SESSION 31: FUNDAMENTALS. 31-2: Advanced multilevel solution of journal paths in reciprocating compressors including bearing deformation

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1 Contents SESSION 31: FUNDAMENTALS 31-1: Nonlinear multi-axial fatigue analysis of a threaded crosshead to piston rod connection of a reciprocating compressor using the Brown-Miller algorithm Riccardo Traversari, Alessandro Rossi, Marco Faretra; COMPRESSION SERVICE TECHNOLOGY, HYPERTECS S.R.L : Advanced multilevel solution of journal paths in reciprocating compressors including bearing deformation : CFD Evaluation of Pressure Losses on Reciprocating Compressor Components Guido Pratelli, Alberto Babbini, Francesco Balduzzi, Giovanni Ferarra, Riccardo Maleci, Luca Romani; GE OIL&GAS : Steel casting defects an issue for both, compressor user and manufacturers Gerard Zima, Ilya Asser; SLOVNAFT AS, NEAC COMPRESSOR SERVICE GMBH&CO. KG : 3D-Laser form and position verification after cylinder repair welding Markus Weber, Stefan Damberg; BASF SE, NEAC COMPRESSOR SERVICE GMBH&CO. KG : Field Assessment of Overall RMS Vibration Guidelines for Reciprocating Compressors Brian Howes, Tom Stephens; BETA MACHINERY ANALYSIS, ARIEL CORPORATION : Efficient Maintenance Of The World s Largest LDPE Compressor Train Yousef Al-Shammari; TASNEE PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX : Maintenance practices and experienced failure modes in Air Liquide plants Protection and monitoring systems Luc Bertheloot, Wolfgang Grillhofer; AIR LIQUIDE : Automatic shutdown caused by dynamic piston-rod position analysis saved compressor Uwe Ladwig; YARA BRUNSBÜTTEL GMBH P.N. Duineveld, B. Brogle, C.H. Venner, S. van Loo; HOWDEN THOMASSEN COMPRESSORS BV, UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE SESSION 32: OPERATION & MAINTENANCE SESSION 33: CONDITION MONITORING 1 1

2 SESSION 34: DESIGN & ENGINEERING : Biogas injection into transport grids a new interesting field for compressor manufacturers Dirk Sattur, Thomas Oelkrug; RWE DEUTSCHLAND AG : Efficient Compressor Drives for the Smart Power Grid Anders Siggberg; WÄRTSILÄ FINLAND OY : Non-lubricated Moderate Speed Reciprocating Compressors in a Hydrogen Plant - Benjamin F. Williams, Laurent Richaume; ARIEL CORPORATION, AIR LIQUIDE ENGINEERING&CONSTRUCTION 96 SESSION 35: CONDITION MONITORING : Bridging the gap between safety protection and condition monitoring Eike Drewes; PROGNOST SYSTEMS GMBH : Digital communication technologies have arrived at condition monitoring systems for reciprocating compressors Klaus Stachel, Tomas Locken; HOERBIGER COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY : Localization of reciprocating compressor components faults using on-line dynamic correlation of impulsive vibration signatures with calculated forces and displacements at individual running gear components Gaia Rossi; GE MEASUREMENT & CONTROL SESSION 36: DESIGN & ENGINEERING : A Variable Stroke Flow Control for Reciprocating Compressors Mike Hüllenkremer; NEUMAN & ESSER GMBH&CO KG : How the golden age of gas is challenging the reciprocating compressor business Dr. Gunther Machu, Dr. Tino Lindner-Silwester, Dr. Bernhard Spiegl; HOERBIGER COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY HOLDING : Analysis of the Movements of the Valve Sealing Elements F. Manfrone, A. Raggi; DOTT.ING MARIO COZANNI S.R.L

