# Load Balancing in Structured Overlay Networks. Tallat M. Shafaat

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1 Load Balancing in Structured Overlay Networks Tallat M. Shafaat

2 Overview Background The problem : load imbalance Causes of load imbalance Solutions But first, some slides from previous lectures April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 2

3 How to construct a DHT (Chord)? Use a logical name space, called the identifier space, consisting of identifiers {0,1,2,, N-1} Identifier space is a logical ring modulo N Every node picks a random identifier through Hash H Example: SpaceN=16 {0,,15} Five nodes a, b, c, d a picks 6 b picks 11 c picks 0 d picks 5 e picks April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 3

4 Where to store data (Chord)? Use globally known hash function, H Each item <key,value> gets identifier = H(key) Store each item at its successor Node n is responsible for item k Example H( Alexander )=4 H( Marina )=12 H( Peter )=2 H( Seif )=9 H( Ali )= Key Alexander Marina Peter Seif Ali Value Berlin Gothenburg Louvain la neuve Stockholm Stockholm April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 4

5 Speeding up lookups (Chord) If only pointer to succ(n+1) is used Worst case lookup time is N, for N nodes Improving lookup time (finger/routing table) Point to succ(n+1) 0 Point to succ(n+2) Point to succ(n+4) Point to succ(n+8) Point to succ(n+2 M-1 ) Distance always halved to the destination Routing entries = log 2 (N) log 2 (N) hops from any node to any other node April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 5

6 Summing up Consistent hashing Identifier space N Nodes take an identifier randomly from N Data items are stored under identifiers from N Chord Each node maintains log(n) distinct links to other nodes, where n is the number of nodes Lookups take log(n) hops April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 6

7 Definition of Load Load of a data item may refer to: Number of bits required to store the item Popularity of the item Amount of processor time needed to serve the item April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 7

8 The problem: Load imbalance Node identifiers may not be balanced April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 8

9 The problem: Load imbalance Node identifiers may not be balanced April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 9

10 The problem: Load imbalance Node identifiers may not be balanced assume solved Data identifiers may not be balanced - node - data April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 10

11 The problem: Load imbalance Node identifiers may not be balanced assume solved Data identifiers may not be balanced assume solved Hot spots tallat-song3.mp3 tallat-song1.mp3 tallat-song4.mp3 tallat-song2.mp3 - node - data britney.mp3 April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 11

12 The problem: Load imbalance Node identifiers may not be balanced assume solved Data identifiers may not be balanced assume solved Hot spots assume solved Heterogeneous nodes - node - data April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 12

13 Overview Background The problem : load imbalance Causes of load imbalance Solutions Method 1: Virtual servers Method 2: Without virtual servers Assume uniform load distribution i.e. load of a node is proportional to size of id space it is responsible for April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 13

14 Load imbalance It has been shown that Given a homogenous system with n nodes If node and item identifiers are randomly chosen, then there is an O(log n) imbalance factor April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 14

15 Virtual Servers (VSs) Goal: # of keys/node should be uniform Each physical node picks multiple random identifiers Each identifier represents a virtual server Each node runs multiple virtual servers Each node responsible for noncontiguous regions April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 15

16 Virtual Servers (VSs) How many virtual servers? For homogeneous, all nodes run log N VSs For heterogeneous, nodes run clogn VSs, where c is small for weak nodes large for powerful nodes April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 16

17 Virtual Servers (VSs) Basic idea for load balancing: Move virtual servers from heavily loaded physical nodes to lightly loaded physical nodes Challenges: Minimize the load imbalance Minimize the amount of load moved Minimize spoiler warning links spoiler to maintain warning Steps Knowing if a node is overloaded or not Generating a mapping of transferring VSs Transferring VSs April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 17

18 VSs Model n nodes l i load at n i at a particular time c i capacity of n i e.g. bandwidth, disk space µ i utilization of n i µ = i c li i when µ i > 1, n is overloaded, otherwise n is underloaded µ system utilization µ = nodesn nodesn l c n n April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 18

