Masters of Business Administration MBA Semester 2 MB0044 Production & Operations Management Assignments

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1 Spring 2014 Exam July/Aug2014 Masters of Business Administration MBA Semester 2 MB0044 Production & Operations Management Assignments Q. No 1 Explain briefly elements of operations strategy? Ans.1 Operations Strategy: Operations strategy is defined as the set of decisions that are warranted in the operational processes in order to support the competitive strategies of the business. The objectives stated above will give the firm competitive advantages in the products or services that are served to the customers. Elements of Operations Strategy: The six elements of operations strategy are: 1) Designing of the production system 2) Facilities for production and services 3) Product or service design and development 4) Technology selection, development, and process development 5) Allocation of resources 6) Focus on facilities planning Designing of the production system: The designing of the production system involves the selection of the type of product design, processing system, inventory plan for finished goods, etc. The product design has two varieties. They are:

2 Customized product design Standard product design Facilities for production and services: Certain specialization in production allows the firm to provide the customers with products of lower cost, faster delivery, on-time delivery, high product Quality, and flexibility. Here, overheads will be less and the firm can Outperform compared to the competitors. While planning the specialized lines, the economies of scale and the continuous demand are to be looked into. Product or service design and development The stages followed in developing a product are: 1. Generating the idea 2. Creating the feasibility reports 3. Designing the prototype and testing 4. Preparing a production model 5. Evaluating the economies of scale for production 6. Testing the product in the market 7. Obtaining feedback 8. Creating the final design and starting the production. Any product designed and introduced into the market has its own life cycle. Technology selection and process development A product selected for production will be analyzed for the process and the Applicable technology for optimal production. There are many challenges faced by the operations managers in this decision as the alternatives are many. The techno-economic analysis for each alternative will help to decide the required technology.

3 Allocation of resources The production units face continuous problems of allocating the scarce resources like capital, machines, equipments, materials, manpower, services, etc. Allocation at the right time to the right place of production indicates the efficiency of the production planners. Facility, capacity, and layout planning The location, layout, and facilities creation for the production are the key decision areas for the operations manager. Q. No 2. Describe the general factors that influence the plant location decision. Ans.2 The general factors that influence the plant location are listed as follows: Availability of land Availability of land plays an important role in determining the plant location. On several occasions, our plans, calculations and forecasts suggest a particular area as the best to start an organisation. Availability of inputs While choosing a plant location, it is very important for the organisation t o get the labor at the right time and good quality raw materials. Closeness to market places It is advisable to locate the plant near to the market place, when: The projected life of the product is low The transportation cost is high The products are delicate and susceptible to spoilage After sales services have to be prompt Communication facilities Communication facility is also an important factor which influences the location of a plant

4 Infrastructure Infrastructure plays a prominent role in deciding the location. The basic infrastructure needed in any organisation is: Power For example, industries which run day and night require continuous power supply. So, they should be located near the power stations and should ensure continuous power supply throughout the year. Water For example, process industries such as, paper, chemical, and Cement, require continuous water supply in large amount. So, such Process industries need to be located near the source of water supply. Waste disposal For example, for process industries such as, paper And sugarcane industries, facility for disposal of waste are the key factor. Transport Transport facility is a must for facility location and layout of Location of the plant. Timely supply of raw materials to the company and Supply of finished goods to the customers is an important factor. Government support The factors that demand additional attention for plant location are the policies of the state governments and local bodies concerning labor laws, building codes, and safety. Housing and recreation Housing and recreation factors also influence the plant location. Locating a plant with or near to the facilities of good schools, housing and recreation for employ will have a greater impact on the organisation. Q. No 3 Write short notes on Total productive Maintenance GNATT Chart Bullwhip effect in SCM Scheduling in services Ans.3 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM):

5 Maintenance is a function in any operations system. Maintenance keeps the Equipments in good condition. Generally, equipments deteriorate because usage causes wear and tear to the parts causing inaccuracies to the products made by them. When the deterioration produces components which exceed the permitted deviations rendering them unacceptable, maintenance is undertaken to bring back the machine to produce acceptable components. Sometimes the failure is sudden and serious and The equipment stops working. Disruption of production and emergency repair work are costly and schedules are missed causing delays in supplies and consequent losses. These breakdowns occur because the equipment was carrying hidden defects which were not apparent. Total productive maintenance puts the responsibility of maintenance where It belongs to and on the operator who uses the equipment. It is a companywide activity which involves all the people. Gantt chart: A Gantt load chart shows the amount of cumulative workload that each work Centre has in a manufacturing unit. It is a graph showing individual and total Estimated workloads of each work centre on a time scale. Uses of Gantt chart Total workload shown graphically is simple, clear, and easy to Understand. It indicates the need for more resources or for reassigning or resources when the load at one work centre becomes too large. Limitations of Gantt chart Gantt load chart does not account for delays and disruptions at the work centers. t does not give information regarding the due date requirements of each job. Chart must be updated periodically for new jobs. Bullwhip Effect in SCM: An organisation always goes through ups and downs. It is necessary that the managers of the organisation keep track of the market conditions and analyze the changes. This affects almost all the industries, poses a risk to firms that experience large variations in demand, and also those firms which are dependent on suppliers, distributors and retailers. A Bullwhip effect may arise because of the following factors:

6 Increase in the lead time of the project due to increase in variability of demand Increase in the stocks to accommodate the increasing demand arising out of complicated demand models and forecasting techniques Reduced service levels in the organisation Inefficient allocation of resources Increased transportation cost How to prevent it? Bullwhip effect may be avoided by one or more of the following measures: 1. Avoid multiple demand forecasting 2. Breaking the single orders into number of batches of orders 3. Stabilize the prices avoid the risk involved in overstocking by Maintaining a proper stock 4. Reduce the variability and uncertainty in Point Of Sale (POS) and Sharing information Scheduling in Services: There are distinctive difference between the scheduling followed for manufacturing and services. All these differences have a direct impact on scheduling. These differences are: 1. Service operations cannot create inventories to provide buffer for demand uncertainties. 2. Demand in service operations cannot be predicted accurately. 3. Demand for service are initiated mostly as unplanned event and hence, there may be certain distortions in scheduling. 4. Providing the required manpower and skills for the sudden demand in scheduling a service activity is challenging and sometimes becomes crucial. Scheduling customer demand Forecasting the demand in advance for service activities is difficult and scheduling such variable demand poses certain problems. In order to provide timely service and utilize the capacity to the maximum extent, the scheduler has to adopt certain systems/methodologies. There are three methods normally used by the scheduler in services. They are

7 1. Backlogs 2. Reservations 3. Appointments Q. No 4 Explain the steps and tools for changing project management process. Q. No 5 Under capacity options the company decides to vary the production output by varying the time, workforce or outsourcing. What are the basic capacity options a company can chose to meet demand? Q. No 6 Write short notes on: Relevance of Value Engineering in manufacturing Vendor Managed inventory Rating methods for locating a plant Importance of business process modeling Remaining Answers are available in Paid Assignments.. Contact us for complete assignments.. NAVEEN KUMAR: / / Website: ALL OF OUR ASSIGNMENTS ARE IN WORD FORMAT AND AS PER NEW GUIDELINES OF SMU

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