Examining Child Welfare Outcomes for Asian-Canadian Children and Families: A Mixed Methods Study

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1 Examining Chid Wefare Outcomes for Asian-Canadian Chidren and Famiies: A Mixed Methods Study Barbara Lee BA, BSW, MSW, RSW, PhD November 3, 2016 CSWE Transforming Chid Wefare Dissertation Chid Wefare Track Meeting

2 Overview Research Background and Rationae Methodoogy Research Findings Impications for Research, Theory, and Practice 2

3 Asian-Canadian Chidren and Famiies East/ Southeast Asian origins Chinese Fiipino Indo-Chinese origins Indonesian Japanese Korean Maay Mongoian Taiwanese Tibetan Asian, n.i.e. East/Southeast Asian, n.i.e. Indo-Chinese origins Burmese Cambodian Laotian Thai Vietnamese n.i.e. abbreviation for not incuded esewhere. Note: Adapted from Ethnic origin, by Statistics Canada, 1999, 1996 Census dictionary Fina editionreference cat. no UIE, Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada, Last updated March 21,

4 A Growing Popuation Asians are the argest and fastest growing ethnic minorities in Canada and the US (Statistics Canada, 2010; US Census Bureau, 2010) In Canada, the top source country is the Phiippines (13.1%) foowed by China (10.4%) (Nationa Househod Survey, 2011) Diversity in backgrounds and needs Note: The year 2006 was the ast Canadian Census that incuded data regarding immigration and ethno-cutura diversity. The Statistics Canada ong-form questionnaire was repaced in 2011 by the Nationa Househod Survey to coect data regarding immigration and ethno-cutura diversity. 4

5 Gaps in Chid Wefare Research and Knowedge Very itte attention has been given to Asian chidren and famiies invoved in the chid wefare system and socia services (Beh, Crouch, May, Vaente, & Conyngham, 2001; Fong & Mokuau, 1994) Ignores the rea and reevant issues in the Asian communities (Kim & Keefe, 2010; Leong & Lau, 2001) Understanding Asian chidren and famiies is important in preventing harm and supporting we-being 5

6 Theoretica Frameworks Decision-making Ecoogy (Baumann, Dageish, Fuke, & Kern, 2011; Baumann, Kern, & Fuke, 1997 ) Genera Assessment and Decision-making Mode (Degeish, 2003, 2006 ) Cuture and Chid Matreatment Decision-Making Mode (Terao, Borrego, & Urquiza, 2001 ) Theoretica Framework of Chid Matreatment Among Asian Americans (Zhai & Gao, 2009 ) 6

7 Chid Wefare Concepts Disproportionaity Asian Chid Wefare Popuation vs. Genera Asian Popuation Disparity Asian Chid Wefare Popuation vs. White Chid Wefare Popuation

8 Mix Methods Research Design CIS-2008* Adjusted with Census Data Focus Groups OCANDS** * Trocmé, Faon, MacLaurin, Sinha, Back, et a. (2008) ** Trocmé, Faon, Shonsky 8

9 Asian-Canadian Househods are Underrepresented Compared to White-Canadian Househods in the Chid Wefare System Ethnicity Canadian Chid Popuation c Chid Matreatment Investigations in CIS-2008 d N % N % Rate per 1,000 e A Chidren<16 6,022, , Asian-Canadian a 430, , White-Canadian b 4,245, , a Asian-Canadian refers to visibe minority popuations incuding Chinese, Fiipino, Southeast Asian, Korean, and Japanese based on the Census definitions (Statistics Canada cataogue no XCB ). b White-Canadian refers to not a visibe minority and excudes Aborigina popuations based on the Census definitions (Statistics Canada cataogue no XCB and Statistics Canada cataogue no XCB ). c Estimate based on the 2006 Census of Popuation for chidren 15 years and under (Statistics Canada cataogue no XCB ). d Estimate based on CIS-2008 a of Canada weighted sampe for chidren 15 years and under. 9 e Rate of chid matreatment investigations in the Canadian chid wefare system per 1000 chidren in popuation.

