, DNI, hardware. Classification of optical interfaces & Transmission Range Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Agenda. Functional Equipment Specification 4. Typical Equipment Types & Network Applications 5. OAM&P 6. ASTN / GMPLS 7. Standardization 8. Conclusion on SDH, evolution to Next-Generation SDH, MSPP 9. Native Ethernet 0. Example of prolonging SDH life: Ethernet over SDH,. Recent developments around Carrier Ethernet Technologies. Transport Network Evolution. FTTx 4. Overview Optical Market & Competition Introduction Alcatel-Lucent Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

3 Lucent Technologies History Lucent Technologies spun-off from AT&T in 996 Acquired PKI, TRT, etc in Europe Manufactures equipment for telecommunication networks Transmission, Switching, Wireless, Data, Access, IMS Bell Laboratories ~5.000 employees world-wide France (00 employees): Le Plessis-Robinson, Lannion Formerly TRT Activities: Wireless R&D, Marketing & Sales, Support Services Optical Networking Group (~600 employees in R&D): R&D centers in the USA (Holmdel, Westford, Whippany) for SONET, DWDM equipments, and Germany (Nürnberg) for SDH, OC equipments Manufacturing outsourced in China Merge with Alcatel effective December st 006 A Portfolio of Wireline Solutions at the Forefront of IP Network Transformation Enterprise UMTS/LTE CDMA DSL Residential Broadband PON WiMA Next Generation Wireless Intelligent Transport Universal Access NG IP Base Station Service Aggregation Federated Control IPTV IMS Web Policy-Driven Subscriber and Resource Management Service Edge Gateways, Mobility HA Converged Network Scalable service delivery across resilient, IP-rich Infrastructure Distributed per-subscriber and per-service control PSTN, ISPs, Peer IP Networks Integrated network, element, service and subscriber management IP/MPLS/ Optical Core 5 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Alcatel-Lucent Optics Division: More Value for Our Customers Alcatel-Lucent brings together the widest optical presence worldwide We can serve customers better everywhere Industry s strongest and most diversified customer base The partner of choice of converged global service providers the most comprehensive optical portfolio We can better help customers transform their networks for the future the best of innovation and research in optics We can deliver richer optical networking solutions Alcatel-Lucent in Optical Networking Global Expertise, Widespread Local Presence Alcatel-Lucent is a leader in every growing segment of the optical networking market # worldwide WDM - % OC % (source Dell Oro, Q06) 50,000 ADMs 8,000 MSPPs 4,00 WDM Systems,00 Cross-Connects 46,500 Km Submarine Networks Others 0% Alcatel-Lucent 5% Tellabs 7% Optical Networking Siemens 7% Nortel % Ericsson 5% NEC 6% # Source: Ovum-RHK Cisco 7% Fujitsu 0% Huawei 0% # worldwide Submarine MSPP - 8.5% (source Dell Oro, Q06) 90,000 ADMs 80,000 MSPPs 0,000 WDM Sys/Nodes 8,00 Cross-Connects Best technology Massive customer references Best market share More than 700 customers in 50 countries 7 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

4 Optics: Locations Greenwich Plano Murray Hill, Holmdel Shanghai Chengdu Transport Protocols in Public Networks Westford Paris, Calais Stuttgart, Nuremberg Vimercate, Trieste, Genoa 9 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Transport Networks (wire-line) Protocols for Transport Networks Transport networks are the means to transport end-user services Access networks: Transport from the end-user premises (CP = Customer Premises) to a "service node" Metro or Core networks: Transport between two "service nodes" Examples of service nodes Digital Switch for voice services IP router for IP services CP Access CPE Metro Core Service Nodes Public Network Metro Access CPE CP Various protocols are in use for transport of information over (wire-line) public networks DWDM (OTN) - Layer SDH / SONET - Layer ISDN - Layer Ethernet (CSMA/CD) - Layer and Layer ATM - Layer MPLS - Layer ~ IP - Layer Multiple protocols need to be "stacked" to get the desired capabilities IP -> ATM -> SDH IP -> Ethernet -> DWDM IP -> MPLS -> Ethernet -> MPLS -> SDH etc (any meaningful combination) Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

