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1 T R I B O L O G I A 395 0LFKDá:2'7.( * WERYFIKACJA MODELU HYDROSTATYCZNEGO :6320$*$1,$à2)<6.$121(*2 HYDROGENERATORA VERIFICATION OF A MODEL OF HYDROSTATIC LIFTING OF A WATER TURBINE THRUST BEARING 6áRZDNOXF]RZH K\GURVWDW\F]QHVPDURZDQLHáR*\VNDZ]GáX*QHREOLF]HQLD0(6 Key words: hydrostatic lubrication, thrust bearings, FEM calculations Streszczenie àr*\vnrqrqhk\gurjhqhudwrudmhvw QDMEDUG]LHM REFL*RQH L ]DJUR*o- QHZWUDNFLHUR]UXFKyZLZ\ELHJyZ:W\FKID]DFKSUDF\]HZ]JOGX QD]PQLHMV]RQSUGNRüREURWRZQRQRüK\GURG\QDPLF]QDMHVWQLe- SHáQDDWDN*HZQLHNWyU\FKW\SDFKWXUELQSRMDZLDVLGRGDWNRZHREFL- *HQLHRVLRZH+\GURVWDW\F]QHX]XSHáQLDQLHQRQRFLK\GURG\QDPLF]QHM VWRVRZDQH MHVW ]ZáDV]F]D Z SRPSRWXUELQDFK GOD NWyU\FK UR]UXFK\ * :\G]LDá 0HFKDQLF]Q\ 3ROLWHFKQLND *GDVND.DWHGUD.RQVWUXNFML L (NVSORDWDFML Maszyn.

2 396 T R I B O L O G I A iz\elhjlv]qdf]qlhf]vwv]hql*zlqq\fkpdv]\qdfk/derudwru\mqd ZHU\ILNDFMD QRZ\FK UR]ZL]DMHVWPR*OLZD Z EDUG]R RJUDQLF]RQ\P ]DNUHVLH VWG NRQLHF]QRü REOLF]HQLRZHM ZHU\ILNDFML SUDF\ K\GURVWa- W\F]QHMáR*yska. 3U]HGVWDZLRQ\ZSUDF\SU]\NáDGREOLF]HQLRZ\GRW\F]\áR*\VNDQo- QHJR K\GURJHQHUDWRUD 0: HOHNWURZQL V]F]\WRZR SRPSRZHM 3o- UEND)DU 0RGHOH REOLF]HQLRZH 0(6 XZ]JOGQLDá\ PLQ SU]HSá\Z FLHF]\ VPDUXMFHM SU]H] K\GURVWDW\F]QLH ]DVLODQ V]F]HOLQ VPDURZ XG]LDá Z\ZRáDQ\FK FLQLHQLHP Z V]F]HOLQLH RGNV]WDáFH NORFNyZ wnv]wdáwrzdqlxv]f]holq\zsá\znrqvwuxnfmlsrgsdufldqdrgnv]wdáfe- QLHNORFNyZ5y*QLFHZ\QLNyZSRPLDUyZLREOLF]HVQLHZLHONLHFR pozwala na wykorzystanie opracowanej metodyki obliczeniowej do SU]HZLG\ZDQLDZáDVQRFLZDKOLZ\FKNORFNyZáR*\VNQRQ\FK]K\GUostatycznym wspomaganiem. WPROWADZENIE àr*\vnrqrqhk\gurjhqhudwrudmhvwqdmedug]lhmrefl*rqhl]djur*rqh w trakcie rozruchów i wybiegów [L. 1]. W dodatku w tych fazach pracy ]H Z]JOGX QD ]PQLHMV]RQ SUGNRü REURWRZ QRQRü K\GURG\Qa- PLF]QDMHVWQLHSHáQD +\GURVWDW\F]QH X]XSHáQLDQLH QRQRFL K\GURG\Qa- PLF]QHMVWRVRZDQHMHVW ]ZáDV]F]D Z SRPSRWXUELQDFK,FK JáyZQ\P ]a- GDQLHP V LQWHUZHQFMH Z V\WXDFML SU]HFL*HQLD OXE QLHGRFL*HQLD VLHFL HQHUJHW\F]QHMFRZ\PDJDSU]HFLWQLH UR]UXFKyZZFLJXGRE\&o- UD] F]FLHM GR V]\ENLFK LQWHUZHQFML Z VLHFL SU]\JRWRZ\ZDQH V WDN*H NODV\F]QH K\GUR]HVSRá\ WXUELQRZH Z HOHNWURZQLDFK SU]HSá\ZRZ\FK WGX*\FKPDV]\QDFKRPDVLHZLUQLNDSRZ\*HM7GRGDWNRZ]DOHW ZSURZDG]HQLDK\GURVWDW\F]QHJR]DVLODQLDGRNORFNRZHJRáR*\VNDQRQe- JR