3 SESSION 37: RETROFIT 37-1: Increasing the capacity of reciprocating compressors for LDPE plant Hisung Lee, Dr. Charles D. Beals, Manfred Strässler; SAMSUNG TOTAL PETROCHEMICAL LTD, ECI INTERNATIONAL INC, BURCKHARDT COMPRESSION AG : Design and manufacturing of a new large bore compressor cylinder Lau Koop; HOWDEN THOMASSEN COMPRESSORS BV : Increasing the reliability and reducing vibration of a 35 year old compressor by replacing the frame housing with an optimised design using the FEA method Ralf Krich; HOERBIGER SERVICE GMBH SESSION 38: FLOW CONTROLS 38-1: Experience with Electromagnetic Stepless Flow Control Systems R. Aigner, L. Sasse, E. Glück, A. Allenspach; BURCKHARDT COMPRESSION AG : New concept for electrical stepless compressor capacity-control system Bernhard Spiegl, Peter Dolovai, Tino Lindner-Silwester; HOERBIGER VENTILWERKE GMBH & CO KG : Stepless Mass Flow Control Using Fixed Clearance Pockets a New Solution Using an Old Idea Georg Flade, Klaus Hoff; NEUMAN & ESSER GMBH & CO KG SESSION 39: PULSATION & VIBRATIONS 39-1: High-frequency radiated noise in a reciprocating compressor installation: analysis and mitigation Joachim Golliard, Leonard van Lier, Vasillaq Kacani; TNO - DEPARTMENT OF FLUID DYNAMICS, LEOBERSDORFER MASCHINENFABRIK GMBH : Vibrations at natural gas storage facilities during combined operation of reciprocating and turbo compressors Dr.-Ing. Jan Steinhausen; KÖTTER CONSULTING ENGINEERS GMBH&CO. KG : Impact of pulsations on flow metering accuracy: identification and remedies Leonard van Lier, Rob Crena de Iongh; TNO - DEPARTMENT OF FLUID DYNAMICS, NEDERLANDSE AARDOLIEMAATSCHAPPIJ BV

4 SESSION 40: RINGS & PACKINGS 40-1: Uncut Ring Technology for Compressor Packing Craig Martin; COOK COMPRESSION : Friction-surface coatings in dry-running piston compressors - benefits and risks Dr. Norbert Feistel; BURCKHARDT COMPRESSION AG : Importance of Material and Layout Marc Langela; STASSKOL GMBH SESSION 41: EFRC 41-1: Educating reciprocating compressor engineers at the EFRC Dr.Ing. Siegmund V. Cierniak; RWE DEUTSCHLAND AG : Temperature Reduction of the Piston Rod in non-lubricated Piston Compressors by Internal Cooling Christiane Hammer, Gotthard Will, Ullrich Hesse; TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT DRESDEN : Compressor Foundation Analysis Tool (COFANTO) André Eijk, Sven Lentzen, Flavio Galanti, Bruno Coelho; TNO - FLUID DYNAMICS, TNO - STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS SESSION 42: TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS : The Importance of Motor Dynamics in Reciprocating Compressor Drives Gerhard Knop; NEUMAN & ESSER GMBH&CO. KG : Practical experience from torsional vibration measurements and analysis of reciprocating compressors - Case studies Dr.-Ing. Johann Lenz, Dr.-Ing. Fikre Boru; KÖTTER CONSULTING ENGINEERS GMBH & CO. KG : Flywheel and induction motor sizing for reciprocating compressors Javã Pedreira; PETROBAS

5 SESSION 31: FUNDAMENTALS 31-1: Nonlinear multi-axial fatigue analysis of a threaded crosshead to piston rod connection of a reciprocating compressor using the Brown-Miller algorithm Riccardo Traversari, Alessandro Rossi, Marco Faretra; COMPRESSION SERVICE TECHNOLOGY, HYPERTECS S.R.L : Advanced multilevel solution of journal paths in reciprocating compressors including bearing deformation P.N. Duineveld, B. Brogle, C.H. Venner, S. van Loo; HOWDEN THOMASSEN COMPRESSORS BV, UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE : CFD Evaluation of Pressure Losses on Reciprocating Compressor Components Guido Pratelli, Alberto Babbini, Francesco Balduzzi, Giovanni Ferarra, Riccardo Maleci, Luca Romani; GE OIL&GAS