5 Protocol Stacking Technical Factors distinguishing protocols () Voice Private Lines Data (IP, IP, MPLS, etc.) Ethernet*.86 RPR FR POS HDLC* ATM SONET/SDH WDM/OTN Fiber SANs ESCON* Fibre Channel* FICON* GFP Video DVI* (Under Study) Bandwidth Efficiency The ability to transport any traffic volume from the end-users and keep the public network well filled Statistical multiplexing gain is inherently present in datagram protocols High protocol stacks decrease efficiency (e.g. ATM "cell-tax") In case of congestion, delay sensitive traffic should be favored Scalability Scalability of speed: the bandwidth of links can be increased without adding hardware or by adding minimal hardware Scalability of size: network elements can be added to an existing network without loss of performance e.g. impact of network diameter on convergence time of routing protocols Delay, delay variation This is predominantly an issue for continuous bit-rate services (voice, video) TDM (SDH, ISDN) is optimized for these services Connection-oriented datagram protocols (ATM) are "good-enough" Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Technical Factors distinguishing protocols () Complexity Complexity covers the operational aspects of a network. The more effort is required to add/change network paths/parameters or to isolate faults, the costlier it is for a service provider The advantage of IP & Ethernet is that routing is taken care of automatically. However, this is not a principal difference. ASTN/GMPLS is a new development, which provides SDH with capabilities comparable to OSPF and IS-IS. Robustness The network must be fault-tolerant: failed nodes may not bring down a network; traffic is automatically rerouted after link or node failures There is some resilience against human error Security Keep traffic streams of different end-users separated. Much more difficult in case no dedicated "layer" is available for the service provider (e.g. IP) Prevent customers from using more bandwidth or higher priority than their contract allows Non-technical factors to favor protocols Cost (at the network level) The number one selection criteria Installed Base The installed base often limits the choices for a service provider when it comes to buying new equipment Changing means building a separate network (overlay), train the staff, maintain new sets of spares, solve inter-working issues with old network Management Systems The availability of a good network management system saves a lot of operational costs in the day-to-day running of the network: adding nodes, adding customers/bandwidth, troubleshooting, collecting network statistics Standards Compliance Necessary to get inter-working with other service providers Necessary for inter-working between equipment vendors; allows a service provider to buy systems from multiple vendors: keeps prices down 5 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

6 Difficulties in changing protocols Companies are often strongly bound to certain protocols. Only big companies can afford to support multiple protocols Cisco -- IP Lucent ONG -- DWDM, SDH Equipment Vendors Protocol choice is coupled to Technology Product Range is built around certain protocols Service Providers Installed Equipment base Existing Customer base In practice it is impossible for a company to change protocol quickly Adapt evolutionary (preferred, but takes time) Buy other company (costly, but quick) Multiplexing Technologies 7 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Multiplexing Techniques Multiplexing Techniques - TDM Multiplexing is a method to aggregate low speed traffic onto a high speed communication link. Multiplexing techniques: Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) Each analog channel is modulated using a different carrier frequency Time Domain Multiplexing (TDM) Each digital channel is given its own time slot. Examples: PDH, SDH and SONET Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Each channel is given its own optical wavelength (color) Bits or bytes successively retrieved from the different channels to build a single bit stream Flexible traffic management; fixed bandwidth Mux/demux feature required PDH = Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy, SDH= Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, SONET= Synchronous Optical Network) 9 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

7 Multiplexing Techniques - WDM Multiplexing Techniques - Capacities Gbit/s NxSTM64 NxSTM STM64 8 STM56 Data STM-N Merging of optical traffic on a single fiber Expansible bandwidth Cost reduction (reuse of existing optical signals) Independence of bit rates and frame formats DWDM = Dense WDM CWDM = Coarse WDM STM6 STM4 STM 0, 0, Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) Before SDH: PDH Voice codec according Shannon/Nyquist theorem: Phone analog signal band =.4 khz (rounded up to 4 khz) Required sampling rate : 8000Hz (i.e. sample every 5 µs) No gain above since higher harmonics are cut by the low-pass filter All Time Intervals in digital transport networks are multiple of 5 µs PCM (MIC (Modulation par Impulsion et Codage) is the basis of digital transmission in PSTN: Codec delivers data blocks of 8 bits 64 kbit/s per channel All timeslots in digital transport networks are multiple of 64 kbit/s Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