10 FOCUS GROUP THEME: Cose-knit Famiy Dynamics Inhibit Chid Wefare Invovement [Asian] famiy and chidren are not encouraged to speak about private famiy matters so then the ony time we do get invoved is when an incident has aready happened. So we are not getting in at the eary hep stages. 10

11 Substantiated Investigations invoving Physica Abuse for Asian-Canadian vs. White-Canadian Househods Popuation-Based Disparity Ratio (PDI) Decision-Based Disparity Ratio (DDI) Matreatment-Based Disparity Ratio (MDI) Census Chid Popuation Investigations in Chid Wefare Physica Abuse Investigations in Chid Wefare 11

12 Asian-Canadian Househods More Likey to Cose After Investigation CIS-2008 (N=3,202) Logistic Regression Odds Ratio P-Vaue Mode 1: Asian Ethnicity 3.49 <0.001*** Mode 3: Asian Ethnicity + Chid Demographic & Househod Composition Mode 5: Asian Ethnicity + Case Characteristics Mode 7: Asian Ethnicity + Cinica Concerns 3.39 <0.001*** <0.001*** Fina Mode

13 FOCUS GROUP THEME: Chid Wefare Service Shoud be Based on the Cient s Need We re not transferring them to ongoing service because we don t have a fu depth and breadth of understanding of the famiy. To me, that s about anguage barriers and cutura barriers. 13

14 Asian Chidren and Famiies Received Ongoing CPS for Longer OCANDS (N=1,988) Asian Median Days = 339 White Median Days =

15 Asian Househods Less Likey to be Re-Investigated OCANDS (N=6,675) Logistic Regression Odds Ratio P-Vaue Mode 1: Asian Ethnicity 0.39 <0.001*** Mode 3: Asian Ethnicity + Chid Demographic & Househod Composition Mode 5: Asian Ethnicity + Case Characteristics Mode 7: Asian Ethnicity + Cinica Concerns 0.40 <0.001*** 0.46 <0.001*** 0.44 <0.001*** Fina Mode 0.49 <0.001*** 15

16 Research Summary Asian famiies are disproportionatey underrepresented in the chid wefare system Disparities in chid wefare invovement between Asian and White chidren and famiies aong the continuum of chid wefare services and decisions Chid wefare workers and community service professionas provided cutura and structura context for chid wefare services and decisions 16

17 Limitations Examined ony chid matreatment investigations Asian category Immigration status not avaiabe Key factors not avaiabe Community characteristics Organizationa factors Poverty Missing are the voices and perspectives of caregivers, chidren, other professionas 17

18 Impications and Recommendations Research 1. More research on Asian popuation in chid wefare 2. Avaiabe data regarding ethnicity, race, and immigration 3. Ethno-racia categories need to be defined 4. Avaiabe discrete categories of Asian groups 5. Consider individua, organizationa, and externa factors 6. Use advanced statistica strategies 7. Quaitative or mixed methods, and with different perspectives 18

19 Impications and Recommendations Theory 1. PDI and DDI shoud be presented together 2. MDI shoud be used for popuations with predominant specific matreatment concern 3. Chid Matreatment Decision-making Mode shoud aso consider matreatment type and severity 4. The Decision-making Ecoogy can be strengthened by considering cient factors 5. Longitudina perspectives shoud be considered in theory deveopment 19

20 Impications and Recommendations Practice 1. Evidence-informed practices are needed 2. Attention to menta heath concerns among Asian- Canadian chidren and famiies 3. Community engagement and outreach with Asian communities 4. Cross-cutura training for chid wefare workers to promote cutura sensitivity and awareness in organizations 20

