1 Global Traffic Exchange among Internet Service Providers (ISPs) OECD - Internet Traffic Exchange Berlin, June 7, 2001 J. Scott Marcus, Chief Technology Officer (CTO)
2 Economics of Internet Interconnection Background Internet interconnection in North America International Internet interconnection Economic modeling of Internet backbone peering The off-net pricing principle Implications for international interconnection Scaling challenges to the peering system Cross-provider differentiated services, measurements and SLAs
3 Internet Interconnection in North America Historical roots Peering and transit Shared and direct peering Shortest exit Hierarchical structure
5 Privatization of the Internet (NSF 93-52) ISP ISP ISP Backbone ISP ISP ISP NAP Backbone ISP Chicago NAP NAP New York ISP San Francisco Los Angeles Backbone ISP Washington DC NAP ISP Atlanta Dallas Backbone ISP Copyright (c) 1999 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher.
6 Peering and Transit Peering is usually a bilateral business and technical arrangement, where two providers agree to accept traffic from one another, and from one another s customers (and thus from their customers customers). Peering does not include the obligation to carry traffic to third parties. Transit is usually a bilateral business and technical arrangement, where one provider (the transit provider) agrees to carry traffic to third parties on behalf of another provider or an end user (the customer). In most cases, the transit provider carries traffic to and from its other customers, and to and from every destination on the Internet, as part of the transit arrangement. Peering thus offers a provider access only to a single provider s customers; transit, by contrast, usually provides access at a defined price to the entire Internet. Historically, peering has often been done on a bill-and-keep basis, without cash payments, where both parties perceive roughly equal exchange of value; however, there is often an element of barter.
7 Shared and Direct Peering A few shared global traffic exchange points. Smaller domestic shared traffic exchange points for regional concentration and exchange of traffic. Direct traffic exchange carries most Internet backbone traffic. Even though shared traffic exchange points are losing market share, their traffic is likely to continue to grow in absolute terms. Carrier hotels and fiber interconnects - an emerging trend that seeks to provide the best of both worlds. Whether shared or direct, the prevailing pattern is shortest exit routing - the sending provider hands off traffic at the point most convenient to the sender.
8 Shared and Direct Peering Backbone ISP Router Direct Interconnection Router Router Backbone ISP Router Router Direct Interconnection Router Router Backbone ISP Router Shared Traffic Exchange Point
9 Shortest Exit ( Hot Potato ) Routing Backbone ISP Shared Traffic Exchange Point San Francisco Los Angeles Chicago New York Washington DC Shared Traffic Exchange Point Web Site Dallas Backbone ISP Atlanta Copyright (c) 1999 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher.
10 Backbone and Secondary Peering Backbone peering interconnects providers that have no need for a transit relationship. It provides the only interconnection between those providers. Secondary peering interconnects providers who would otherwise exchange traffic through some transit connection. Secondary peering is an economic optimization, reducing traffic over the transit connection.
11 Fundamental Economics of a Local or Regional ISP Larger ISP or Backbone Transit Connection Regional or Local ISP Concentration to a larger ISP or backbone provider with global connectivity by means of a concentrated, high bandwidth connection Many remote locations connect to a regional or local ISP with individual, low bandwidth connections
12 Secondary Peering Larger ISP or Backbone Larger ISP or Backbone Transit Connection Transit Connection Regional or Local ISP Regional or Local ISP The secondary peering connection will tend to exist if the cost of the connection to each ISP is less than the money each saves due to reduced transit traffic.
13 A Hierarchical View of the Internet Backbone Backbone Backbone Backbone Backbone Backbone Backbone Default Free Zone Backbone ISPs ISPs Customers Copyright (c) 1999 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher.
14 A Hierarchical View of the Internet Upstream IBP Peering Connection IBP ISP ISP Downstream ISP cf. Lixin Gao
15 Negotiations for North American Backbone Internet Interconnection Typical US backbone interconnection guidelines Bi-coastal US presence, with multiple potential points of interconnection Significant transcontinental bandwidth Consistent routes at all locations Competent staff, professional 7 x 24 operation Rough balance of ingress/egress traffic Sufficient scale to justify transaction costs Where criteria are not met, a backbone may: decline to exchange traffic, OR expect cash or non-cash compensation in return Backbone providers negotiate traffic exchange terms and conditions on a case by case basis.
