Origins of MPLS. David Larrabeiti Piotr Pacyna. Dpto. de Ingeniería a Telemática Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

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1 Origins of MPLS David Larrabeiti Piotr Pacyna Dpto. de Ingeniería a Telemática Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

2 Programme authors and contributors Lecturers (Spanish course): David Larrabeiti López José Félix Kukielka Supporting lecturers (English course): Jorg Diederich Huw Oliver Piotr Pacyna MPLS 1

3 Before MPLS: Integration of IP and ATM (Server-Based) Initial solutions: LAN Emulation (ATM Forum, 1995, 1997) CLIP: Classical IP over ATM (IETF, 1994) Partial Improvements: NHRP: Hop-by-hop address resolution for short-cut s (IETF, 1996) MARS: Multicast address resolution (IETF, 1996) Integration: MPOA: Multiprotocol over ATM (ATM Forum, 1997, 1999) Server-based schemes: Need new protocols Server: Potential single points of failure Need redundant servers Protocols to ensure consistency among servers Complexity + High costs MPLS 2

4 Before MPLS: Integration of IP and ATM (Overlay Approach) Overlay approach: Two independent schemes (one ATM and one IP) For addressing, routing, resource reservation, ATM network transparent to IP routers Need to interconnect all routers directly using s Else: Need another router in the network potential bottleneck Full mesh structure in the ATM network: O(N 2 ) Ss Insufficient scalability Label Switching: Combine Functionality of a router (IP) Advantages of a switch (ATM) MPLS 3

5 Overlay Network: Scalability Problem Router Router Router Router Switch Switch Switch Switch Router Router Router Number of Ss between routers growing faster than number of routers Signaling eventually becomes bottleneck MPLS 4

6 Disadvantages of the IP/ATM integration approach Based on servers => protocols => single points of failure => redundancy, synchronisation Complexity OVERLAY Approach 2 independent schemes for Addresses, routing, reservations, logical IP topology/physical ATM Lack of scalability FULL MESH O(N 2 ) Ss; O(N 3 ) messages after link failure Signalling is a bottleneck is it possible to combine the advantages of IP and ATM? is it possible to have devices with the functionality of a routes and the benefits of a switch? MPLS 5

7 Label Switching: Objectives Higher performance and scalability Exponential growth of the Internet (traffic + number of nodes) Lower complexity and higher robustness E.g. in the overlay model: two control planes ATM: PNNI, UNI,... IP: OSPF, BGP,... Complex mapping necessary better avoid this Achieve lower costs per router / switch + higher robustness Enable evolution of control mechanisms: Fixed forwarding scheme (e.g. in hardware) Exchangeable control scheme (e.g. routing protocol) Very important objective (but not so well-known) Integrate IP routers and switches (mainly ATM) Use ATM switching technology (others possible) Re-use IP control plane technology (very wide-spread) MPLS 6

8 History

9 Initial Vendor Proposals Cell Switch Router, Toshiba (1994) First scheme to control ATM switches by IP protocols Avoid using ATM signaling and mapping functions to reduce complexity IP Switching, Ipsilon (1996) Tag Switching, Cisco Different from IP Switching and cell switch routers Basically the basis for MPLS Aggregate Router-Based IP Switching (ARIS), IBM Similar to Tag Switching Differences in the way to assign and maintain labels Standardization in the IETF: MPLS: MultiProtocol Label Switching Pushed by Cisco (Tag Switching) and IBM (ARIS) MPLS 8

10 IP switching Ipsilon, 1995 RFC1953, 1954, 1987 IP switch: ATM switch without ATM routing protocol, without signalling and with IP routing control IFMP: Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol GSMP: General Switch Management Protocol PC with Router- Based Software ATM Switch IFMP IP GSMP LLC/SNAP+AAL5 ATM MPLS 9

11 Control Plane in Nodes IP LLC/SNAP+AAL5 ATM ARP MARS NHRP IFMP UNI/PNNI IP GSMP Q.2931 ATM LLC/SNAP+AAL5 ATM CLIP/MARS IPSILON MPLS 10

12 IP Switching: Basic Function Initially: All traffic between IP switches sent over a default Routing controlled by the switch controller Each controller: Detects sustained flows locally Assigns a VPI/I to the flow (the label) Tells the neighbor about the label IFMP: Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol Move from IP-based forwarding to switched forwarding step-by-step (i.e. IP Switch by IP Switch) MPLS 11

13 IP Switching: Normal Forwarding Flow selection Controller Previous node ATM switch Next node IFMP Send certain packets with new VPI/I Default VPI/I MPLS 12

14 IP Switching: Direct Forwarding Controller Selection of the same flow Previous node Default VPI/I ATM Next node IFMP Send these packets with new VPI/I MPLS 13

15 IP Switching: Flow Detection Discussion: IP Switching is a simple solution Problem: Which flows shall be switched? Solution: Data-driven Look at the application layer protocol Candidates: FTP, telnet, HTTP, audio and video Cross-layer interaction to improve performance Is that efficient? According to Ipsilon: Yes 80% of the packets and 90% of all bytes successfully switched MPLS 14

16 Toshiba CSR RFC2098, 2129 Cell Switch Router, Toshiba (1994) Detection of sustained flows + Label assignment (FANP) Preconfigured short cuts Objective:LIS-LIS communications Works over conventional ATM network (only) Implements PNNI, ATM signaling Interconnection with MPOA, CLIP, MPLS 15

17 Aggregate Route-Based IP Switching (ARIS) Concept of aggregations Aggregate routes on their way to the destination ATM: -merging Concept of ordered control Assign labels in a coordinated way More details to follow... EGRESS point MPLS 16

18 MPLS Standardization in the IETF BOF session December 1996 initiated WG Main problem: Different label switching approaches not interoperable without standardization Industry initiative Integrate the existing proposals Basically Tag Switching from Cisco and ARIS from IBM Multiprotocol Independent of layers below label switching Ethernet, ATM, FDDI, FR, PPP, SDH, optical switching... MPLS forwarding independent from layers above IPv4, IPv6, IPX, AppleTalk, Basically focused on IP MPLS 17

19 References [1] MPLS Technology and Applications. Bruce Davie, Yakov Rekhter. Morgan Kaufmann [2] Transparencias del tutorial de MPLS de Nortel Networks impartido por Ricardo Borrajo (profesor asociado) en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. [3] Eric Osborne, Ajay Simha. Traffic engineering with MPLS. 1ª Edición. Cisco Press, [4] MPLS-based VPNs. Tomsu, Wieser [5] RFC Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture. MPLS 18

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