8 E Frame Structure (MIC G) Basic E frame at.048mbit/s (T at.544mbit/s in the US) contains 0 TS, framing byte (TS0), signaling channel (TS6) synchronously multiplexed TS0 Frame Alignment Voice sample 8bits TS Digital channel: 8 bits x 8000 Hz = 64 kbit/s x 8 = 56 bits (5 µs) 4 signaling bits per channel TS5 TS7 TS TS6 Out-of-band Signaling Need 5 frames for signaling of the 0 voice channels. These 5 frames + 6 th constitute a multiframe (G.704) PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) Old TDM technique (G.70) of E channels ( tributaries ) Multiplexing of 4 tributary channels into the next multiplex Nodes have their own clock; E channels are plesiochronous ( Hz ± 0 Hz) Rate adaptation during multiplexing steps: Addition of stuffing bits to each plesiochronous tributary to make them synchronous and in phase (process called positive justification ) Synchronization and signaling bits added (stuffing bits must be signaled for the remote end to eliminate them) Bitrate of Multiplex N+ > 4 x bitrate of Multiplex N No direct access to tributary signals, requirement for complete demultiplexing No (or little) standard for optical signals at PDH speeds Still used for the lower multiplexing stages 5 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 PDH Multiplexing PDH Transmission Rates Add and drop of low bit rates is very difficult as all channels must be demultiplexed and then multiplexed again Japan North America Europe & rest of the world J kbit/s kbit/s E5 40 Mbit/s J4 x kbit/s kbit/s DS4 x kbit/s E4 x G.75 x6 x4 G.755 x4 G.75 4 Mbit/s 4 Mbit/s J 064 kbit/s G.75 x5 x kbit/s G.75 DS 4 68 kbit/s x4 G.75 E Mbit/s 8 Mbit/s 8 Mbit/s Mbit/s DS, J DS, J 6 kbit/s x4 G kbit/s x G.747 x4 x kbit/s x4 G kbit/s E E xn: Multiplexing factor Interworking (G.80) DS0, E0, J0 64 kbit/s 7 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

9 SDH Historical Background SDH Overview & Advantages 984: Difficulties encountered with the interconnection of high-bitrate systems 985: Solution by Bellcore SONET Introduction of synchronous multiplexing bases Frame at Mbit/s adapted for T 986: Investigations on synchronous transmission within CCITT Objective: interface at about 50 Mbit/s 987: First CCITT Task force on the subject USA proposition based on SONET solution and taking into account of the European hierarchy 988: Definition of the SDH principles 989: Publication of first Recommendations - G.707, G.708, G which form the basis of SDH 9 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) Derived from North American SONET standard in 988 State of the art synchronous TDM technology for backbone communication over optical fibers Synchronous means that multiplexing is synchronous, direct access/visibility to tributaries transmission is synchronous: reception clock is extracted incoming signal the whole network is synchronized to a single master clock which is distributed to all network elements In order for this clock not to become a single point of failure, most networks have several backup clocks International technology (except US with SONET) SDH is based on international standards from ITU-T (former CCITT) and ETSI Advantages of SDH () High transmission rates Payload > 50 Mbit/s for STM- Currently up to 40 Gbit/s, above DWDM is used Future proof platform (STM-56, STM-04) Optical fiber support High transmission quality Standardized physical interfaces with confined optical parameters Simplified add & drop function Direct access to tributary signal ( Mbit/s for example) in STM- aggregate signal Mixing of signals of different hierarchies/technologies in a single STM- Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

10 Advantages of SDH () Flexibility Network able to transport different signals (Ethernet, Video, PAB, PDH, SDH, ATM, IP, etc) Guarantees services down to PDH High availability and reliability Provides various transmission protection schemes Highly reliable System Design with redundant hardware Built-in Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning (OAM&P) functions Associated with strong Network Management support International standardization in ITU-T Guarantee Multi-vendor Interoperability Compatibility of transmission equipments and networks worldwide Network Layering, Data Transparency Voice, Data, Video, Multimedia... IP Ethernet ATM SDH/SONET WDM Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Bit Ordering conventions Basic SDH Frame Structure and Transmission Principles The order of transmission of information in all the diagrams is first from left to right and then from top to bottom. Within each byte the most significant bit (MSB) is transmitted first. The most significant bit (bit ) is illustrated at the left in all the diagrams. MSB LSB Transmission order 5 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

