Mechanisms of Evolution

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mechanisms of Evolution"

Transcription

1 page 2 page 3 Teacher's Notes Mechanisms of Evolution Grades: Duration: 28 mins Summary of Program Evolution is the gradual change that can be seen in a population s genetic composition, from one generation to the next. The three main mechanisms of evolution include: 1. Genetic Drift 2. Mutation, and 3. Natural Selection The first part will concentrate on Genetic Drift with the use of a model to demonstrate its effect on small and large populations. An example will also be used to explain how Genetic Drift can lead to the formation of new biological species over a long period of time. Then models of Mutation and Natural Selection will be demonstrated and the results carefully tabulated and analyzed. Examples of particular populations, which have likely evolved through each mechanism, will also be highlighted. 1. Genetic Drift A population is a group of interbreeding organisms of the same species. There is great variation within any population due to each type of gene being present in different forms and frequencies. The collection of all the different types of genes in a population is known as a gene pool. From generation to generation, changes in the gene pool will occur due to chance leading to the disappearance of particular forms of a gene. This phenomenon is called Genetic Drift and it occurs more quickly when the population is small. Since this process is due to chance, the loss of a particular gene from a population s gene pool is completely random. This means that two different populations of a certain species living in close proximity yet isolated from each other (e.g.. geographical barrier) may produce different results. The long-term outcome of Genetic Drift occurring in these two populations can be the formation of a new biological species. This is known as speciation. 2. Mutation Mutations are changes that can occur in individuals DNA. They may result from a deletion, transposition or duplication of a part of the DNA, or a substitution of one or more nucleotides in the molecule. Most mutations occur randomly and spontaneously, and generally have no effect on the organism s survival. However, other types of mutations include those that are: a) deleterious, which have a varying, negative effect on an organism s survival b) lethal, where organism s do not live long enough to reproduce, and c) advantageous, which increases the organism s chances of survival. Mutations are generally regarded as the main driving force for evolutionary change. 3. Natural Selection In any organism a particular gene will occur in pairs (one from each parent) called alleles. Alleles may confer favourable characteristics to the organism making it more likely to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. This means that these alleles are more likely to be present in greater numbers in the next generation. In contrast, an organism that has inherited less favourable alleles for a particular environment will be less likely to survive and reproduce. These alleles

2 page 4 page 5 page 6 will eventually diminish from the population with time. This interaction between an organism and its environment results in changes in the population s gene pool from generation to generation, leading to evolution. This process was introduced by Charles Darwin in 1838 and is known as Natural Selection. Humans have been manipulating the process of selecting favourable characteristics for the purpose of breeding crops and animals. For example, traits for sweetness in fruit and size in animals are often specifically selected and carefully bred into succeeding generations. This is called artificial selection. The smaller the population size, the quicker the desired outcome is reached. Pre-Video Work 1. Students can write their own definition for what they understand evolution to mean. Collect a variety of responses from the students and use them to formulate a formal definition for the class to incorporate into their work. 2. Visit the library with your class and instruct students to research two contributors to the theory of evolution and briefly describe their ideas (e.g.. Charles Darwin, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, Georges Cuvier, Louis Agassiz, Alfred Russel Wallace). 3. Have a Pop Quiz with the class or simply discuss the meaning of the following terms, population, genes, gene pool, and species. 4. Read the questions on the student work sheet with the class to familiarize them with the work to be completed. It is advised that students carefully view the video first to give it their full attention and then attempt the questions during a second viewing. 5. Revise work on mutations by discussing the following terms, chromosome, gene, allele, DNA, nucleotide, base pair, amino acid, mutation, DNA replication, and protein synthesis (transcription and translation). Alternatively, students could be asked to write a paragraph about mutations using the above terms. 6. Visit the library to research diseases/disorders caused by different types of mutations. Students could either a) be given the name of a particular condition to work on and be asked to determine the category of mutation that it belongs to along with its effects on the individual and possible treatment, or else, b) choose their own disorder to research from a pre-determined category. This will eliminate students all researching the same disease. A brief presentation could then be given to the class. Conditions could include sickle cell anaemia, phenylketonuria, Down s Syndrome, haemophilia, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington s disease, colour-blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Aniridia tumour, Wilms tumour, dwarfism, albinism. 7. Ask students to write a paragraph about the main idea behind Natural Selection. Students are encouraged to discuss their understanding of Natural Selection with the class.