16 Emerging Global Trends The traditional hub and spokes system Traffic exchange trends in Europe Global deployment International diffusion of users and content
17 Traditional Hub and Spokes System Regional #2 Regional #1 Regional #3 NSP #1 ISP #1 ISP #3 Asian ISP ISP #2 NAP San Francisco Los Angeles NSP #2 NSP #3 Chicago NAP NAP New York Washington DC NAP ISP #4 Non-U.S. ISP pays vbns Dallas Atlanta Non-U.S. ISP pays European ISPs Copyright (c) 1999 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher.
18 Former Hub and Spokes in Europe French ISP U.S. Backbone German ISP
19 Internet Traffic Exchange in Europe Today French ISP U.S. Backbone Interconnection Point German ISP
20 Factors Driving European Evolution Decline in street price of circuits within Europe due to deregulation. Declining cost of transoceanic capacity. Increased number and density of customers and content (and caching). Improved number and distribution of shared peering points. Deregulation of European telecoms, and recognition of the need to minimize regulatory barriers to Internet growth. New transit services terminated in Europe and elsewhere.
21 Global Internet Backbone Deployment Overseas Point of Presence (POP) European ISP pays Regional #2 Regional #1 Regional #3 NSP #1 ISP #1 ISP #3 Asian ISP ISP #2 NAP San Francisco Los Angeles NSP #2 NSP #3 Chicago NAP NAP New York Washington DC NAP ISP #4 Atlanta Backbone pays vbns Dallas Backbone pays Copyright (c) 1999 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior consent of the publisher.
22 International Diffusion 250 Number of Users Online Worldwide Millions of Users E United States Rest of World Source: IDC, Merrill-Lynch (Kende, FCC)
23 Motivations for International Pressure for Cost Sharing (ICAIS) Mistaken perception that U.S.-based backbones discriminate against overseas providers in our interconnection policies. Dissatisfaction with allocation of transoceanic circuit costs, which often are fully carried by the non-u.s.-based provider.
24 An Excerpt from Genuity s Guidelines 1. Presence at three or more Shared Interconnection Points listed above (two of which must be MAE-East ATM and MAE-West ATM), for Domestic ISPs; presence at two or more Shared Interconnection Points listed above for International ISPs. 2. For domestic ISPs, United States coast-to-coast nationwide backbone of at least 155Mbps. 3. Consistent route announcements at all exchange locations. 4. Experienced, professional Network Operations Center staffed 24x7. 5. Loose Source Record Route (LSRR) capability at core border routers on network. 6. For domestic ISPs, roughly balanced traffic. 7. A minimum Internet traffic exchange of 1 Mbps with Autonomous System Willingness to enter into a formal Internet Interconnection Agreement.
25 Economic Modeling of Internet Backbone Peering Analytical framework The off-net pricing principle Implications for international interconnection
26 Analytical Framework Define: c o as cost of origination c t as cost of termination a as an access charge levied on the sender Due to shortest exit, c t > c o Then cost for the originating network is c o + a cost for the terminating network is c t - a Network i Network j
27 Impact of Access Charges In a bill-and-keep system, access charges are zero. With equal access charges and symmetric traffic, net access charges are still zero. Providers will, however, view their marginal costs quite differently. (Laffont/Rey/Tirole)
28 The Off-Net Pricing Principle Under a broad range of conditions, marginal price should equal marginal cost. Providers will tend to charge the same for on-net traffic as for off-net traffic, i.e. there are no strong incentives for price discrimination.
29 Implications for International Interconnection Where a group of customers have distinguishable costs that are higher than those of other customers, the model predicts that marginal prices will be higher to exactly offset the higher costs. In the absence of market power, there is in fact no way for the ISP to absorb the cost difference without reflecting it in the price. This prediction is consistent with typical practices of USbased ISPs, both within the US and overseas.