MHVW SRSUDZD MDNRFL XVWDZLDQLD OLQLL ZDáX L Z\ZD*HQLD ZLUQLND wwudnflh SUDF UHPRQWRZ\FK SRZLNV]DMFD WUZDáRü L QLH]DZRGQRü ár*\vnsrsu]hf]q\fk 3RáR*HQLH SRGSDUFLD ZDKOLZHJR NORFND ár*\vnrzhjr 0LFKHOOD OXE.LQJVEXU\ HJR MHVW RSW\PDOL]RZDQH GOD SUDZLGáRZHM SUDF\ K\GURG\Qa- PLF]QHM $E\ X]\VNDü MHGQDNRZ JUXERü V]F]HOLQ\ VPDURZHM QD FDá\P REZRG]LH NORFND Z F]DVLH SUDF\ K\GURVWDW\F]QHM ± QDOH*\ RGSRZLHGQLR XV\WXRZDü NRPRU K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR VPDURZDQLD QD SRZLHU]FKQL Oizgowej klocka. Niepoprawne zaprojektowanie tej komory grozi silnym

3 T R I B O L O G I A 397 GRFLQLFLHP MHGQHJR ] QDUR*QLNyZ NORFND GR QDELHUDMFHM SUGNRFL WDUF]\ ZDáX L QLV]F]HQLHP ár*\vnd +\GURVWDW\F]QD NRPRUD QD So- ZLHU]FKQLOL]JRZHMEDUG]RSU]HV]NDG]DZSUDF\K\GURG\QDPLF]QHMVWG PXVLE\üQLHZLHONDLGRÄRWZDUFLDVL V]F]HOLQ\K\GURVWDW\F]QHMZ\No- U]\VW\ZDQD MHVW VSU*\VWD GHIRUPDFMD NORFND (NVSHU\PHQWDOQ\ GREyU SDUDPHWUyZ NRQVWUXNF\MQ\FK NORFNyZ ár*\vn R ZLHONLFK UR]PLDUDFK (ø 1 4PGODVSHáQLHQLDWDNZLHOXZ\PDJDMHVWQLH]Zykle kosztowny. $OWHUQDW\ZMHVWSURSRQRZDQ\SURFHVREOLF]HQLRZ\SR]ZDODMF\GRGDt- NRZRRNUHOLüZ\GDWHNROHMXUR]PLDUSRPS\]DSHZQLDMF\EH]SLHF]Q SUDFáR*\VND CEL PRACY &HOHPQLQLHMV]HMSUDF\E\áR]EXGRZDQLHL]ZHU\ILNRZDQLHPRGHOXNORc- ND ár*\vnd QRQHJR L V]F]HOLQ\ ROHMRZHM SRGF]DV SUDF\ K\GURVWDW\F]QHM zxz]jogqlhqlhp SU]HSá\ZXROHMXSU]H]V]F]HOLQVPDURZ GHIRUPDFMLNORFNDZ\ZRáDQ\FKFLQLHQLHPK\GURVWDW\F]Q\P konstrukcji podparcia klocka. Model opracowano w oparciu o system obliczeniowy MES ANSYS 'RZHU\ILNDFMLZZPRGHOX]DSODQRZDQRZ\NRU]\VWDüHNVSHU\PHn- WDOQHEDGDQLDSRáR*HQLD URGNDZ\SRUX K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR L VWDWHF]QRFL klocka, przeprowadzone i opublikowane przez Bednarka [L. 2]. Podsta- ZRZDSUDFD%HGQDUNDZLHORNURWQLHSU]\WDF]DQDZOLWHUDWXU]HZLDWRZHM GRW\F]\áD NORFNyZ ár*\vn QRQ\FK K\GUR]HVSRáyZ 0: HOHNWURZQL V]F]\WRZRSRPSRZHM 3RUEND)DU Rys. 1 6WRVRZDQH Z ár*\vndfk K\GUR]HVSRáyZSRGSDUFLHND*GHJRNORFNDQDVSU*\QDFK UXERZ\FK ]RVWDáRGODFHOyZSRPLDURZ\FK]DVWSLRQHSRGSDUFLHPQDZDOFXRUHd- QLF\ %HGQDUHN Z\]QDF]\á GRZLDGF]DOQLH URGHN K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR Z\SRUXILOPXROHMRZHJRRUD]ZDUWRFLSU]HVXQLüMHJRSXQNWRZHJRSRd- SDUFLD SRZRGXMFH ]DQLN K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR ILOPX ROHMRZHJR Z MHGQ\P zqdur*\norfndrys. 2).