11 Basic STM- Frame Structure (rectangular form) SDH Transmission Principle 9 columns (OH) 6 columns (payload) Frame period = 5 µs Row Row Row Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 9 rows 5 RSOH AU Pointer MSOH SOH = Section OverHead Payload (VC-4) 50, 6 Mbit/s 70 bytes SDH is transmitted in frames. Each frame is exactly 5 µs in time. 5 ms The basic SDH frame is called STM- and is often represented as a block of 9 rows with 70 bytes STM- = RSOH = MSOH = AU = Synchronous Transport Module Level Regenerator Section Overhead Multiplex Section Overhead Administrative Unit payload payload payload payload payload payload payload payload payload RSOH Pointer (9 bytes) MSOH The transmission of STM-N frames is made serially row by row starting from the left with row column through column 70, then row column The frame rate is always frames per second, which is equivalent to a frame period/length of 5 µs 70 x 9 = 40 bytes per frame x 8 bits/byte = bits/frame bits/frame x frames/sec = Mbit/s = STM- t 7 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Scrambling STM-N Multiplexing/Interleaving Principle The STM-N (N=0,, 4, 6, 64, 56) signal must have sufficient bit timing content for clock recovery. A suitable bit pattern, which prevents a long sequence of ""s or "0"s is provided by scrambling the STM-N signal with a frame synchronous scrambler of sequence length 7 operating at the line rate and with generating polynomial = The scrambler runs continuously throughout the complete STM-N frame, except the first row of the STM-N (N = 64) SOH (9 N bytes, including the A and A framing bytes) which is not scrambled. STM- A STM- B STM- C STM- D 4 x STM- Bytes A B C D A B C D A STM-4 A higher order signal is created by byte interleaving the payload from the lower order signals. De-multiplexing is done in the opposite way. The bit rates of the higher order hierarchy levels are integer multiples of the STM- transmission rate. Frame rate of higher order hierarchy signals as well as lower order signals are the same: 8000 frames per second (5 µs) The overhead bytes are not carried forward. The multiplexer adds new overhead bytes in both directions 9 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

12 SONET and SDH Transmission Rates SONET signals Bit rates Equivalent SDH signals electrical optical Mbit/s electrical optical STS- OC- 5,84 STM-0 STM-0o STS- OC- 55,5 STM- STM-o STS-9 OC-9 466,56 STS- OC- 6,08 STM-4 STM-4o STS-8 OC-8 9, STS-6 OC-6 44,6 STS-48 OC , STM-6 STM-6o STS-9 OC-9 995,8 STM-64 STM-64o STS-768 OC , STM-56 STM-56o SDH Multiplexing Structure These hierarchy levels are not existing and are shown only for the sake of completeness 4 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Synchronous Multiplexing Definitions SOH Synchronous Transport Module STM-56 : 9,808 Gbit/s SOH STM-64 : 9,95 Gbit/s SOH STM-6 :,488 Gbit/s SOH STM-4 : 6 Mbit/s SOH STM- : 55 Mbit/s Tributary Unit or Administrative Unit -->TU= Tributary Unit -->AU = Administrative Unit Tributary Unit Group or Administrative Unit Group --> TUG : Tributary Unit Group -->AUG : Administrative Unit Group x56 x64 x6 x4 Administrative x AUG Unit Group AUG PTR POH x PTR POH AU4 Container Virtual Container Synchronous Transport Module Administrative Unit S O H Cn POH VCn POH VC-4 Tributary Tributary Virtual Container Unit Group Unit Container C4 (K) x PTR POH TUG x POH C VC- TU- x7 (L) PTR POH TUG POH C VC- x TU- (M) PTR POH POH C VC-=40 octets TU- POH C VC- Tributaries 964 kbit/s ATM 4476 kbit/s 468 kbit/s 6 kbit/s 048 kbit/s 544 kbit/s C-n (Container): Information structure which forms the network synchronous information payload for a virtual container. Size of C-n matches PDH, ATM, etc tributary bit-rates. VC-n (Virtual Container): LO VC consists of a single container i (i=,,,) and associated POH (Path OverHead). HO VC consists either of a single container i (i=4) or of an assembly of Tributary Unit Groups, together with Virtual Container POH appropriate to the level. TU-n (Tributary Unit): Consists of a VC-n and its associated pointer. TUG-n (Tributary Unit Group): not a physical entity, virtual structure grouping different sized TU to increase flexibility of the transport network. AU-n (Administrative Unit): Consists of an information payload (higher order virtual container) and associated pointer. AUG-n (Administrative Unit Group): Consists of a homogeneous group of AU-s or AU-4s. STM-N (Synchronous Transport Module): Contains N AUGs together with SOH. 4 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