6 Nonlinear multi-axial fatigue analysis of a threaded crosshead to piston rod connection of a reciprocating compressor using the Brown-Milleralgorithm Riccardo Traversari Alessandro Rossi Marco Faretra, Rotating Machinery Design Manager Rotating Machinery Design Engineer Mechanical Engineering Consultant Compression Service Technology Compression Service Technology Hypertecss.r.l. Florence Florence Casalecchio di Reno (Bo) Italy Italy Italy September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf The crosshead to piston rod threaded connection is one of the most critical parts of the whole reciprocating compressor. Traditionally, this critical connection is dimensioned by the classic method of the Load/Deformation diagram or triangle of theelasticity s to evaluate mean and fluctuating stresses on the thread and then the relevant safety factor with the specific Smith fatigue diagram. A better approach is to make a Finite Element Analysis, which can be performed simulating the threaded connection as a cylindrical surface, neglecting the real thread geometry or, even better, simulating the real thread geometry. But, even the more refined elastic FEM fatigue analysis, with Von Misesmonoaxial equivalent stress, typically estimates stresses that often exceed the material yield strength in the thread root radius, thus resulting in unrealistically poor safety factors even in the subsequent fatigue analysis. Also a biaxial fatigue analysis for infinite life in the linear range shows the same problem even for well proven applications. This paper, after a review of the aforementioned methods, describes a new advanced approach to the design of the threaded connection of the crosshead to piston rod based on an elastic-plastic, multiaxial nonlinear, non proportional FEA, using the Brown-Miller algorithm with the Morrow correction of the mean stress. This new calculation method allows taking in the correct consideration also the possible local plastic deformations, evaluating their real effect on the thread strength. 6

7 Advanced multilevel solution of journal paths in reciprocating compressors including bearing deformation P.N. Duineveld, B. Brogle C.H. Venner, S. van Loo Technology Department Department of Mechanical Engineering HowdenThomassen Compressors BV Faculty of Engineering Fluid Dynamics Rheden, The Netherlands University of Twente Enschede, The Netherlands September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf In compressor bearing analysis and design to determine the journal paths and film thicknesses traditionally the Mobility method is used. This method is computationally very cheap and well suited for practical engineering as it uses predetermined expressions relating the bearing force to the eccentricity and loading conditions. However, these expressions are restricted to a particular bearing type and effects which may be crucial under extreme loads such as bearing deformation cannot be taken into account. For this purpose an alternative approach is presented in this paper. Anumerical solution approach has been developed solving the full two dimensional Reynolds equation for the pressure at every moment in time during loading cycle and the journal paths. The approach allows taking into account arbitrary bearing shapes deformations, constant, as well as varying in time. To allow use in a practical design environment optimally efficient Multigridtechniques are used for the numerical solution of the equations such that realistic cases can be considered on small scale computers which are commonly available. In this paper the method is explained, validated, and some first results are presented illustrating the effect of bearing deformation on the journal path. 14

8 CFD Evaluation of Pressure Losses on Reciprocating Compressor Components Guido Pratelli Lead Engineer / Technologist GE Oil & Gas NuovoPignone Via F. Matteucci 2, 50127, Florence, Italy T: F: E. Alberto Babbini Lead Engineer / Technologist GE Oil & Gas NuovoPignone Via F. Matteucci 2, 50127, Florence, Italy T: F: E: Francesco Balduzzi Ph.D. Student - University of Florence Via S. Marta 3, 50139, Florence, Italy T: F: E: Giovanni Ferrara Assistant Professor - University of Florence Via S. Marta 3, 50139, Florence, Italy T: F: E: Riccardo Maleci Contract Researcher - University of Florence Via S. Marta 3, 50139, Florence, Italy T: F: E: Luca Romani Ph.D. Student - University of Florence Via S. Marta 3, 50139, Florence, Italy T: F: E: Reciprocating compressor efficiency is driven by the pressure losses generated at suction and discharge. While the valves are the major contributors to these losses, a key role is played by other components along the cylinder suction and discharge paths. CFD simulations of complete systems are a viable solution for prediction of total pressure losses. On the other hand, these simulations require noticeable man work for set-up; moreover, the results are dependent on the specific geometric and fluid-dynamic parameters chosen for the calculation. Recent studies have suggested that an approach based on superposition of effects is suitable for the prediction of pressure losses caused by the different components. Valve geometries are replaced by equivalent porous regions, thus providing a great simplification of the model and enhancing productivity due to the possibility of evaluating different configurations without having to re-construct and re-mesh the geometries. In this paper, the same approach is presented and applied to one specific, real-world case. Total pressure losses are computed by a steady-state CFD simulation of a complete configuration of cylinder equipped with 16 valves and other components (cylinder head, liner, valve unloaders, cages etc.), at suction and discharge condition. Calculation of the P-V cycle inside the cylinder is performed taking into account the loss coefficients obtained at previous step. Comparison with measured data is provided in order to support the validity of this approach. 22

