Variable Annuity Living Benefits

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1 Variable Annuity Living Benefits Darryl Wagner, Deloitte Consulting Agenda Types of Living Benefits Introduction to FAS133 Definition of a Derivative Identifying Embedded Derivatives Valuing Contracts with Embedded Derivatives Valuing Embedded Derivatives Current Issues 1 Types of Living Benefits Benefit Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB) Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit (GMWB) Lifetime GMWB Guaranteed Minimum Income Benefit (GMIB) Description After specified period, account value set to the greater of: the current account balance or the GMAB. Guarantees a specified annual withdrawal benefit that may be redeemed over a specified period of time or is subject to a specified maximum lifetime amount. Guarantees a specified annual withdrawal benefit that may be redeemed for life Guarantees a specified income stream that may be redeemed over a specified period of time. Use Pre-Retirement Protection of Principal Retirement Income protection Retirement Income protection Pre-retirement Income protection Variations on Guaranteed Amount Initial Premium + Interest Initial Premium, maximum annual withdrawal % of premium Initial Premium, maximum annual withdrawal % of premium Initial Premium + Interest Possible Caps/Floors on Benefits Cap on overall benefit level Limits on fund mix Benefit waiting period Cap on overall benefit level Limits on fund mix Benefit waiting period Frequency of reset Penalties for early withdrawals Ability to increase fee Cap on overall benefit level Limits on fund mix Benefit waiting period Frequency of reset Penalties for early withdrawals Ability to increase fee Cap on overall benefit level Limits on fund mix Benefit waiting period Accounting Model FAS 133 FAS 133 FAS 133 and potentially SOP 03-1 SOP 03-1; FAS 133 if net settled 2 1

2 Introduction to FAS 133 Continuing Professional Education Accounting for Derivative Instruments Accounting for and Derivative Hedging Activities: Instruments AComprehensive View of and Hedging Activities: Statement 133 AComprehensive View of Statement 133 Participant's Manual Participant's Manual FinancialAccountingStandards Board ofthe FinancialAccountingFoundation The Ground Rules All derivatives must be recognized on balance sheet at fair value The offset is either to current earnings or to other comprehensive income Must meet specific criteria to use hedge accounting 4 Why is FAS133 so Complex? Derivatives are complex Cover all bases approach in defining derivative Accommodate hedge accounting to deal with anomalies caused by mixed-attribute model 5 2

3 FAS 133: The Big Picture In summary: Broadly defines a derivative Introduces embedded derivatives All derivatives at fair value on the balance sheet (previously off balance sheet) Default accounting MTM in earnings Limited hedge accounting permitted 6 FASB s Definition of a Derivative Any contract with ALL of the following: 1. Financial instrument or contract FAS 149 amended less than 90% of notional - Underlying - Notional amount or payment provision 2. No (or smaller) investment at inception 3. Requires or permits net settlement or de facto net settlement 7 Definition of Derivative Examples of Notionals and Underlyings: Derivative Underlying Notional FAS 149 include occurrence / nonoccurrence of specified events Stock option Currency forward Stock price Exchange rate Number of shares Amount of currency Commodity future Interest rate swap Commodity price Interest rate index Number of commodity units Dollar amount Purchase order computers Price of computers Number of computers 8 3

4 Net Settlement 1. Neither party must deliver the underlying asset and the contract settles on a net basis Net cash or share settlement 2. One party must deliver the underlying asset, but - there is a mechanism that facilitates net settlement (e.g. exchange, assignment) or - the asset is readily convertible to cash or is itself a derivative (e.g. publicly traded securities) 9 Identifying Embedded Derivatives 10 What Are Embedded Derivatives? Many contracts do not meet the definition of a derivative, but may contain embedded derivatives Implicit or explicit terms that affect some or all of the cash flows or the value of other exchanges, in a manner similar to a derivative If certain criteria are met, separate such a Hybrid Instrument into host contract and embedded derivative FASB can t t hide a derivative by incorporating into another instrument 11 4

5 Key Terminology Found in non-derivative contracts ( Host ) Host contract + embedded derivative = hybrid contract Annuity + equity option = equity-linked annuity 12 Hybrid Instruments > Convertible debt Generally bifurcate embedded derivative > Calls and puts on equity instruments Bifurcate embedded derivative > Equity-indexed note Bifurcate embedded derivative Host 13 Embedded Derivatives Decision Tree KEY Apply Statement 133 Is contract already marked to fair value through earnings? No Does the embedded meet the definition of a derivative? Yes No Is it clearly and closely related? Yes No Yes Do Not Apply Statement

6 What is Clearly and Closely Related? Clearly and closely related refers to: Economic characteristics Risks Defined mostly by examples in FAS 133 Factors to consider Type of host Underlying 15 Life Insurance and Annuities > Excluded from FAS 133: Out Traditional whole-life contracts (FAS 60) Traditional participating contracts (FAS 120/SOP 95-1) Traditional universal-life contracts (FAS 97) In > Subject to FAS 133: Deferred variable annuity with a minimum guaranteed investment return Equity-indexed deferred annuity and life insurance Synthetic GICs GMAB/WB GMIB, if net settled Certain reinsurance agreements 16 Separate Account Variable Annuities Traditional SA assets legally isolated from general account Policyholder not subject to insurance company s risk of default SA assets performance accrued 100% to policyholder Policy holder subject to investment risk (not shared) Redeemable at any time (subject to surrender charges) FAS 133 conclusion: 100% beneficial interests in assets No embedded derivatives 17 6