13 4 M Kbit/s Kbit/s ATM 4476 Kbit/s 468 Kbit/s 6 Kbit/s 048 Kbit/s Synchronous Multiplexing Processes Synchronous Multiplexing TU-, klm numbering STM-64 x AU-4-6c VC-4-6c C4-64c STM-6 STM-4 STM- STM-0 x4 (adding SOH) x64 x6 x AUG x x x4 x4 x x AU-4-6c AU-4-4c AU-4 AU- Pointer processing VC-4-6c VC-4-4c VC-4 VC- Note : Concatenation (Rec. G707, G80) = A procedure whereby a multiplicity of Virtual Containers is associated one with another with the result that their combined capacity can be used as a single container across which bit sequence integrity is maintained. There is two types of concatenation : contiguous or virtual Multiplexing/Interleaving Aligning (adding pointer) Mapping + Justification + POH addition x7 x x TUG- TU - VC- x7 TUG- x x x4 TU - TU - TU - VC- VC- VC- contiguous concatenation C4-6c contiguous concatenation C4-4c C-4 C- C- C- C- KLM address of TU- defines its row in the VC4 : - K indicates TUG- rank used ( to ) - L indicates TUG- rank used ( to 7) - M indicates TU- rank used ( to ) TU N is marked with KLM address =. TU N is marked with KLM address = 4. TU N 6 is marked with KLM address = 7 STM- AUG AU 4 VC 4 TUG TUG TU K L M VC PI Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Multiplexing Structures Different Regional Options Steps of Multiplexing () 40Mbit/s VC-4 STM- STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C Kbit/s AT STM- AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 European Structure of Multiplexing HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEING AU- VC- TUG- 7 TUG- LOWER ORDER MULTIPLEING TU- VC- C- TU- VC- C- TU- VC- C Kbit/s 468 Kbit/s 6 Kbit/s 048 Kbit/s TU- VC- C- 544 Kbit/s SOH AU- 4 Pointer AU- VC- HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEING TUG- TUG- TU- VC- C- TU- VC- C- LOWER ORDER TU- VC- C- MULTIPLEING TU- VC- C- 544 Kbit/s North America and Japan Structure of Multiplexing STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 TUG- TU- VC- AU- VC- C- 7 TUG- TU- VC- C- 964 Kbit/s AT M 4476 Kbit/s 468 Kbit/s 6 Kbit/s SOH P O H C-4 HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEING LOWER ORDER MULTIPLEING TU- TU- VC- C- 048 Kbit/s VC- C- 544 VC Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

14 7 Asynchronous Mapping of 40 Mbit/s Signal into a VC-4 Steps of Multiplexing () 4/45Mbit/s VC- TU- VC-4 STM- Bytes One of nine rows in a VC-4 W 96 I 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I STM- AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 TUG- TU- VC- 964 Kbit/s ATM AU- VC- C Kbit/s 468 Kbit/s 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I Y 96 I 96 I Y 96 I SOH AU Pointer POINTER POH HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEIN G TUG- LOWER ORDER MULTIPLEIN G TU- VC- C- TU- VC- C- TU- VC- 6 Kbit/s 048 Kbit/s C- 544 Kbit/s P Y 96 I Y 96 I 96 I Y 96 I Z 96 I SOH O H TU - C- VC- Y : RRRRRRRR : CRRRRROO : Path Overhead W Z : I I I I I I I I : I I I I I IS R I : Information Bit R: Fixed Stuff Bit O: Overhead Bit S: Justification Opportunity Bit C: Justification Control Bit VC-4 50 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Asynchronous Mapping of a 45 Mbit/s Signal in a VC- Asynchronous Mapping of a 4 Mbit/s Signal in a VC- One of nine rows in a VC 84 Bytes 85 Bytes POH 8R 8R 00 I 8R 8 I 00 I 8R 8 I 00 I / P OH rows of R R C I I I I I C C R R O O R S C C R R R R R R I : R: O: S: C: Information Bit fixed Stuff Bit Overhead Bit stuff opportunity stuff control bit J B C C C fixed stuff information 8 fixed bits fixed stuff stuff fixed stuff fixed stuff information bits S S = stuff opportunities average (bits / STM frame) = 496 bits / STM frame = 468 kbit/s