9 SESSION 32: OPERATION & MAINTENANCE 32-1: Steel casting defects an issue for both, compressor user and manufacturers Gerard Zima, Ilya Asser; SLOVNAFT AS, NEAC COMPRESSOR SERVICE GMBH&CO. KG : 3D-Laser form and position verification after cylinder repair welding Markus Weber, Stefan Damberg; BASF SE, NEAC COMPRESSOR SERVICE GMBH&CO. KG : Field Assessment of Overall RMS Vibration Guidelines for Reciprocating Compressors Brian Howes, Tom Stephens; BETA MACHINERY ANALYSIS, ARIEL CORPORATION

10 Steel Casting Defects An Issue for both, Compressor Users and Manufacturers By Gerard Zima Group Refining Maintenance Advisor SLOVNAFT, a.s. Bratislava, Slovakia and Ilya Asser Sales Engineer NEAC Compressor Service GmbH & Co. KG Uebach-Palenberg, Germany September 27th / 28th, 2012, Dusseldorf The paper touches a difficult issue of steel casting quality. A particular user experience with casting defects of pressure containing machinery parts from refinery praxis is outlined. The difficulties from such defects arising for the user are demonstrated as well as its repair procedure in such cases. It shows also the problem from the compressor manufacturer s point of view and how to deal with casting defects. For the particular case the paper shows the technical process of repairing the leaking compressor cylinder and technical solutions to prevent recurrence of errors in the new cast cylinder quality. A typical example is presented which also highlights the need for close and good user and manufacturer cooperation. 32

11 3D-Laser Form and Position Verification before and after Repair of complex Compressor Parts Markus Weber Senior Engineer Compressors - Rotating Equipment BASF SE, GTF/TE - U427 Ludwigshafen, Germany and Stefan Damberg Project Engineer NEAC Compressor Service GmbH & Co. KG Uebach-Palenberg, Germany September 27th / 28th, 2012, Dusseldorf This paper focuses on 3D-laser form and position verification before and after repair of complicated compressor parts with considerable heat intrusion. The subject discussed here is a cylinder for a reciprocating compressor which had to be cut and welded to eliminate a section with too small wall thickness. In order to confirm the reproducibility of the welding, prior to the actual repair the procedure was tested utilizing 3D-laser equipment for the dimension check before and after the procedure. The result will show significant deformation of the cylinder mating surface towards the frame which could easily be made visible only from the laser model. Based on the true 3D cylinder shape, obtained from the laser scanning, decisions can be made concerning final machining to bring the cylinder back to its proper form. 43

12 Field Assessment of Overall RMS Vibration Guidelines for Reciprocating Compressors Howes, Brian Chief Engineer, Beta Machinery Analysis Calgary, Canada and Tom Stephens Senior Equipment Specialist, Ariel Corporation Mt. Vernon, USA September27th&28th, 2012, Düsseldorf The EFRC has prepared an overall RMS vibration guideline for reciprocating compressors. The intent is to have this guideline approved as an ISO standard. To assess the accuracy and robustness of this guideline, the authors have completed field studies on a range of compressor installations. These field tests compare the proposed guideline to other vibration parameters and measurement approaches. This paper will present the findings from these field assessments and conclusions regarding the proposed standard. 51

13 SESSION 33: CONDITION MONITORING : Efficient Maintenance Of The World s Largest LDPE Compressor Train Yousef Al-Shammari; TASNEE PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX : Maintenance practices and experienced failure modes in Air Liquide plants Protection and monitoring systems Luc Bertheloot, Wolfgang Grillhofer; AIR LIQUIDE : Automatic shutdown caused by dynamic piston-rod position analysis saved compressor Uwe Ladwig; YARA BRUNSBÜTTEL GMBH

14 Tasnee Petrochemical Complex EFFICIENT MAINTENANCE OF THE WORLD S LARGEST LDPE COMPRESSOR TRAIN Yousef Al-Shammari Reliability & Integrity Department Jubail Industrial City Kingdom of Saudi Arabia September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf Tasnee operates the world s largest single frame reciprocating compressor in LDPE service. The LDPE production line consists of a 6-throw 7 MW Booster Primary and a 12-cylinder 27,5 MW Secondary Hyper. The two case studies describe how monitoring information supports essential maintenance decisions: when to safely shut down the compressors, where to open the machines and what measures are to be taken to allow a re-start of operation in the shortest possible time. These experience reports provide an in-depth look in the daily routine of state-of-the-art compressor operation with a special focus on maintenance efficiency. 60