30 Scaling Issues AS Number growth IPv4 address growth Routing table growth
31 Tony Bates s Data AS Growth Active ASes Food
32 Exponential Growth of Autonomous System (AS) numbers R2 = ASNs to Oct2000 ASNs since Oct2000 Expon. (ASNs to Oct2000) Source: Scott Marcus, Genuity 10/01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/2005 AS Numbers (ASNs)
33 Exponential vs Quadratic (Bates Data) y = 6E-14e x R 2 = ASNs to Oct2000 ASNs since Oct2000 Expon. (ASNs to Oct2000) Poly. (ASNs to Oct2000) y = 0.002x x + 2E+06 R 2 = /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/ /01/2003 Active ASes (Clean)
34 Chicken Little was Wrong! This is far simpler to remedy than IPv4 address exhaustion, because the solution need not impact end systems (hosts); the solution need not impact DNS; and the solution need not impact routers unless they speak BGP-4. Any solution is complicated by the need for backward compatibility and phased migration. Time until exhaustion is nonetheless sufficient to architect, design, implement and deploy solutions. Cisco and Juniper are reportedly well into implementation.
35 The RIRs Recognize the Need for Forecasting Continuing need to further refine projections. Need for forward-looking proactive forecasting on a regular basis not only for AS numbers, but also for route table entries and IPv4/IPv6 addresses. Forecasting needs to incorporate allocation data from all three RIRs (APNIC, ARIN, RIPE NCC). Forecasting needs to be institutionalized by the RIRs themselves, with data readily available to independent researchers.
36 The Team Assembled by ARIN Frank Solensky Gotham Networks kc claffy CAIDA Scott Marcus Genuity Active contributions and support by APNIC and RIPE NCC
39 Applications Have Distinct Needs is tolerant of delay, but every bit of data must ultimately be delivered correctly. For real time WWW traffic, delay must be low, but moderate variability of delay is permissible. Real time Voice over IP (VoIP) and video are tolerant of modest loss, but intolerant of large and variable delay.
40 Cross-Provider Differentiated Services Internet services today are best-efforts. Commoditized service, with marginal price equal to marginal cost. Differentiated services are of limited value today. Best-efforts are good efforts, so little incremental advantage for differentiated services. Customers have no demonstrated propensity to pay a premium for better CoS for data services. Better CoS for real time voice and video still interesting. CoS today is limited to a single provider s network.
41 Cross-Provider Measurements and SLAs Potentially valuable for best-efforts traffic; essential for Differentiated Services. Provider responsibility ends today at the peering interconnection point. No consistent measurement framework. No business arrangements to incent SLA adherence between peer networks. Information sharing of proprietary data is a difficult but not intractable problem.
42 Summary The distinction between peering and transit is vital to an understanding of the underlying business models that drive global Internet connectivity. The business models that have evolved around peering, in North America and globally, are complex but rational. Peering business relationships have adapted quickly in response to economic or regulatory stimuli, and will continue to evolve.
43 References Cremer, Rey and Tirole, Connectivity in the Commercial Internet, presented at Competition and Innovation in the Personal Computer Industry, San Diego, April, Marcus, Designing Wide Area Networks and Internetworks: A Practical Guide, Addison Wesley Longman, Chapter 14, which describes peering and transit, is available at Huston, Interconnection, Peering and Settlements, Laffont and Tirole, Competition in Telecommunications, MIT Press, General analysis of the economics of telecommunications pricing. Kende, The Digital Handshake: Connecting Internet Backbones, FCC, Gao, On Inferring Autonomous System Relationships in the Internet, IEEE GlobeCom 2000, San Francisco, November, Milgrom, Mitchell, and Srinagesh, Competitive Effects of Internet Peering Policies, presented at the American Economics Association, January, Laffont, Marcus, Rey and Tirole, Internet Interconnection, American Economics Review, May, 2001.