3 CREDITS Writer/Producer Arthur Tanaka On-line Editor Dominique Fusy Photography Peter Beeh Graphics/Editor Rowena Crowe Sound Phillip Mcguire Dominique Fusy Consultant/Teachers Notes Vanesssa Hutchinson Executive Producers John Davis Corinna Klupiec Thanks to Mark Tanaka University of NSW Copyright CLASSROOM VIDEO (2004) and Orders: Classroom Video Hartley Avenue Coquitlam, BC V3K 7A1 Ph: (604) Fax: (604) Australia: Phone: (02) Fax: (02) UK: Phone: (01454) Fax: (01454) USA: Phone: Fax: New Zealand Phone/Fax: (09)

4 Student Worksheet: Part 1 - Genetic Drift 1. What is heredity? 2. Who described how heredity works? 3. What word did he use for the term gene? 4. How do bacteria and eukaryotes differ? 5. What is an allele? 6. How did the two students in the demonstration ensure random mating would occur between the organisms they were studying? 7. What assumptions are made in this demonstration? 8. Describe the results obtained from this demonstration? 9. Describe a population bottleneck. 10. Where can population bottlenecks occur in nature? 11. What happened when the demonstration was repeated with a larger population? 12. How is Genetic Drift used a genetic tool? 13. Define speciation and how it can occur. 14. Why does Madagascar have so many different varieties of Lemurs? 15. Genetic Drift occurs in small populations and in larger populations. 16. Genetic Drift occurs in isolated populations and in non-isolated populations. 17. Populations living close to each other, but isolated from each other may drift into becoming species over a very long time, through Genetic Drift. Activities following the video 1. Students can repeat the experiments for themselves. Half the class can examine the effect of Genetic Drift on large populations and the other half, small populations. Between each group comparisons can be made about which genes have gone extinct. This can highlight the random nature of Genetic Drift. 2. Have students discuss in terms of Genetic Drift how it could be possible in nature for two different populations of the same species living close by to diverge into two different species over time. Discussion can be guided towards the effects of different types of isolation (eg. reproductive isolation, geographical isolation, genetic isolation). Research Task 1. In this video, two members of the Prosimian group of Primates, the Lemur s of Madagascar and the Lorises of India, were used as an example of populations that have experienced Genetic Drift. Use secondary sources to research another species that has undergone this process.

5 Student Worksheet: Part 2 - Mutation and Natural Selection 1. Define mutation. 2. Give an example of the effect of mutation. 3. Name 4 types of mutations. 4. A mutation has no effect on the survival of the organism. 5. The number of mutations far outweigh the, or mutations in any single organism. 6. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic. 7. Evolution needs. 8. Mutation acts in opposition to by increasing variation. 9. Name the organism that Darwin studied on the Galapagos Islands. 10. It is through Natural Selection that changes occur in a population. 11. Selection occurs when one is favoured over another by the environment. 12. Define adaptation. 13. How was Natural Selection modelled in the demonstration. 14. In a population, the effect of Natural Selection may take a long time to manifest. 15. In a small population what force can overpower the effect of Natural Selection? 16. What effect has Natural Selection had on fish and the fishing industry? 17. What effect has Natural Selection had on bacteria? 18. How have humans used Natural Selection to their advantage? Give examples of its use. Activities following the video 1. Students can design and conduct their own demonstration to model Natural Selection. It may involve using counters of varying colours of which one may be better able to camouflage into a particular surface (eg. the grass, earth or if you wish to remain in the classroom a coloured mat could be used). 2. Discuss the effects that Genetic Drift, Mutation and Natural Selection have on genetic variation. Students can also discuss the benefits of variation within a population. Research Task 1. In this video, the decrease in the size of fish caught by the fishing industry and the increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, were discussed as examples of Natural Selection. Students are to use secondary sources to research their own example of the effect of Natural Selection upon a population. Students may work in pairs to collect and present their information to the class.