19 VSs Static load balancing schemes One-to-one Each lightly loaded node l periodically contacts a random node r If r is heavily loaded, virtual servers are transferred from r to l such that r becomes light without making l heavy send VS if loaded send VS if loaded April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 19 VS

20 VSs Static load balancing schemes One-to-many Directory d has a random set of light nodes Each heavy node h gets some nodes from d Some of h s virtual servers are then moved to one or more of the lighter nodes registered in the directory Multiple directories for fault-tolerance VS April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 20

21 VSs Static load balancing schemes Many-to-many Each directory maintains load information for a set of both light and heavy nodes. Each directory runs an algorithm to decide the reassignment of virtual servers from heavy nodes to light nodes Reassign virtual servers VS April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 21

22 VSs Hybrid scheme Combine one-to-many AND many-to-many Each node: periodically report loads and capacity to random directory if directory suggests transfer of VSs, do it Each directory store reports from nodes periodically reassign VSs such that load transfer should be minimum do not overload another node Emergency action at node n if n becomes overloaded, ask the directory for immediate reassignment of VSs April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 22

23 Virtual Servers (VSs) Challenge/Problem With m VSs, each physical node has to maintain m logn overlay connections Solution Low cost virtual server selection April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 23

24 Low Cost Virtual Server Selection (LC-VSS) Basic idea: Instead of picking VSs with random IDs, pick the IDs in a random fraction of the ID space Still responsible for non-contiguous regions All VSs on a physical node can share a single set of overlay links April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 24

25 LC-VSS k Real responsibilities start of fingers Simulated responsibilities lookup(k) Simulate ownership of contiguous fraction Routing ends at simulated target Due to clustering, real owner is nearby in ID space, thus complete lookup using successor list April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 25

26 LC-VSS Which random fraction on ring? How long should the fraction be? How far apart should the VS ids be? Answers: (network size = n) Start at a random location ci logn Size of random fraction O( ) n VS ids spaced at intervals apprx. equal to Notice the fall? Each node should know network size n Interesting problem solutions in the reading list 1 n April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 26

27 Overview Background The problem : load imbalance Causes of load imbalance Solutions Method 1: Virtual servers Method 2: Without virtual servers April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 27

28 Standard Hash Table Hash function -> key is mapped to an entry in the table independently and uniformly at random In case of collision, all keys are stored in a link-list Hash() : April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 28

29 Power of two choices Use multiple (here 2) hash functions Store at entry with shorter link-list Hash1() : 2 Hash2() : April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 29

30 Amount of load balance Given n keys and a table of size n, length of longest link list Standard hash table: O (log n / log log n) Power of two choices: 2 hash functions: = O (log log n / log 2) d 2 hash functions: O (log log n / log d) d = log n: O(1) April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 30

31 Without virtual servers All nodes know the hash functions used, h 1, h 2,, h d To store an item concurrent lookup peers responsible for each hash store at node with minimum load To fetch an item concurrent lookup peers responsible for each hash one of the nodes will have the item stored April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 31

32 Hot Spots Replication Consistency? Caching Consistency? Part of reading list April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 32

33 References Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications. Ion Stoica, Robert Morris, David Liben-Nowell, David R. Karger, M. Frans Kaashoek, Frank Dabek, Hari Balakrishnan. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), 11(1):17 32, Heterogeneity and Load Balance in Distributed Hash Tables. P. Brighten Godfrey and Ion Stoica. INFOCOM slides. Load Balancing in Dynamic Structured P2P Systems. Brighten Godfrey, Karthik Lakshminarayanan, Sonesh Surana, Richard Karp, Ion Stoica. INFOCOM Simple Efficient Load Balancing Algorithms for Peer-to-Peer Systems. David R. Karger, Matthias Ruhl. 16 th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures. Simple Load Balancing for Distributed Hash Tables. John W. Byers, Jeffrey Considine, Michael Mitzenmacher. IPTPS 2003 April 15, 2009 Tallat M. Shafaat 33

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