Introduction to Routing How traffic flows on the Internet Philip Smith email@example.com RIPE NCC Regional Meeting, Moscow, 16-18 18 June 2004 1 Abstract Presentation introduces some of the terminologies used,
Topic 1: Internet Architecture & Addressing Objectives Understand the general architecture of Internet Identify the main actors in the Internet architecture Identify the main organizations implied in Internet
CS 40, Lecture 3: Internet economics Ramesh Johari Outline Contracts: transit and peer Example 1: Peering and pricing Example 2: Exchanges Example 3: Hot potato routing Example 4: 95 th percentile pricing
Introduction to The Internet ISP/IXP Workshops 1 Introduction to the Internet Topologies and Definitions IP Addressing Internet Hierarchy Gluing it all together 2 Topologies and Definitions What does all
Introduction to The Internet ISP Workshops Last updated 5 September 2014 1 Introduction to the Internet p Topologies and Definitions p IP Addressing p Internet Hierarchy p Gluing it all together 2 Topologies
Timely Trends of Ethernet Technology Announcing AboveNet s Expanded Metro Ethernet Services Today s Moderator: MaryBeth Nance Executive Director, Business Development & Marketing MaryBeth Nance is Executive
Global IP Network Overview NTT Communications NTT Europe Julian Curtis About NTT: Industry Leadership World s IT and Telecom Service Companies by Credit Rating and Revenue high Stability AA A BBB BB AA+
Pricing the Internet Geoff Huston Issues Covered Cost Identification Pricing Policies Cost Identification Cost elements for an Internet Service technical staff operational and support staff administrative
Commercial considerations in IP interconnection agreements March 2014 A review of the key commercial issues determining how interconnection agreements will be settled in practice Agenda The IP Interconnection
Internet services pricing under usagebased cost allocation: Congestion dependence Bratislava, Slovakia 18 20 September, 2001 RSBra-13-En Mark Scanlan 1 M.Scanlan@WIK.org Issues addressed in this presentation
DATA CENTER INTERCONNECTION SERVICES + Part I: Rates and Charges. Part II: Service Description and Requirements. Part III: Terms and Conditions. Part IV: Service Level Agreement. Part V: Definitions. Part
BGP 1. Internet Routing (C) Herbert Haas 2005/03/11 1 Internet Routing Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) not suitable for Inter-ISP routing Technical metrics only No policy features Inter-ISP routing is
Regulatory and policy challenges of next-generation access IP interconnection issues 6 November 0 Michael Kende Introduction Last year marked the 5th anniversary of the commercialisation of the Internet
Best Effort gets Better with MPLS Superior network flexibility and resiliency at a lower cost with support for voice, video and future applications A White Paper on Multiprotocol Label Switching October,
Presentation for Broadband for America Overview of recent changes in the IP interconnection ecosystem Michael Kende June 7 th, 2011 Ref: Introduction 2 Last year marked the 15 th anniversary of the commercialization
Dedicated Internet Access (DIA) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) What is DIA? Telx Dedicated Internet Access service, or DIA for short, combines Telx s network neutral environment with colocation and automated
The Role IXPs and Peering Play in the Evolution of the Internet PTC 14, New World, New Strategies, 19-22 January 2014 Steve Wilcox, President and CTO, IX Reach A Quick Introduction Steve Wilcox founded
RTMA Working Group Agenda Overview Speakers Discussion Speakers Speakers Bill Woodcock Packet Clearinghouse Philip Smith Cisco Systems Scott Marcus Genuity/ARIN Board Abha Ahuja Arbor Networks Vijay Gill
Seminar on Costs & Tariffs for the TAF Group Member Countries Niamey (Niger), 23-25 April 2001 The Evolution of Inter Carrier Settlements Didier Lacroix +33 1 45 23 92 92 Didier.Lacroix@intec-telecom-systems.com
Peering in Hong Kong Che-Hoo CHENG CUHK/HKIX www.hkix.net How Internet Operates in simple terms Internet is composed of networks of ISPs and users User networks connect to ISPs Small ISPs connect to large
Confessions of a Telecommunications Provider Five things you MUST know about Global Voice over IP (VoIP) Providers http://tatacommunications-newworld.com www.youtube.com/tatcomms 1 ' 2015 Tata Communications
Executive Summary Few industries have experienced more wrenching changes than the international longdistance business. Over the past two decades, service providers have weathered market liberalization,
TeleGeography Workshop: International Market Trends PTC 14 January 19, 2014 Preview of the Action International Voice (Paul) Pricing and Enterprise Services (Rob) International Networks (Tim) Still Not
On Characterizing BGP Routing Table Growth Tian Bu, Lixin Gao, and Don Towsley University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 0003 Abstract The sizes of the BGP routing tables have increased by an order of magnitude
Interconnections on the Internet: Exchange Points Keith Mitchell CTO, XchangePoint RIPE NCC Regional Meeting Dubai, 7 th Dec 2003 Outline of Presentation Introduction Internet Interconnect Principles Internet
CARRIER MPLS VPN September 2014 SERVICE OVERVIEW The International MPLS IP-VPN service provides a full range of VPN connectivity solutions, including: Carrier MPLS IP VPN: dedicated to operators looking
Spring Conference Growing Business Services Revenue in a Downturn Economy Panel Session COMPTEL Spring, March 2009, Dallas, TX Our Panellists Session Moderator Scott Sumner VP Marketing, Accedian Networks
City of Seattle Paul Schell, Mayor Department of Information Technology Marty Chakoian, Director and Chief Technology Officer Office of Cable Communications Report on WIN Franchise Application December
Simple Multihoming ISP Workshops Last updated 30 th March 2015 1 Why Multihome? p Redundancy n One connection to internet means the network is dependent on: p Local router (configuration, software, hardware)
Hong Kong Internet Exchange (HKIX) http://www.hkix.net Hong Kong Internet Exchange What is HKIX? The Evolution of HKIX Present Situation Conclude with some forecast 19-Aug-2002 ITSC, CUHK 1 What is HKIX?