15 Maintenance practices and experienced failure modes in Air Liquide plants Protection and monitoring systems Bertheloot Luc & Grillhofer Wolfgang Rotating Machinery Expert Group Air Liquide September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf Air Liquide is operating about 250 reciprocating piston compressors of several OEMs and different types and age with shaft power between 10kW and 4100kW in different plants in Europe. More than 40 compressors require a shaft power of more than 1000kW. The gases which are compressed are so called air gases as oxygen, nitrogen and the inert gases, carbon monoxide and dioxide, syngas, hydrogen and mixtures of mentioned gases. Air Liquide has developed standard maintenance strategies based on the type of gases and machine criticality. This paper and presentation shall give an overview on the maintenance philosophy of the different kind of compressors running with different type of gases as also the maintenance applied on the auxiliary equipment as the stepless volume flow control systems, etc. Based on our gathered experience we want to give an overview on failure analysis results, on compressor type and/or production specific failures and on lessons learned. Furthermore the value of protection and monitoring systems shall be discussed, especially which failures can be detected and avoided with state of the art protection systems and where are the limits from Air Liquide experience point of view. 65

16 Automatic shutdown caused by dynamic piston-rod position analysis saved compressor Uwe Ladwig Plant Maintenance Department YARA Brunsbüttel GmbH Brunsbüttel Germany YARA operates a horizontal process gas compressor in CO2 service, feeding an urea plant. This compressor is equipped with a piston rod position sensor - taken as a shutdown parameter. This case study describes how the monitoring system detected a loosened cylinder/housing connection. Onlythe piston rod position sensor initiated a safety shutdown, the more common crosshead vibration shutdown was not involved in the case, and would not have avoided damages. 75

17 SESSION 34: DESIGN & ENGINEERING : Biogas injection into transport grids a new interesting field for compressor manufacturers Dirk Sattur, Thomas Oelkrug; RWE DEUTSCHLAND AG : Efficient Compressor Drives for the Smart Power Grid Anders Siggberg; WÄRTSILÄ FINLAND OY : Non-lubricated Moderate Speed Reciprocating Compressors in a Hydrogen Plant Benjamin F. Williams, Laurent Richaume; ARIEL CORPORATION, AIR LIQUIDE ENGINEERING&CONSTRUCTION 80

18 Biogas injection into transport grids a new interesting field for compressor manufacturers Dirk Sattur and Thomas Oelkrug Department Assetservice Gas RWE Deutschland AG Dortmund Germany Since April 2008 the German grid regulator published several changes in the gas grid access ordinance for connecting biogas upgrading plants to the public transport grid. By separating carbon dioxide and hydrosulfide from biogas that is produced in larger biogas plants, the efficiency and the heat to power coefficient is enhanced. After the upgrading phase biogas is equal in gas quality to conventional natural gas with the exception of the right calorific value in the corresponding transport grid. For this reason the next step is the conditioning of the biogas with ambient air and liquefied petroleum gas. Of course the most important point is the compression to operating pipe pressure. Nearly eighty injection plants are operating in Germany at the end of 2011 and forecasts are perspecting a fast growing field of business. Finally the government is aiming for a total substitution of 6 % of whole natural gas consumption in Germany in the year 2020 by biogas, that is equivalent to 750 injection plants operating in the field. Therefore a flexible reciprocating compressor that operates with special attributes concerning the requirements of biogas applications is the heart of an upgrading and injection plant. The connection of an experienced industry with a sector of green energy is a future business for compressor makers. The paper deals with the perspectives of biogas in detail, selection criteria for reciprocating compressors and a side view in an existing projected and already built facility. Let s go green in compressor business will play a future role in the R&D activities of reciprocating compressor makers. 81

19 Efficient Compressor Drives for the Smart Power Grid SiggbergAnders Pumping & Compression, Power Plants Wärtsilä Finland Oy Vaasa Finland September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf For many years electric motors have traditionally been considered an industry standard for driving compressors in more developed countries with heavier infrastructures. These regions are accessing increasing renewable power such as wind and solar,and in many situations the primary electric utility grids become unstable for starting up big electrically driven machines, such as compressors in for example underground gas storage projects. This is augmented on a country specific basis; with decisions for phasing out nuclear power plants in Germany will even increase the problem. Modern gas or dual fuel diesel combustion engines offers a credible and proven solution for the dilemma. With fast start-up times, high reliability and low emissions, gas engines can be the optimal solution for the future power grid of Europe. In fact, even the toughest emission limits can be met with stateof-the-art control systems and modern exhaust gas after treatment. Gas engines offers the highest efficiency on the market today, even when the power grids suffers from black outs. A feasibility study of a dual drive in a smart power grid will also be presented. 88