15 pointer AU-4 TU- C PTR POH VC- Steps of Multiplexing () Mbit/s VC- TU- VC-4 STM- STM- AUG AU-4 VC-4 C Kbit/s ATM TUG- TU- VC- RSOH MSOH J STM- : 70 columns * 9 rows VC-4 : 6 columns * 9 rows 7 TUG- C- TU- VC- C Kbit/s 468 Kbit/s 6 Kbit/s SDH Pointer Function TU- VC- C- 048 Kbit/s TU- VC- C- 544 Kbit/s TUG- 86 columns TUG- columns Note : To decrease the relative size of the path overhead with regard to the payload, the C duration is 500us (and not 5us), it means four Mbits/s frames. The Mbits/s signal is then inserted in a C container of 9 bytes. 5 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 AU/TU-n Pointer Function AU/TU-n Pointer Position Determination (addressing): The pointer indicates where the VC-n path overhead begins in higher order frame Bit Rate Adaptation: The pointer provides a method of allowing flexible and dynamic alignment of the VC-n within the AU/TU-n frame: the VC-n is allowed to "float" within the AU/TU -n frame. Thus, the pointer is able to accommodate differences, not only in the phases between VC-n and the higher order frame, but also in the frame rates Pointer addressing only every bytes H H HHH O O O Y Y J SOH - AU pointer - TU pointer FRAME N Pointer SOH SOH J VC4 FRAME N Negative Justification ( Bytes) Positive Justification ( Bytes) FRAME N+ Pointer SOH FRAME N+ SOH SOH SOH Pointer SOH SOH SOH J SOH SOH SOH t 55 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

16 AU/TU-n Pointer Justification Positive Justification/Stuffing Pointer use is associated to a justification process PT PT empty Step : Pointer value n before stuffing J J FRAME N J J H Y Y H H HH n PT PT PT- J J J FRAME N+ FRAME N+ J PT+ J S J J H Y Y H empty H HH n Step : The pointer value is inverted in the I-bits. The three bytes following the H-bytes contain stuffing bits PT- 57 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 J Negative Justification: bit-rate of the container > bit-rate of the frame there are more data received than can be transmitted in the frame J FRAME N+ PT+ J J Positive Justification: bit-rate of the container < bit-rate of the frame there are less data received than can be transmitted in the frame empty H Y Y H H HH 58 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 n+ Step : The pointer has the pointer value n+ VC-4 is slowed down... J- Byte (. Byte of VC -4)... Stuff bytes (,, ) Negative Justification/Stuffing AU-n/TU- Pointer Coding H Y Y H empty H HH Step : Pointer value n before stuffing H H H N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D Note : The TU pointer is elaborated by associating in the 500us period, 4 bytes named V, V, V, V4 H Y Y H data H HH empty H Y Y H H HH n- n n Step : Step : The pointer value is inverted in the D-bits. Missing payload bytes are transmitted using H bytes which contains valid information The pointer has the pointer value n- VC-4 is accelerated... J- Byte (. Byte of VC -4)... Stuff bytes (,, ) I D N Increment Decrement New data flag 0 bit pointer value Negative justification opportunity New Data Flag (bit -4 of H): Notification of a new pointer value Set/Enabled when at least out of 4 bits match "00 Reset/Disabled when at least out of 4 bits match "00 (normal operation) Invalid with other codes SS bits (bit 5-6 of H): Composition of the AU-n /TU-n frame (AU/TU type) Concatenation Indication 00SS (SS bits are unspecified) NOTE The pointer is set to all ""s when AIS occurs. T Positive justification opportunity Pointer value (bit 7-8 of H + bit -8 of H): Normal range is: for AMU-4, AU-: for TU-: Negative justification Invert 5 D-bits Accept majority vote V, V = pointer which position V5 V = positive/negative justification opportunity V4 = reserve Positive justification Invert 5 I-bits Accept majority vote 0-78 decimal decimal H: Pointer action byte (Used for information bytes in case of negative stuffing) 59 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