4 398 T R I B O L O G I A Rys. 1..ORFHN ár*\vnd QRQHJR K\GURJHQHUDWRUD HOHNWURZQL 3RUEND)DU R PRF\ 125 [MW] Fig. 1. 7LOWLQJ SDG RI D SRZHU SODQW 3RUEND)DU K\GURJHQHUDWRU WKUXVW bearing Rys. 2. Fig. 2. :\QLNL EDGDQLD SRáR*HQLD URGND Z\SDGNRZHM VLá\ QRQHM K\GUostatycz- QHJR ILOPX ROHMRZHJR L VWDWHF]QRFL NORFND ár*yska [L. 2] Results of the research on the center of hydrostatic pressure and equilibrium of the bearing pad [L. 2]

5 T R I B O L O G I A 399 MODEL OBLICZENIOWY Model MES szczeliny smarowej Model szczeliny smarowej przedstawiono na Rys. 3 3RZLHU]FKQL Oi- ]JRZNORFNDSRPQLHMV]RQRRPPFLFLDNUDZG]LZORWRZHMLZ\Ootowej (Rys. 16]F]HOLQSRG]LHORQRVLDWNZ]áyZ[ZSáDV]F]\(- QLHOL]JRZHMNORFNDRUD]QDZDUVWZQDJUXERFL:Z\QLNXRWU]\PDQR RPLRZ]áRZ\FK SURVWRSDGáRFLHQQ\FK Sá\QRZ\FK HOHPHQWyZ VNRF]RQ\FK =DVWRVRZDQH ZDUXQNL EU]HJRZH WR ]HURZH ZDUWRFL Fi- QLHZ]áRZ\FK QD SRZLHU]FKQLDFK Z\Sá\ZRZ\FK ROHMX ]H V]F]HOLQ\ (p FLQLHQLDZ]áRZHHOHPHQWyZZREV]DU]HNRPRU\K\GURVWDW\Fz- QHJRVPDURZDQLDUyZQHFLQLHQLX]DVLODQLDROHMXS S kom ) oraz zerowe SUGNRFL Z]áRZH QD SRZLHU]FKQLDFK VW\NX HOHPHQWyZ Sá\QRZ\FK zwduf]rsrurzzdáxrud]]srzlhu]fkqlol]jrznorfnd9[ 9\ 9] 3RPLQLWR RGNV]WDáFHQLD WDUF]\ ZDáX =DLPSOHPHQWRZDQ\ wvwuxnwxuv\vwhpxreolf]hqlrzhjr$16<6prgxáur]zl]\zdáuyzqa- QLHSU]HSá\ZXSá\QX1DYLHUD6WRNHV DRUD]UyZQDQLHFLJáRFLSU]HSá\ZX ]]DáR*HQLHPQLHFLOLZRFLROHMXSU]HSá\ZXODPLQDUQHJRROHMXZV]F]e- OLQLHVPDURZHMRUD]EUDNXZHZQWU]Q\FK(UyGHáFLHSáDSRFKRG]F\FKQS ]HFLQDQLDROHMXZV]F]HOLQLH=DáR*HQLHL]RWHUPLF]QHJRSU]HSá\ZXSU]H] V]F]HOLQVPDURZMHVWX]QDZDQH]DSRSUDZQHSU]\QLHZLHONLFKSUGNo- FLDFKOL]JDQLDGODáR*\VNK\EU\GRZ\FK [L. 5]. WSU]\SDGNXREOLF]H ár*\vnk\gurvwdw\f]q\fkx]dvdgqlhqlhpmhvw]dvlodqhv]f]holq\gx*loo- FL]LPQHJRROHMX]ZDQQ\áR*\VND Rys. 3. Model MES szczeliny olejowej z zaznaczonymi schematycznie warunkami EU]HJRZ\PL Z\VRNRü V]F]HOLQ\ GOD ]ZLNV]HQLD F]\WHOQRFL SRZLNV]RQD 1000 razy) Fig. 3. FEM model of the fluid film (thickness exaggerated 1000 times), boundary conditions shown at the drawing