Internet Operations and the RIRs Overview ARIN and the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) System IP Number Resources, DNS and Routing IP Address Management Whois ARIN and the RIR System About ARIN One of
Regional Interconnection Strategy for Africa Regional Peering and Interconnection Economics Connecting to the Edge of the Internet INTERNET TRANSIT 2 Overview of Internet Transit Start assuming no knowledge
Executive Summary New applications and services have combined with strong broadband subscriber growth worldwide to fuel demand for Internet capacity. Despite predictions from some quarters that Internet
Network Level Multihoming and BGP Challenges Li Jia Helsinki University of Technology firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Multihoming has been traditionally employed by enterprises and ISPs to improve network connectivity.
Products and Services INTERNET ACCESS Pacnet Premium Dedicated Internet Access Dedicated Internet Access for Web-Centric Enterprises MEETING THE CRITICAL DEMANDS OF TODAY S MULTI-SITE ENTERPRISES Enterprises
Workshop on Infrastructure Security and Operational Challenges of Service Provider Networks Farnam Jahanian University of Michigan and Arbor Networks IFIP Working Group 10.4 June 29-30, 2006 What s the
Margit Van berg Competition and Cooperation Among Internet Service Providers A Network Economic Analysis Nomos Table of Contents List of Abbreviations 13 1 Introduction 17 1.1 The Internet as the communications
Blue 102 IP Service Architecture Futures Geoff Huston May 2000 Next Wave IP Services Service Requirements Connectivity service for customer-operated routers Service payload is IP packet High peak carriage
Measuring IPv6 Deployment Geoff Huston APNIC December 2009 IPv4 address exhaustion Total Address Count Adver0sed Count IANA Pool Unadver0sed Count IPv4 address exhaustion The model of address consumption
IPv6 The Big Picture Rob Evans, Janet Rob.Evans@ja.net Where are we? IPv4 32 bit addresses 4,294,967,296 possible addresses In practice much less than this. History of large allocations /8s Inefficiency
TeleGeography Report Analysis Executive Summary Traffic Analysis Supplementary Figures Traffic by Region Traffic by Country Prices and Revenues Supplementary Figures Retail Rates Wholesale Rates Interconnection
Secure IP Forwarding in the Security Industry - White Paper This white paper addresses the issue of how an independent alarm company can maintain their independence and at the same time uses IP (Internet
Peering Policy Clauses collected from 28 companies Below are the categorized peering policy clauses found in the Study of 28 Peering Policies research. They are loosely categorized as an Excel spreadsheet
eip604_v1.0 APNIC elearning: IPv6 Address Planning Contact: email@example.com Overview Where to Get IPv6 Addresses Addressing Plans ISP Infrastructure Addressing Plans Customer Example Address Plan Addressing
About NTT NTT - A global IPv6 deployment case study Adoption considerations An Adoption how-to IPv6 beyond the transition Hikari-TV Earthquake warning service 6 All backbone equipment needs to be audited
COMCAST ENTERPRISE SERVICES PRODUCT- SPECIFIC ATTACHMENT ETHERNET DEDICATED INTERNET SERVICES ATTACHMENT IDENTIFIER: Ethernet Dedicated Internet, Version 1.4 The following additional terms and conditions
Company presentation January 2013 Gilat Satcom HQ in Israel, Main African subsidiary in Nigeria 3 international satellite teleports, 14 Hubs/PoPs in Africa, 2 PoPs in Europe, 2 Fibers Managing over 2.4Gb
@Home Cable Deployment Experiences or My years without sleep. Presented by Cathy Wittbrodt @Home Network Routing Diva Jan 1996-Mar 2000 What this presentation is A look at some of the technical and other