7 Separate Account Variable Annuities Non-traditional features Most features are not clearly and closely related because result in sharing of investment risk However, many such features do not meet definition of derivative 18 Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefits Host contract Annuity Embedded derivative Option Clearly and closely related? No! Embedded derivative scoped out as insurance 19 Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefits Separate account A issues variable annuity for $1 million. Separate account guarantees a minimum account value of $1 million at end of accumulation period. If policyholder terminates before end of accumulation period, the policyholder will receive the account value less surrender charges. 20 7

8 Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefits Host contract Annuity Embedded derivative Option It s s an embedded Clearly and closely related? No! Sharing of investment risk 21 Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefits Separate account A issues variable annuity for $1 million. Variable annuity contains a GMWB. GMWB guarantees $1 million value through fixed payouts that don t exceed 7% of the guaranteed remaining balance per year. 22 Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefits Host contract Annuity Embedded derivative Option It s s an embedded Clearly and closely related? No! Sharing of investment risk 23 8

9 GMWB for Life Separate account A issues variable annuity for $1 million. Variable annuity contains a GMWB for Life. GMWB guarantees $1 million value through fixed payouts that don t exceed 7% of the guaranteed remaining balance per year. Once the account value falls below $0, the 7% payments continue to for life 24 GMWB for Life (for Life Component) Host contract Annuity Embedded derivative Option Clearly and closely related? No! Sharing of investment risk Life contingent portion scoped out as insurance It s s an embedded 25 Deferred Variable Annuity w/ Payment Alternatives Examples: Guarantee minimum interest rate during accumulation period that would be used in computing periodic annuity payments Guarantee minimum account value if annuitize Guarantee minimum monthly annuity payments FAS 133 conclusions: During accumulation period, not derivatives because cannot net settle 26 9

10 So, How Do You Account for Embedded Derivatives? If Not Clearly & Closely Related Separate: Host contract - apply applicable GAAP Embedded derivative - apply FAS 133 Use the with and without approach at inception With and without approach: Initial value of host contract = hybrid s initial value minus FV of embedded derivative 28 Embedded Derivative Instruments If all criteria met and embedded derivative can be reliably identified and measured, BIFURCATE hybrid instrument: Apply FAS 133 MTM Host Apply applicable GAAP for similar contracts 29 10

11 Can t Bifurcate? If the embedded derivative cannot be reliably measured: Account for entire contract at fair value through earnings Hybrid may not be used as a hedging instrument Should be RARE 30 What is Fair Value? Definition of a fair value: The amount at which an asset (or liability) can be bought (or incurred) or sold (or settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. > Quoted market prices are the best evidence of fair value (e.g., the price of stock traded on the NYSE) > In the absence of quoted prices, use other valuation techniques (e.g., present value techniques or option or other pricing models) > Definition will change with FAS FAS 133 Valuation of GMWB Risk neutral stochastic models generally a must these are complex options Calculate PV Expected Benefit cost Value at the Mean Discount using risk-free spot rates At inception, FV of embedded derivative is zero Solve for a Valuation Net Premium or Ascribed Fee PV Valuation NP at t=0 equals PV Expected Benefits Future Liability/Asset Updated PV Expected Benefit less PV Valuation NP (Ascribed Fee) Updating assumptions, inforce, stochastic model parameters 32 11

12 FAS 133 Valuation of GMWB Modeling Considerations Typically monthly or quarterly cohorts Additional Deposits If benefit integrated across all deposits, should integrate in valuation Can create earnings anomaly if Valuation NP for original cohort is not equal to the PV of additional benefit from new deposit Careful consideration should be given to the interplay of various guarantees Model mortality and associated GMDB in valuation of GMWB, and vice-versa Changes in value of embedded derivative should flow through EGPs Assumptions Mortality, persistency, utilization, fund growth, volatility Best estimates, unlocked as warranted, generally consistent with DAC assumptions except fund growth and volatility 33 FAS 133 Valuation of GMWB Modeling Considerations (continued) Need relatively granular model Minimize offsetting effect of different levels of in-the-moneyness Model prospective policyholder behavior vs. static assumptions Benefit utilization and Reset Dynamic lapse and withdrawal Utilization varies with in-the-moneyness at future point in time Important to validate model against market inputs 34 FAS 133 Valuation of GMWB Modeling Considerations (continued) Number of scenarios must be sufficient to minimize standard error Several thousand under model cell approach Several hundred under seriatim approach, regenerated for each policy Importance of controls Small changes to models can have a material impact Model risk is substantial 35 12

13 Embedded Derivatives Current Issues Consideration of market relevant data Zero Initial Condition and Dealer Profit Asset or Liability? New challenges arising under FAS Embedded Derivatives Market Relevant Data Determining Fair Value requires using all relevant market information Use market implied volatilities where available Best practice is to extrapolate for longer periods, rather than use long term historical volatility Increasing prices in marketplace may indicate: Perceived risks have increased increasing liability value of derivative Less competitive market no change in liability value of derivative 37 Embedded Derivatives Dealer Profit EITF 02-3 indicates that transaction price should be used for fair value at inception unless there are observable market inputs No Dealer Profit How should implied Dealer Profit be recognized in earnings? Net premium approach recognizes Dealer Profit as fees in excess of net premium are collected 38 13

14 Embedded Derivatives Asset or Liability? After initial valuation, market conditions may change such that embedded derivative value is negative The contract is valued as an asset rather than a liability SEC staff have indicated view that a written option is a noncontingent obligation to stand ready to perform This view would not support recording such a derivative at fair value if it would be an asset Implication is a mismatch with respect to hedging programs supported by market-traded derivative contracts 39 Embedded Derivatives New challenges arising under FAS 157 How to consider market prices How to incorporate risk margins How to incorporate credit margin if a liability (and how not to if an asset) Relationship of exit price to price charged to policyholder 40 14

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