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species Theories of Organic Evolution X Multiple Centers of Creation (de Buffon) developed the concept of "centers of creation throughout the world organisms had arisen, which other species had evolved from X

More information

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution?

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution? Influences on Darwin s Thinking: What ideas did each of the listed names below contribute to Darwin s thinking about evolution? (very brief) Georges Buffon: Jean Baptiste Lamarck: Charles Lyell: Thomas

More information

Theories of Evolution: A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations)

Theories of Evolution: A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations) Packet Theories of : A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations) Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) William Paley (1743-1805) Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Jean Baptiste Lamarck

More information

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date Chapter 16 Summary Evolution of Populations 16 1 Genes and Variation Darwin s original ideas can now be understood in genetic terms. Beginning with variation, we now know that traits are controlled by

More information

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation

Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. (Theodosius Dobzhansky) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Voyage of HMS Beagle (1831-1836) Thinking

More information

Evolution and Darwin

Evolution and Darwin Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of

More information

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

More information

11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool.

11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. 11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. Why it s beneficial: Genetic variation leads to phenotypic variation. It increases the chance that some individuals will survive Phenotypic variation

More information

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution What is it that evolves? Not individual organisms Populations are the smallest units that evolve Population: members of a species (interbreeding individuals and

More information

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 Key Terms: gene flow, non-random mating, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, stabilizing selection, directional selection

More information

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Part 1 Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Evolution- The process by which organisms have changed (and will continue changing) over time Charles Darwin- Father of Evolution Traveled for 5 years on

More information

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Ch.16-17 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population

More information

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974 Chapter 16 What is evolution? Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Evolution can be precisely defined as any change in the frequency of

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Certain human genetic conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, result from single base-pair mutations in DNA. (a) Explain how a single base-pair mutation

More information

Worksheet: The theory of natural selection

Worksheet: The theory of natural selection Worksheet: The theory of natural selection Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of

More information

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders Human genetics: Why? Human Genetics Introduction Determine genotypic basis of variant phenotypes to facilitate: Understanding biological basis of human genetic diversity Prenatal diagnosis Predictive testing

More information

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13 Lecture 10 Population Genetics CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 13 Hox Genes Control development Hox genes need to be highly regulated to get expressed at the right time and correct level to orchestrate mammalian

More information

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

More information

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations Name: Roksana Korbi AP Biology Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations This chapter begins with the idea that we focused on as we closed Chapter 19: Individuals do not evolve! Populations

More information

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck I. What is Evolution? Agents of Evolutionary Change The Five Forces of Evolution and How We Measure Them A. First, remember that Evolution is a two-stage process: 1. Production and redistribution of variation

More information

Section Review 15-1 1.

Section Review 15-1 1. Section Review 15-1 1. Beagle 2. theory of evolution 3. varied 4. Darwin s curiosity might have led him to make many observations and ask questions about the natural world. His analytical nature may have

More information

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory Physical Anthropology Summer 2014 Dr. Leanna Wolfe Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 1. T/F Evolution by natural selection works directly on individuals, transforming populations. 2. T/F A genotypic

More information

Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior. Quick Question. Darwin s Theory 2/10/2012. Chapter 3

Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior. Quick Question. Darwin s Theory 2/10/2012. Chapter 3 Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior Chapter 3 Gray, Psychology, 6e Worth Publishers 2010 Quick Question What do you know about Darwin? Come up with as many things as possible. Darwin s Theory

More information

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15 Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

More information

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards

AP Biology Learning Objective Cards 1.1 The student is able to convert a data set from a table of numbers that reflect a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and to apply mathematical methods and conceptual understandings