Welcome Wednesday, May 18 2005 Case Study: Global MPLSbased Outsourced Network Presented by: Markos Moya, Vice President Commercial Enterprises Hyatt International Corporation Operates, manages or franchises
US Business Services 2015 Executive Summary CMR Market Research May 2015 Reproduction without permission 1 The contents of this report represent CMR s analysis of the information available to the public
INTERNET ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNET'S ORGANIZATION AND MAIN STANDARD BODIES Peter R. Egli INDIGOO.COM 1/17 Contents 1. Internet Organizations 2. Why the Internet is called Inter-Net 3. Internet
Dove siamo? Algoritmi di routing Protocolli di routing» Intra dominio (IGP)» Inter dominio (EGP) Le slides relative a questo argomenti sono tratte da Interdomain Routing and The Border Gateway Protocol
Network Neutrality Revisited: Challenges and responses in the EU and in the US J. Scott Marcus The opinions expressed are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official
WHY CHOOSE COX BUSINESS FOR YOUR COMPANY S NETWORK SERVICE NEEDS? This document provides an overview of the Cox Business portfolio of business networking services and explains why customers should consider
Executive Summary The international bandwidth market is undergoing a transformation. The traditional dynamic by which carriers link broadband users to global networks is still a core part of the market,
Multihoming and Multi-path Routing CS 7260 Nick Feamster January 29. 2007 Today s Topic IP-Based Multihoming What is it? What problem is it solving? (Why multihome?) How is it implemented today (in IP)?
Interconnection, Peering and Financial Settlements in the Internet Geoff Huston Internet Society Interconnection an overview of how ISPs interact to form today s Internet The Sum of Many Parts The Internet
1550 Larimer Street, Suite 168 Denver, CO. 80202 BITAG Publishes Report: Differentiated Treatment of Internet Traffic Denver, CO (October 8, 2015): Today, the Broadband Internet Technical Advisory Group
Simple Multihoming ISP/IXP Workshops 1 Why Multihome? Redundancy One connection to internet means the network is dependent on: Local router (configuration, software, hardware) WAN media (physical failure,
Internet Service Providers: Peering and Charging UZH HS14 Seminar Internet Economics Markus Cadonau, Sofia Orlova Overview ISP Relationships Internet Hierarchy Peering: Potential and Process Challenges
Analysis of Internet Topologies: A Historical View Mohamadreza Najiminaini, Laxmi Subedi, and Ljiljana Trajković Communication Networks Laboratory http://www.ensc.sfu.ca/cnl Simon Fraser University Vancouver,
Protocols Precise rules that govern communication between two parties TCP/IP: the basic Internet protocols IP: Internet Protocol (bottom level) all packets shipped from network to network as IP packets
Interconnection and Traffic Exchange on the Internet A BROADBAND INTERNET TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP REPORT A Uniform Agreement Report Issued: November 2014 Copyright / Legal Notice
Executive Summary The worldwide colocation data center market continues to grow at a steady rate in 2015. While key Asian markets and some secondary markets have outpaced global average growth rates in
Understanding Large Internet Service Provider Backbone Networks Joel M. Gottlieb IP Network Management & Performance Department AT&T Labs Research Florham Park, New Jersey firstname.lastname@example.org Purpose
The Value of Peering ISP/IXP Workshops 1 The Internet Internet is made up of ISPs of all shapes and sizes Some have local coverage (access providers) Others can provide regional or per country coverage
AfriNIC 2005-2008 What is AfriNIC, IPv4 exhaustion & IPv6 transition The RIR System What is AfriNIC Adiel A. Akplogan CEO, AfriNIC cctld Forum, Paille (MU) March2009 Internet resources Number resources?