6 400 T R I B O L O G I A RGHO0(6NORFNDáR*\VND 0RGHONORFNDáR*\VNDZUD]]PRGHOHPSRGSDUFLDSU]HGVWDZLRQRQDRys. 4. 3RZLHU]FKQLDOL]JRZDNORFNDSRG]LHORQD]RVWDáDSRGREQLHMDNV]F]HOLQD ROHMRZDVLDWNZ]áyZ[DJUXERüNORFNDSRG]LHORQRQDZDUVWZ G]LNL F]HPX X]\VNDQR RPLRZ]áRZ\FK EU\áRZ\FK HOHPHQWyZ VNRF]RQ\FK0RGHONORFNDXSURV]F]RQRSRPLMDMFURZHNK\GURVWDW\Fz- QHJRVPDURZDQLDRUD]ZDUVWZELDáHJRPHWDOXQDSRZLHU]FKQLOL]JRZHM co zgodne jest z zaleceniami literaturowymi [L. 6]. Zachowano jedna- NRZHZVSyáU]GQHZ]áyZQDVW\NXNORFNDLV]F]HOLQ\ROHMRZHMFRSo- ]ZROLáR XQLNQü LQWHUSRODFML Z\QLNyZ SRFKRG]F\FK ] jednej analizy iegf\fkrefl*hqlhpw drugiej i odwrotnie. Taki problem (komplika- FM L GRGDWNRZ QLHGRNáDGQRü QDSRWNDOL %URZQ 0HGOH\ L )HUJXVRQ [L. 5] ± Z SU]\SDGNX JG\ RGSRZLHGQLH Z]á\ QLH OH*ZW\PVDP\P punkcie na powierzchni styku. Modelowane podparcie w postaci stalo- ZHJRZDOFDRUHGQLF\]HZQWU]QHM [mm]lz\vrnrfl [mm] jest identyczne z tym, które zastosowano w stanowisku badawczym [L. 2]. Na Rys. 4 zaznaczono schematycznie warunki brzegowe dla modelu NORFNDáR*\VNDREFL*HQLHSRZLHU]FKQLOL]JRZHMFLQLHQLHPSRFKRG]- F\P]REOLF]HSU]HSá\ZRZ\FKRUD]SRGSDUFLHZDOFDQDGROQHMMHJRSo- ZLHU]FKQL :LGRF]QH V UyZQLH* HOHPHQW\ NRQWDNWRZH QD SRZLHU]FKQL VW\NXZDOFDSRGSLHUDMFHJRRUD]VSRGXNORFND Rys. 4. 0RGHO 0(6 NORFND ár*\vnd ZUD] ] ZDOFHP SRGSLHUDMF\P ] ]D]QDFzonym REFL*HQLHP RUD] ZDUXQNDPL SRGSDUFLD Fig. 4. FEM model of a bearing pad with supporting cylinder and support boundary conditions

7 T R I B O L O G I A 401 6FKHPDWREOLF]H 2EOLF]HQLDSU]HSURZDG]RQH]RVWDá\ZSWODFKLWHUDF\MQ\FK7RNREOLF]eniowy (Rys. 5SRG]LHOLü PR*QD QD GZLH ]DVDGQLF]H F]FL REOLF]HQLD SU]HSá\ZRZHZJPRGHOXV]F]HOLQ\VPDURZHMSU]HGVWDZLRQHJRZS RUD]VWUXNWXUDOQHREOLF]HQLDVSU*\VWHMGHIRUPDFMLSRZLHU]FKQLOL]JRZHM klocka wg p =HVWDZGDQ\FKZVDGRZ\FKGRREOLF]HVNáDGDáVL] ZDUWRFLFLQLHQLDROHMXSDQXMFHJRZREV]DU]HNRPRU\K\GURVWDW\Fznego zasilania p kom [Pa], JUXERFL Z F]WHUHFK SXQNWDFK QDUR*DFK NORFND V]F]HOLQ\ VPDURZHM (Rys. 2). 'R REOLF]H Z\NRU]\VWDQR ZLHONRFL]EDGD HNVSHU\PHQWDOQ\FK Bednarka [L. 2] (z uwagami przedstawionymi w p. 4). :\QLNLHP SLHUZV]HJR NURNX REOLF]HQLRZHJR ± SU]\ ]DáR*HQLX Sáa- VNLHMSRZLHU]FKQLOL]JRZHMNORFNDE\á\UR]NáDGFLQLHQLDK\GURVWDW\Fz- QHJR QD SRZLHU]FKQL OL]JRZHM NORFND ár*\vnd p = f(x,y) ZDUWRü VLá\ Z\SDGNRZHMSRFKRG]FHMRGFLQLHQLDK\GURVWDW\F]QHJRILOPXROHMRZHJR WRUD]ZVSyáU]GQHSRáR*HQLDWHMVLá\±xc, yc&lqlhqldz]árzhqlh QDGDMVLZSURVWGRSU]HQLHVLHQLDMDNRREFL*HQLHGRPRGHOXVWUXNWXUDl- QHJRLZ\PDJDá\SU]HOLF]HQLDQDVLá\Z]áRZHZJZ]RUyZREOLF]HQLowych zawartych w pracy Szmetlera [L. 3]3UDNW\F]QDSOLNDFMSRZ\*- V]HJR]DELHJXREOLF]HQLRZHJR]QDOH(üUyZQLH*PR*QDZSUDF\'EURwskiego [L. 4]:\QLNLHP REOLF]H VWUXNWXUDOQ\FK E\áD GHIRUPDFMD VSU- *\VWD NORFND ár*\vnd SRG G]LDáDQLHP FLQLHQLD K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR D WD ]VXPRZDQDRGSRZLHGQLR]SRF]WNRZSáDVNV]F]HOLQSR]ZDODáDZy- ]QDF]\üZ\VRNRü]GHIRUPRZDQHMV]F]HOLQ\h = f(x,y) (Rys. 6). : NROHMQ\P NURNX REOLF]HQLRZ\P SRQDZLDQR REOLF]HQLD SU]HSáy- ZRZH W\P UD]HP GOD V]F]HOLQ\ ]GHIRUPRZDQHM X]\VNXMF Z Z\QLNX QRZ\UR]NáDGFLQLHQLDVLáQRQáR*\VND L ZVSyáU]GQH Z\SDGNRZHM VLá\RGFLQLHQLD:WHQVSRVyEZ\QLNL]NROHMQ\FKHWDSyZREOLF]HSU]e- QRV]RQHE\á\UF]QLHMDNRREFL*HQLDGRQDVWSQHJRNURNXREOLF]HQLRZe- JRGRPRPHQWXNLHG\QDMZLNV]DUy*QLFDZ\VRNRFLV]F]HOLQ\VPDURZHM h = f(x,y) ]GZyFKNROHMQ\FKLWHUDFMLE\áDPQLHMV]DQL*P

8 402 T R I B O L O G I A \V %ORNRZ\ VFKHPDW SU]HSURZDG]RQ\FK REOLF]H HODVWohydrostatycznych Fig. 5. Flow chart of elasto-hydrostatic calculations = a) b) c) Rys. 6. 6SRVyE Z\]QDF]HQLD ]GHIRUPRZDQHM V]F]HOLQ\ ROHMRZHM K I[\ D Sáa- VND V]F]HOLQD ] SRPLDUyZ E GHIRUPDFMD NORFND ár*\vnd SRG G]LDáDQLHP FLQLHQLD K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR F ]GHIRUPRZDQD V]F]HOLQD ROHMRZD K I[\ janr Uy*QLFDDLE Fig. 6. Evaluation of the shape of the oil gap h = f(x,y), a) inclination of a pad (assumed to be flat) based on measurement results b) pad deformation caused by hydrostatic pressure, c) oil gap profile as a diffrence between a) and b)

9 T R I B O L O G I A 403 :\]QDF]HQLHVLá\QRQHMSRGSRU\K\GURVWDW\F]QHM:RUD]MHMZVSyá- U]GQ\FK -HGQ\P ] Z\QLNyZ REOLF]H QXPHU\F]Q\FK MHVW QRQRü ár*\vnd w pracy hydrostatycznej W GOD SU]\WRF]RQ\FK SU]H] %HGQDUND JUXERFL ZF]WHUHFKSXQNWDFKQDREZRG]LHV]F]HOLQ\VPDURZHM:\OLF]DQRM]a- PLHQLDMFFLQLHQLDZ]áRZHQDVLá\Z]áRZH&DáNRZLWDVLáDQDFLVNXQD NORFHN Z\]QDF]DQD MHVW MDNR VXPD ZV]\VWNLFK VLá Z]áRZ\FK Z\OLF]o- Q\FK]FLQLH QDWRPLDVW SRáR*HQLH VLá\ Z\SDGNRZHM Z\OLF]DQH MHVW zuyzqdprphqwyzvláz]árz\fk :\]QDF]HQLHQDW*HQLDSU]HSá\ZX4ROHMXSU]H]V]F]HOLQ :RSDUFLXRREOLF]RQH0(6SUGNRFLROHMXZZ]áDFKOH*F\FKQDSo- V]F]HJyOQ\FK ERF]Q\FK SRZLHU]FKQLDFK V]F]HOLQ\ ± PHWRG ZLHORPLa- QyZ VNOHMDQ\FK REOLF]RQRUHGQLH SUGNRFL SU]HSá\ZX ROHMX SU]H] WH SRZLHU]FKQLHRUD]QDW*HQLDSU]HSá\ZXROHMXQ [l/min] przez szczeliq '$1('2:,$'&=$/1( 3RSLHUZV]\FKSUyEDFKZHU\ILNDFMLRSLVDQHMSRZ\*HMSURFHGXU\REOLF]eniowej na podstawie wyników pomiarów opisanych przez Bednarka [L. 2]RND]DáRVLL* GDQH WH V QLHZ\VWDUF]DMFH %UDN E\áR Z\QLNyZ ZVND]DRUD]SRáR*HQLDZV]\VWNLFKF]XMQLNyZSU]HPLHV]F]HWROHUDQFMD pomiaru temperatury (T = 40 ± 5 [ o E\áD GRü ]QDF]QD ELRUF SRG XZDJ OHSNRü ROHMX NWyUD VLOQLH]DOH*\ RG MHJR WHPSHUDWXU\'OD SHáQHM ZHU\ILNDFML RSUDFRZDQHM PHWRG\ REOLF]HQLRZHM QLH]EGQH RND]DáR VL X]XSHáQLHQLHHNVSHU\PHQWDOQ\FKGDQ\FKSU]\WRF]RQ\FKZSUDF\%HGQDrka [L. 2]:PDUFXEUGULQ*.%HGQDUHN]$*+Z.UDNRZLHSRQRZLá VZRMHHNVSHU\PHQW\QD]DFKRZDQ\PVWDQRZLVNXEDGDZF]\P]XG]LDáHP DXWRUD QLQLHMV]HM SUDF\ FR SR]ZROLáR Z\VWDUF]DMFR X]XSHáQLü ]HVWDZ danych dla weryfikacji opracowanego modelu obliczeniowego (p. 3). :<1,.,320,$5Ï:,2%/,&=( W Tab. 1 zestawiono wyniki pomiarów. W Tab. 2 zebrano wyniki obli- F]H Z\SDGNRZQRQRüSRGSRU\K\GURVWDW\F]QHMW, QDW*HQLHSU]HSá\ZXROHMXSU]H]V]F]HOLQQ, ZVSyáU]GQHxc, ycsrár*hqldvlá\:qdsrzlhu]fkqlol]jrzhmnorfnd

10 404 T R I B O L O G I A U]\MW\PL ]D HNVSHU\PHQWHP %HGQDUND GDQ\PL GR REOLF]H E\á\ UyZQLH*FLQLHQLHROHMXZNRPRU]HK\GURVWDW\F]QHMp kom oleju [Pa s] (w temperaturze pomiarowej T oleju ) oraz przemieszczenia QDUR*\NORFNDS1, S2, S3 i S4 [µm] (Rys. 1áR*\VNDZF]DVLHSUDF\Kydrostatycznej (Tab. 1). Tabela 1. Zestawienie wyników pomiarów Nr zestawu xc yc T oleju p kom S1 S2 S3 S4 danych [mm] [mm] [ o C] [MPa] [µm] [µm] [µm] [µm] :FHOXXQLNQLFLDEáGXVSRZRGRZDQHJRUR]U]XWHPOHSNRFLROHMX31 ZVND]XMHW\ONR]DNUHVOHSNRFLGODGDQHMNODV\ROHMXZGDQHMWHPSHUDWXU]H SREUDQR ]H VWDQRZLVND EDGDZF]HJR SUyEN ROHMX 7 L SRPLHU]RQR MHJR OHSNRü Z IXQNFML WHPSHUDWXU\ 3R]ZROLáR WR QD Z\]QDF]HQLH NRQNUHWQHM ZDUWRFLOHSNRFLROHMXZWHPSHUDWXU]HSRPLDUXTab. 23U]\NáDGZ\QLNyZ REOLF]HZIRUPLHJUDILF]QHMSRND]DQRQDRys. 