More information

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic

AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic AP Biology Essential Knowledge Student Diagnostic Background The Essential Knowledge statements provided in the AP Biology Curriculum Framework are scientific claims describing phenomenon occurring in

More information

Unit 1 - Fundamental Biology Skills and Knowledge

Unit 1 - Fundamental Biology Skills and Knowledge PREP TM AP* Biology Prep Course Syllabus Foundational Topics Review 10 units that cover fundamental biology topics typically covered in a general biology course. This content is perfect to use as a summer

More information

LECTURE 6 Gene Mutation (Chapter 16.1-16.2)

LECTURE 6 Gene Mutation (Chapter 16.1-16.2) LECTURE 6 Gene Mutation (Chapter 16.1-16.2) 1 Mutation: A permanent change in the genetic material that can be passed from parent to offspring. Mutant (genotype): An organism whose DNA differs from the

More information

Darwin & His Theories

Darwin & His Theories Darwin & His Theories The Origin of Species In 1859, Darwin publish his ideas in a book, The Origin of Species Stated animals and plants changed gradually over time; still changing. Animals living today

More information

Localised Sex, Contingency and Mutator Genes. Bacterial Genetics as a Metaphor for Computing Systems

Localised Sex, Contingency and Mutator Genes. Bacterial Genetics as a Metaphor for Computing Systems Localised Sex, Contingency and Mutator Genes Bacterial Genetics as a Metaphor for Computing Systems Outline Living Systems as metaphors Evolutionary mechanisms Mutation Sex and Localized sex Contingent

More information

A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution

A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution HOW-TO-DO-IT A Hands-On Exercise To Demonstrate Evolution by Natural Selection & Genetic Drift H ELEN J. YOUNG T RUMAN P. Y OUNG Although students learn (i.e., hear about) the components of evolution by

More information

Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes

Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Basic Biological Principles- Day 1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Compare cellular

More information

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg 8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg. 326-331 Key Terms: paleontology, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, inheritance of acquired characteristics, theory of evolution by natural selection,

More information

A Correlation of Miller & Levine Biology 2014

A Correlation of Miller & Levine Biology 2014 A Correlation of Miller & Levine Biology To Ohio s New Learning Standards for Science, 2011 Biology, High School Science Inquiry and Application Course Content A Correlation of, to Introduction This document

More information

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 10 The Theory of Evolution Worksheets (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 10.1: Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Lesson 10.2:

More information

Modules 5: Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology

Modules 5: Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Modules 5: Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Source of similarities and differences Similarities with other people such as developing a languag, showing similar emotions, following similar

More information

Bob Jesberg. Boston, MA April 3, 2014

Bob Jesberg. Boston, MA April 3, 2014 DNA, Replication and Transcription Bob Jesberg NSTA Conference Boston, MA April 3, 2014 1 Workshop Agenda Looking at DNA and Forensics The DNA, Replication i and Transcription i Set DNA Ladder The Double

More information

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized:

The sequence of bases on the mrna is a code that determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide being synthesized: Module 3F Protein Synthesis So far in this unit, we have examined: How genes are transmitted from one generation to the next Where genes are located What genes are made of How genes are replicated How

More information

Continuous and discontinuous variation

Continuous and discontinuous variation Continuous and discontinuous variation Variation, the small differences that exist between individuals, can be described as being either discontinuous or continuous. Discontinuous variation This is where

More information

BIO 1: Review: Evolution

BIO 1: Review: Evolution Name: Class: Date: ID: A BIO 1: Review: Evolution True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Radiometric dating measures the age of an object by measuring the proportions of radioactive

More information

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics 30 25 Chapter 23 Population Genetics Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D F Grade = 57 Avg = 79.5 % (Mendelian) Population A group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing organisms that share a common set of

More information

9th Grade. 9th -12th Grade History - Social Science. 9th -12th Grade Sciences

9th Grade. 9th -12th Grade History - Social Science. 9th -12th Grade Sciences 9th Grade 9th -12th Grade History - Social Science Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students compare and contrast the present with the past, evaluating