21 References Baumann, D. J., Dageish, L., Fuke, J., & Kern, H. (2011). The decision-making ecoogy. Washington, DC: American Humane Association. Baumann, D., Kern, H., & Fuke, J. (1997). Foundations of the decision-making ecoogy and overview. In Kern, H., Baumann, D. J., & Fuke, J. (Eds.). Worker Improvements to the Decision and Outcome Mode (WISDOM): The chid wefare decision enhancement project. The Chidren s Bureau, Washington, D.C. Beh, L. E., Crouch, J. L., May, P. F., Vaente, A. L., & Conyngham, H. A. (2001). Ethnicity in chid matreatment research: A content anaysis. Chid Wefare, 6(2), doi: / Fong, R., & Mokuau, N. (1994). Not simpy Asian Americans : Periodica iterature review on Asians and Pacific Isanders. Socia Work, 39(3), Kim, W., & Keefe, R. H. (2010). Barriers to heathcare among Asian Americans. Socia Work in Pubic Heath, 25, doi: / Dageish, L. I. (2003). Risk, needs and consequences. In M.C. Cader (Ed.) Assessments in chidcare: A comprehensive guide to frameworks and their use. (pp ). Dorset, UK: Russe House Pubishing. Fuke, J., Harden, B. J., Jenkins, M., & Ruehrdanz, A. (2010). Research synthesis on chid wefare disproportionaity and disparities. American Humane Association. Retrieved from pubications/chid-wefare/aiance/disparities-and-disproportionaity-in-chid-wefare_an-anaysis-of-the- Research-December-2011.pdf#page=11 Lee, Barbara. Examining Chid Wefare Outcomes for Asian-Canadian Chidren and Famiies: A Mixed Methods Study. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto, Lee, B., Rha, W., & Faon, B. (2014). Physica abuse and Asian famiies in the Canadian chid wefare system. Journa of Aggression, Matreatment and Trauma, 23(5), doi: / Leong, F. T. L., & Lau, A. S. L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective menta heath services to Asian Americans. Menta Heath Services Research, 3(4), doi: /A: Statistics Canada. (2010). Visibe minority groups, percentage change (2001 to 2006), for Canada, provinces and territories (tabe). Canadian Statistics. Last updated October 6, Terao, S. Y., Borrego, J. Jr., & Urquiza, A. J. (2001). A reporting and response mode for cuture and chid matreatment. Chid Matreatment, 6(2), doi: / Trocmé, N., Faon, B., MacLaurin, B., Sinha, V., Back, T., et a. (2010). Methodoogy. In Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Chid Abuse and Negect 2008: Major Findings. PHAC: Ottawa. Zhai, F. & Gao, Q. (2009). Chid matreatment among Asian Americans: Characteristics and expanatory framework. Chid Matreatment, 14(2), doi: /

22 Acknowedgements Thesis Supervisor: Dr. Esme Fuer-Thomson (University of Toronto) Thesis Committee Members: Dr. Barbara Faon (University of Toronto) Dr. Nico Trocmé (McGi University) Dr. Tara Back (University of Toronto) Thesis Appraisers: Dr. Bryn King (University of Toronto) Dr. Aan Leschied (Western University) 22

23 Thank You! Barbara Lee Factor-Inwentash Facuty of Socia Work University of Toronto emai: Schoo of Socia Work Careton University emai: Schoo of Socia Work University of British Coumbia (Effective May 1, 2017) 23

24 Dissertation Pubications Lee, B. (2016). Examining Chid Wefare Outcomes for Asian-Canadian Chidren and Famiies: A Mixed Methods Study. Proquest Dissertation and Theses. Lee, B., Fuer Thomson, E., Back, T., Faon, B., & Trocmé, N. (under revisions). Examining chid wefare decisions and services for Asian- Canadian versus White-Canadian househods in the chid wefare system. Chid Matreatment. Lee, B., Fuer Thomson, E., Faon, B., & Trocmé, N., & Back, T. (under revisions). Asian-Canadian famiies invoved in the Canadian chid wefare system: A mixed methods study. Chid Abuse and Negect. Lee, B., Fuer Thomson, E., Trocmé, N., Faon, B., & Back, T. (2016). Deineating disproportionaity and disparity of Asian-Canadian versus White- Canadian househods in the chid wefare system. Chid and Youth Service Review. 70(2016), doi: /j.chidyouth