7. Dla wszystkich zestawów GDQ\FK SRPLDURZ\FK ]PLHU]RQH REFL*HQLH NORFND ár*\vnd Z\QLRVáR : VWDQRZL Z\GDWHN Z\SRURZHM SRPS\ ]DVLODMFHM ár*\vnr =HVWDZ\ GDQ\FK SRPLDURZ\FKUy*QLá\VLRGVLHELHWHPSHUDWXUROHMX7 > o *HQLHPSXQNWXSRGSDUFLDNORFNDLZNRQVHNZHQFMLFLQLHQLHPROHMXZNRPorze hydrostatycznego zasilania oraz wskazaniami poszczególnych czujników SU]HPLHV]F]H Tabela 2. =HVWDZLHQLH Z\QLNyZ REOLF]H L LFK EáGyZ GOD ]HVWDZyZ GDQ\FK pomiarowych Nr zestawu danych [Pa s] W [kn] û: [%] Q [l/min] û4 [%] û[f [mm] û\f [mm] gdzie: û: EáGZ]JOGQ\REOLF]RQHJRREFL*HQLD û4 EáGZ]JOGQ\Z\]QDF]RQHJRZ\GDWNXSRPS\]DVLOaMFHM û[fû\f± Uy*QLFDPLG]\Z\QLNLHPREOLF]H0(6RUD]SRPLarami URGNDSRGSDUFLD

11 T R I B O L O G I A 405 a) b) Rys. 7. 3U]\NáDGRZ\ Z\QLN REOLF]H 0(6 D UR]NáDG FLQLHQLD K\GURVWDW\F]QHJR QD SRZLHU]FKQL OL]JRZHM NORFND ár*\vnd E GHIRUPDFMD NORFND Z NLHUXn- NX RVL = Z\ZRáDQD FLQLHQLHP K\GURVWDW\F]Q\P ± GHIRUPDFMH SRZLNV]RQH 2000 razy Fig. 7. Example of the results, a) pressure distribution, b) pad deformation caused by hydrostatic pressure (exaggerated 2000 times) DYSKUSJA WYNIKÓW I WNIOSKI 1DMZLNV]HUy*QLFHZ]JOGQHZ\QLNyZREOLF]HLHNVSHU\PHQWXGRW\F] QDW*HQLDSU]HSá\ZXROHMXSU]H]V]F]HOLQVPDURZ4'RGDWNRZDDQDOi- ]D XMDZQLáD*H WDN Uy*QLF PR*QD VNRU\JRZDü]PLHQLDMF WHPSHUDWXU ROHMXRû7 a> o *HQLDRUD]SRPLDUXJUXERFLV]F]HOLQ\ZF]WHUHFKSXQNWDFKQDREZRG]LH ± RFHQLRQR *H Uy*QLFH Z\QLNyZ REOLF]H L HNVSHU\PHQWX QLH SU]HNUa- F]DMáF]QHJRZSá\ZXZVSRPQLDQ\FKEáGyZSRPLDURZ\FK:LHONRFL EáGyZ V]XNDQ\FK ZDUWRFL XSUDZQLDM GR Z\VXQLFLD QDVWSXMF\FK wniosków: 1. 5y*QLFHZ\QLNyZSRPLDUyZLREOLF]H:4[F\FNORFNDáR*\VND K\GURJHQHUDWRUD V QLHZLHONLH FR SR]ZDOD QD Z\NRU]\VWDQLH RSUDFowanej metodyki obliczeniowej do projektowania wahliwych klocków ár*\vnqrq\fk]k\gurvwdw\f]q\pzvsrpdjaniem. 2. 'ODFHOyZSURMHNWRZDQLDáR*\VNQRQ\FKQLH]EGQHMHVWXZ]JOGQLe- QLH Z REOLF]HQLDFK VSU*\VW\FK GHIRUPDFML NORFNyZ ár*\vnrz\fk PR*QD QDWRPLDVW SRPLQü UR]JU]HZDQLH VL ROHMX Z Z\QLNX SU]HSáy- ZXSU]H]V]F]HOLQRUD]WHUPLF]QHGHIRUPDFMHNORcków. 3. 0R*OLZH MHVW Z\NU\ZDQLH EáGyZ NRQVWUXNF\MQ\FK QD HWDSLH SURMHktowania stwierdzanie na drodze obliczeniowej awaryjnych stanów pracy podpór.