20 Non-lubricated Moderate Speed Reciprocating Compressors in a Hydrogen Plant Benjamin F. Williams Process Application and Account Manager Ariel Corporation Mount Vernon, Ohio USA Laurent Richaume Rotating Equipment Team Manager Air Liquide Engineering & Construction Champigny-Sur-Marne Cedex France September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf In 2007Air Liquide made the decision to purchase and install packaged, non-lubricated, moderate speed compressors for the hydrogen and natural gas feed services in a hydrogen plant supplying a refinery in South America. The compressors have been operating successfully for over two years. This case study will include a description of the compressor selections and details on the operational history. 96

21 SESSION 35: CONDITION MONITORING : Bridging the gap between safety protection and condition monitoring Eike Drewes; PROGNOST SYSTEMS GMBH : Digital communication technologies have arrived at condition monitoring systems for reciprocating compressors Klaus Stachel, Tomas Locken; HOERBIGER COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY : Localization of reciprocating compressor components faults using on-line dynamic correlation of impulsive vibration signatures with calculated forces and displacements at individual running gear components Gaia Rossi; GE MEASUREMENT & CONTROL

22 PROGNOST Systems GmbH Bridging the gap between safety protection and condition monitoring Eike Drewes PROGNOST Systems GmbH Rheine, Germany September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf In the reciprocating machinery industry it is still common that users safety protection equipment and condition monitoring is strictly separated. Machine operators frequently face a time consuming troubleshooting with minimum diagnostic data e.g. from the DCS system. Since many years flight data recorders are a common standard in the aviation industry to perform post-incident analyses of aircraft accidents. Such data recorders are also available for protection systems now and could be used to upgrade the diagnostic information. The paper describes how transient data recorders built into a protection system can not only support the post-incident failure analysis, but even more can be used to provide on-demand information of the compressor condition. They can be used to improve the traditional snapshot monitoring program that is still widely in place on reciprocating machines and deliver information whenever it is required without waiting time for an analyst to come and take the measurement. Whenever they are closely integrated to the protection system, they are much more cost efficient than full equipped condition monitoring systems and close the gap between equipment protection and online condition monitoring. 103

23 Digital communication technologies have arrived at condition monitoring systems for reciprocating compressors Stachel Klaus Product Management Locken Tomas Research & Development HOERBIGER CompressionTechnology TechGate Tower 15th floor Donau-City Strasse Vienna, Austria September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf Traditional condition monitoring systems comprise of sensors that are installed at the compressor and electronic processing units that are mounted in the cabinet room. The analog high frequency output signal of vibration, indicator pressure and rod-position sensors are each wired by instrumentation cables to the processing units. This is in contrast to other applications in process industry where digital communications like remote I/Os and field bus have been used for data transfer and safety systems for many years. Compared to analog signal transmission the digital data transfer based on remote I/Os reduces costs, has less limits regarding installation, is more robust against interferences and allows for the implementation of self-monitoring technologies to ensure data integrity. Up to now remote I/Os have been available only for relatively slow signals and therefore not suitable for realtime compressor condition monitoring systems. This paper presents the new technology for the digital transfer of high frequency signals and compares both technologies analog and digital based on a user perspective. 107

24 Localization of reciprocating compressor components faults using on-line dynamic correlation of impulsive vibration signatures with calculated forces and displacements at individual running gear components Rossi Gaia Application Engineer GE Measurement & Control Italy September27th / 28th, 2012, Düsseldorf Vibration monitoring is essential for detection of failures at running gear components (connecting rod, crosshead, piston rod and piston) of critical reciprocating compressors in the petroleum, chemical and gas industry service; however, the complex vibration signature resulting from the characteristic impact events at the running gear presents some unique interpretation challenges for early failure identification. As components failure modes differ significantly from case to case, different approaches have been considered by specialists, ranging from empirical to first principles based methods, to associate a vibration pattern with a failure mode. Advances in diagnostic and signal processing technologies provide powerful real-time analytics for identification of mechanical malfunctions. Developments in data analysis demonstrate the value of correlating events in vibration signal with parameters derived from on-line cylinder pressure measurement and kinematic analysis of rod loads and vertical force at crosshead to localize the source of the failure independently of load conditions at early stages, avoiding escalation into secondary damage and reducing cost of repair and of extended unplanned downtime. 113

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