17 SDH Frame Structure - Overheads RSOH: Regenerator Section Overhead MSOH: Multiplex Section Overhead POH: Path Overhead Overheads RSOH 9 COLUMNS Virtual Container 4 60 COLUMNS J B C STM-N VC-4 Regenerators RSO H MSOH STM-N VC-4 AU Pointer G F VC-4 VC-i POH VC-4 VC-4 VC-i H4 MSOH F VC-i POH VC-i VC-i K G-70 G 70 Section Overhead bytes N Path overhead bytespayload data bytes These three path and line sections are associated with Equipment Layers Note: Bytes B, D-D, E, E, F, K and K are only defined for the first STM- 6 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Tasks of the SOH Overheads Bytes RSOH Quality Supervision Regenerator Section OverHead A A A A A A J0 B E F D D D NU NU NU NU AU Pointer H Y Y H * * H H H Maintenance Functions SOH Frame Alignment Multiplex Section OverHead B B B K K D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D0 D D S Z Z Z Z M E Voice Connection Data Channels Line Protection A-A: Frame Alignment pattern, A= 00 (F6) A= (8) - not scrambled The FAW word of an STM-N frame is composed of N A bytes followed by N A bytes (6xN bytes). J0: Regenerator section trace identifier, 6 bytes frame (First byte = CRC-7) B: Regenerator section error monitoring function, BIP-8 : Bit Interleaved Parity 8 code E: Orderwire channel for voice communication, accessed at regenerators F: User channel allocated for user specific purposes D-D-D: Data Communication Channel (DCCr = 9kbit/s) NU : Bytes reserved for national use : Bytes reserved for future international standardisation 6 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

18 Bit Interleaved Parity n (BIP-n) code Overhead Bytes MSOH Entire block for the BIP-n check all bits of STM-N frame for B { all bits minus RSOH for B n bit sequence n bit n bit.. n.. n.... n Regenerator Section OverHead AU Pointer Multiplex Section OverHead A A A A A A J0 NU NU B E F NU NU D D D H Y Y H * * H H H B B B K K D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D0 D D S Z Z Z Z M E NU NU Even Parity Check # Even Parity Check # P P P.. Pn n bit. Even Parity Check #n BIP-n codeword: computed over relevant part of frame of frame after scrambling and is placed in byte B/B of the frame + before scrambling B: Multiplex Section error monitoring function, BIP-N x 4 : Bit Interleaved Parity N x 4 K-K (b -b5): Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel K (b6 -b8): MS-RDI (Multiplex Section Remote Defect Indication) or AIS Indication D4 to D: Data Communication Channel (DCCm = 576kbit/s) S (b5 -b8): Synchronization Status Messages (SSM), timing marker for clock traceability M: MS-REI, Multiplex Section Remote Error Indication detected by B Z-Z: Spare bytes, not yet defined E: Orderwire channel for voice communication between multiplexers NU : Bytes reserved for national use : Bytes reserved for future international standardisation 65 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008 Tasks of the POH Overhead Bytes VC-4/ POH Mapping Identification Maintenance Functions VC Quality Supervision POH Connectivity Check User Channel Alarm Information The POH provides for integrity of communication between the point of assembly of a Virtual Container (VC) and its point of disassembly. J B C G F H4 F K N J: Path Trace/Trail Trace Identifier (TTI): this byte is used to transmit repetitively a Path Access Point Identifier so that a path receiving terminal can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter, 6 bytes string (first byte = CRC-7) B: Path error monitoring function for VC-4-c/VC-4/VC-, BIP-8 C: Trail Signal Label = Composition of the VC-4-c/VC-4/VC- (00 = Unequipped, 0= Equipped - non-specific, 0 = TUG structure, 04 = Async. mapping of 4 or 45 Mbits/s into the C-, = Async. mapping of 40 Mbits/s into the C-4, = ATM mapping, 6= PPP/HDLC, B = GFP, FF= VC-AIS) G: Remote path status (REI (bit -4), RDI (bit 5)) detected at remote end by B F/F: user data channel reserved for user communication purposes between path elements and payload dependent. H4: Position indicator (e.g. used as a multiframe position indicator for the TU-) K (b-b4): Automatic Protection Switching (APS) channel for VC Trail Protection at VC- 4/ path levels (not used today) N: Network operator byte, allocated for Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) 67 Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March Cours Réseaux Optiques Partie I March 008

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