Evaluating The Competitive Effects Of Mergers Of Internet Backbone Providers STANLEY M. BESEN Charles River Associates JEFFREY S. SPIGEL King & Spalding PADMANABHAN SRINAGESH Charles River Associates *
SERVICE DESCRIPTION INTERNET TRANSIT 04.05.15 / 2.6.4 1 INTRODUCTION 4 2 DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 4 3 SERVICE OVERVIEW NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL 5 3.1 Geographic cover Internet Transit... 5 3.1.1
VoIP Virtual Private Networks: Bringing the Benefits of Convergence to the Enterprise By Robert VanSickle Vice President Sales, Americas Region & Worldwide Sales Strategy VocalTec Communications www.vocaltec.com
Trends in Global Capacity Availability and Trading Bruce Girdlestone VP Network Trading Band-X Topics The Trading of Bandwidth International Deployment of Capacity An imbalance in supply and demand A new
Network Neutrality: Challenges and Reponses in the EU and the US J. Scott Marcus The opinions expressed are solely my own. 0 Network Neutrality: Challenges and Reponses in the EU and the US Introduction
ADSL or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Backbone Bandwidth Bit Commonly called DSL. Technology and equipment that allow high-speed communication across standard copper telephone wires. This can include
REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF INTERNET TRAFFIC AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE ROOT NAME SERVER ARCHITECTURE Rami Khasawneh, Interim Dean, College of Business, Lewis University, email@example.com Eveann Lovero,
WHITE PAPER Preparing Your IP Network for High Definition Video Conferencing Contents Overview...3 Video Conferencing Bandwidth Demand...3 Bandwidth and QoS...3 Bridge (MCU) Bandwidth Demand...4 Available
The Internet Introductory material. An overview lecture that covers Internet related topics, including a definition of the Internet, an overview of its history and growth, and standardization and naming.
page 1 of 7 International Dialing and Roaming: Preventing Fraud and Revenue Leakage Abstract By enhancing global dialing code information management, mobile and fixed operators can reduce unforeseen fraud-related
Internet Routing Protocols Lecture 04 BGP Continued Advanced Systems Topics Lent Term, 008 Timothy G. Griffin Computer Lab Cambridge UK Two Types of BGP Sessions AS External Neighbor (EBGP) in a different
Sprint Global MPLS VPN IP Whitepaper Sprint Product Marketing and Product Development January 2006 Revision 7.0 1.0 MPLS VPN Marketplace Demand for MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) VPNs (standardized
We keep internet traffic flowing Frank Ip VP of Marketing and Business Development WHD 2015 Presentation SLA 1 I will make it short 2 3 Hopefully, it will be informative You can ask questions, but I probably
Business Continuity Proactive Telecom Strategies for Decision Makers Table of Contents 1. Executive summary... 3 2. Overview of the problem... 3 3. Redundant Access: Strategies for Wired Connectivity...
IPv6: No Longer Optional John Curran ARIN President & CEO Quick History of the Internet Protocol Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4, or just IP ) First developed for the original Internet (ARPANET) in spring
UNCOMPROMISING GLOBAL INTERNET CONNECTIVITY Telstra Wholesale s Global Internet Access (TW GIA) service provides high-performance, superior quality internet access in the Asia Pacific region and direct
Whitepaper WAN Traffic Management with PowerLink Pro100 Overview In today s Internet marketplace, optimizing online presence is crucial for business success. Wan/ISP link failover and traffic management
The Internet Introductory material. An overview lecture that covers Internet related topics, including a definition of the Internet, an overview of its history and growth, and standardization and naming.
Executive Summary Over the past two decades, the international long-distance industry has experienced wrenching changes. Service providers have weathered market liberalization, the enormous telecom market
TeleGeography Workshop: International Market Trends Sponsored by Preview of the Action Introduction (Mike van den Bergh, PCCW) International Voice (Tim) Colocation (Jon) Service Pricing (Erik) International
2009/TEL40/DSG/WKSP/016 Agenda Item: Transforming the Internet: from IPv4 to IPv6 Purpose: Information Submitted by: APNIC Workshop on IPv6: Facing the Future of Internet Cancun, Mexico 24 September 2009
IP TRANSIT SERVICE SCHEDULE - Australia - (Including VOCUS INTERNET EXPRESS) 1. DEFINITIONS Business Hours means a period of time from 9am to 5pm on a day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or a public holiday.
US Data Services 2014-2019 Executive Summary CMR Market Research April 2015 Reproduction without permission 1 The contents of this report represent CMR s analysis of the information available to the public