12 406 T R I B O L O G I A RG]LNRZDQLH $XWRUSUDJQLHSRG]LNRZDü3DQXSURIHVRURZL-6DOZLVNLHPXRUD] 3DQXGULQ*.%HGQDUNRZL]$*+Z.UDNRZLH]DXG]LHORQSU]\]ELe- UDQLXGDQ\FKGRZLDGF]DOQ\FKSRPRF LITERATURA [1] Ettles C., Seyler J., Bottenschein M.: Some effects of start up and shut down on thrust bearing assemblies in hydro-generators ASME/STLE International Joint Tribology Conference, Cancun Mexico. [2] %HGQDUHN. URGHN Z\SRUX K\GURVWDW\Fznego filmu olejowego i statec- ]QRü Z\FK\OQHM Sá\W\ SDQZLRZHM Z ár*\vnx QRQ\P K\GURJHQHUDWRUD Energetyka nr 2/1985 str [3] 6]PHWOHU - 'DFNR 0 'REURFLVNL 6 :LHF]RUHN 0 0HWRGD elemen- WyZ VNRF]RQ\FK Z VWDW\FH NRQVWUXNFML 3U]\NáDG\ REOLF]H Arkady, Warszawa [4] 'EURZVNL / 3LHUFLHQLRZD VSU*\QD Sá\WRZD R ZLHOX SRGSRUDFK MDNR VSU*\VWH SRGSDUFLH K\GURG\QDPLF]QHJR ár*\vnd Z]GáX*QHJR Praca GRNWRUVND :\G]LDá 0HFKDQLF]Q\ 3ROLWHFKQLNL *GDVNLHM *GDsk [5] Brown A., Medley J., Ferguson J.: Spring-supported thrust bearing used in hydroelectric generators: finite element analysis of pad deflection. 27 th Leeds Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, France, WrzeVLH [6] Brown A., Medley J., Ferguson J.: Spring-supported thrust bearing used in hydroelectric generators: further developments in the finite element analysis of the pad deflection. 2 nd 7ULERORJ\ &RQJUHVV :LHGH Summary Recenzent: Jan BURCAN The most critical regimes of operation of a thrust bearing in a water turbine are start-ups and shutdowns. One of the reasons is lower speed because of which hydrodynamic load carrying capacity is lower than at nominal speed, the other is additional axial load caused by flow phenomena in some types of turbines. Hydrostatic lifting is commonly used especially in pump turbines, for which start-ups and shutdowns are more frequent than in other types of water machines because of their function in electrical system. Hydrostatic lifting helps to generate load-carrying capacity. The possibility of testing

13 T R I B O L O G I A 407 new designs is limited so it is necessary to assess the hydrostatic operation of a bearing by calculations. Equilibrium of a tilting pad, its deformation and the required flow of supplied oil should be evaluated. The aim of the work was devising and verifying a model of oil film and bearing pad in hydrostatic mode of operation. FEM model used for the calculations included flow of the lubricant supplied to the hydrostatic pocket in the fluid gap, influence of the deformations on the oil gap profile, influence of pad support on its deformation. The main elements and assumptions of the model are described in the paper, as well as the iterative procedure utilised to obtain solutions. An example of calculations for the thrust bearing of 125 MW SXPSWXUELQHRI3RUEND)DUSRZHUSODQWLVSUHVHQWHGLQWKHSDSHU The thrust bearing consists of 16 spring supported tilting pads. In hydrostatic mode of operation high pressure oil is supplied to the pocket machined on the pad sliding surface. The results show pressure distribution and the deformation of a tilting pad supported on the cylinder caused by hydrostatic pressure. The calculation results were verified in a simple test rig in which only one pad in a hydrostatic mode of operation is tested. The discrepancy between calculations and experiment are also evaluated. The theoretical results show good correlation with the experiment that is why the devised model can be considered a useful tool for predicting performance of a thrust bearing in hydrostatic mode of operation including the effects of pad support its deformations. It is hoped that failures caused by wrong position of pad support or inadequate oil supply can be predicted and prevented with the use of the devised model.

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