More information

Fancy Fish: Gene Frequency Grade Ten

Fancy Fish: Gene Frequency Grade Ten Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark H Describe a foundation of biological evolution as the change in gene frequency of a population over time. Explain the historical and current scientific

More information

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 11 th Edition, 2015 Marieb

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 11 th Edition, 2015 Marieb A Correlation of Essentials of Human Anatomy Marieb To the Next Generation Science Standards Life A Correlation of, HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1 Okami Study Guide: Chapter 3 1 Chapter in Review 1. Heredity is the tendency of offspring to resemble their parents in various ways. Genes are units of heredity. They are functional strands of DNA grouped

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term for a feature

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations

8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations 8.11C Explore how short and long term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations Watch and Think https://www.youtube.com/embed/ysa5obhxz- Q?feature=player_embedded What

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

(D) 181-183, 186-187, 190-193 TFYI 187 TPK 190

(D) 181-183, 186-187, 190-193 TFYI 187 TPK 190 NEVADA Life Science Content Standards for Grade 8 Life s Structure and Function A From Bacteria to Plants B Animal Diversity C Human Body Systems D OBJECTIVES Content Standard 6.0: Structure and Function

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2)

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) Overview In this laboratory you will demonstrate the process of evolution by natural selection by carrying out a predator/prey simulation. Through this exercise you

More information

Evidence for evolution factsheet

Evidence for evolution factsheet The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by a great deal of evidence. Fossils Fossils are formed when organisms become buried in sediments, causing little decomposition of the organism.

More information

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009

How Cancer Begins???????? Chithra Manikandan Nov 2009 Cancer Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer 1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

B1 7 Evolution. 67 minutes. 67 marks. Page 1 of 25

B1 7 Evolution. 67 minutes. 67 marks. Page 1 of 25 B 7 Evolution 67 minutes 67 marks Page of 25 Q. The diagram shows how the number of species in different vertebrate groups changed between 400 million years ago and 5 million years ago. The wider a block

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

Lecture 3: Mutations

Lecture 3: Mutations Lecture 3: Mutations Recall that the flow of information within a cell involves the transcription of DNA to mrna and the translation of mrna to protein. Recall also, that the flow of information between

More information

AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions. Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions!

AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions. Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions! AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions! Chapter 7 Variation 7.1 Random Sampling Sampling a population to eliminate bias e.g. grid square

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Genetic Drift Simulation. Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)?

Genetic Drift Simulation. Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)? Genetic Drift Simulation Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)? Hypothesis: Introduction: What is Genetic Drift? Let's examine a simple model of a population

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative. Human Genome

Biological Sciences Initiative. Human Genome Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI Human Genome Introduction In 2000, researchers from around the world published a draft sequence of the entire genome. 20 labs from 6 countries worked on the sequence.

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 9 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Genetic engineering is possible

More information

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter 3 Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure and Function Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Misconceptions

More information

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Review Booklet. Explain the difference between structural and behavioral adaptations with examples of each.

Science Focus 9 Biological Diversity Review Booklet. Explain the difference between structural and behavioral adaptations with examples of each. Topic 1 - Biological Diversity and Survival What does the term biological diversity refer to? What are the main components of biological diversity? Explain the difference between structural and behavioral

More information

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation

Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation 1 Lecture 5 Mutation and Genetic Variation I. Review of DNA structure and function you should already know this. A. The Central Dogma DNA mrna Protein where the mistakes are made. 1. Some definitions based

More information

Pre-assessment Project: Evolution

Pre-assessment Project: Evolution Amy Dewees EDUC 536-631 December 3, 2005 Pre-assessment Project: Evolution Part I: Background Information a. Introduction to Evolution: Evolution is defined as the change of living organisms over long

More information

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1]

Microevolution is a change in population s gene pool [1] GUIDED READING - Ch. 14 - Section 4 NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted. Importantly,

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis Name lass Date RN and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information fl ow from DN to RN to direct the synthesis of proteins? 13.1 What is RN? WHT I KNOW SMPLE NSWER: RN is a nucleic

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Kaustubha Qanungo Ph.D Biological Sciences Trident Technical College 7000 Rivers Avenue Charleston SC 29464

Kaustubha Qanungo Ph.D Biological Sciences Trident Technical College 7000 Rivers Avenue Charleston SC 29464 Call for action: Paradigm shift in teaching microbiology in a community colleges Kaustubha Qanungo Ph.D Biological Sciences Trident Technical College 7000 Rivers Avenue Charleston SC 29464 Project Course:

More information

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Ch. 8 Cell Division Cells divide to produce new cells must pass genetic information to new cells - What process of DNA allows this? Two types

More information

Workshop on Microevolution

Workshop on Microevolution Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive,

More information

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

More information

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities

UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Unit 13 Genetic Abnormailities 1 UNIT 13 (OPTION) Genetic Abnormalities Originally developed by: Hildur Helgedottir RN, MN Revised (2000) by: Marlene Reimer RN, PhD, CCN (C) Associate Professor Faculty

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

Endemic and Introduced Species Lesson Plan

Endemic and Introduced Species Lesson Plan Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Ecosystems and Biomes Lesson Duration: Two class periods Student Objectives Materials Understand and apply the term endemic to animal and plant life, meaning native,

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 1 Ojectives Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid. List the phases of meiosis I and

More information

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin.

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Section 10.1 KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution. Evolution is the biological change process by which descendants

More information

Genetics Disorder Grading Rubric

Genetics Disorder Grading Rubric Your Name: Disorder: Genetics Disorder Grading Rubric Introduction Name the What part of the body does it generally affect? List all of the possible effects on the body What happens in the body to cause

More information

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY BY WOLFGANG RUBI CATALAN, MARNELLE MAC DULA, LIANNE UMALI, ERICA WILEY, & CHRIS YOUNG Student ID # s: WHAT IS THAT? Natural selection is a key mechanism of evolution.

More information

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and

More information

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below.

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below. 11.1 GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. VOCABULARY gene pool allele frequency MAIN IDEA: Genetic variation in a population increases the

More information

Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009

Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009 Lecture 10 Friday, March 20, 2009 Reproductive isolating mechanisms Prezygotic barriers: Anything that prevents mating and fertilization is a prezygotic mechanism. Habitat isolation, behavioral isolation,

More information

14.3 Studying the Human Genome

14.3 Studying the Human Genome 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Objectives Summarize the methods of DNA analysis. State the goals of the Human Genome Project and explain what we have learned so far. Lesson Summary Manipulating

More information

Reading 5.2 Population Bottlenecks and Founder Effects

Reading 5.2 Population Bottlenecks and Founder Effects Reading 5.2 Population Bottlenecks and Founder Effects Genetic Drift; When one trait becomes more common in a population due to random chance (not because it is advantageous or non-advantageous) Population

More information

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

More information

To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing

To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Thursday 8th March COPY LO: To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Starter Explain the difference between transcription and translation BATS Describe and explain

More information

Nature of Genetic Material. Nature of Genetic Material

Nature of Genetic Material. Nature of Genetic Material Core Category Nature of Genetic Material Nature of Genetic Material Core Concepts in Genetics (in bold)/example Learning Objectives How is DNA organized? Describe the types of DNA regions that do not encode

More information

CTY Genetics Syllabus

CTY Genetics Syllabus CTY Genetics Syllabus Week 1: Review and Mendelian Genetics What (DUE DATE) 1 Introduction and Review Morning Classroom Policies/ Ice Breaker Game/Introductions Syllabus Distribute Syllabus, Discuss Course

More information

Teacher s Guide For. Core Biology: Animal Sciences

Teacher s Guide For. Core Biology: Animal Sciences Teacher s Guide For Core Biology: Animal Sciences For grade 7 - College Programs produced by Centre Communications, Inc. for Ambrose Video Publishing, Inc. Executive Producer William V. Ambrose Teacher's

More information