MPA IV Master of Public Administration in Governance International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam

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1 MPA IV Master of Public Administration in Governance International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam Organizational Change at the Ministry of Regional Development By Cheryl Daal FHRISS Supervisor : Dr. Paul Breman Date : 13 November This paper was submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the Master of Public Administration (MPA) in Governance degree at the FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies.

2 Acknowledgement This paper is an Individual Study Project (ISP) to complete the Masters of Public Administration Program at the FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies in Suriname in cooperation with the Erasmus University of the Netherlands. This course was informative and contributed to strengthening the competencies of the researcher. However it was not an easy road to combine this course with a job and personal life. Without the support of those that are dear to the researcher, it probably would not have led to completing this program. In this regard the researcher would like to take this opportunity to first of all thank the management of the Ministry of Regional Development for giving her the opportunity to complete this course and also for their support and belief in her. Secondly the researcher thanks her husband Martin, sister Simone and mother Joyce Hasselbaink for the moral support which strengthened her perseverance in difficult times. Furthermore the researcher is grateful for the backing of the members of study group of the researcher, the so called Bardoel plus team, from the beginning until the end. The researcher also takes this opportunity to thank her supervisor dr. Paul Breman for his patience and professional support in guiding her through the process of writing this ISP. Since this subject is the personal preference of the researcher, it gave her great pleasure to conduct in depth research and hopefully it will be considered as a useful contribution to future change processes in the public and private sector. 2

3 Table of Contents Chapter Description of the content Page List of Abbreviations 5 1 Research and Design Background Research problem Research objectives Research question Relevance and justification Methodology Limitations and scope Structure of the paper 13 2 Literature review Concept of Organizational Change Leadership: Its important role during the Implementation of 15 changes Kotter s analytical framework Characteristics of Resistance Commitment and Ownership Change Strategies and Interventions Change Strategies Interventions Consultancy and requirements for assessing their 24 effectiveness 2.5 Summary 26 3 Case description HRM project at the Ministry of Regional 29 Development 3.1 Project deliverables and reasons to implement the HRM 29 project 3.2 The HRM project department targets 30 3

4 3.3 The cooperation between the Ministry of Regional 31 Development and the PIU 3.4 Summary 33 4 Research results HRM Change project How leadership affected the change The support from the consultant to leaders during the 40 implementation process 4.4 Change Strategies Effectiveness of Interventions How the consultant interacted with important stakeholders Critical analysis of the HRM case 48 5 Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Recommendations 54 Bibliography 55 Annex 1 List of persons that were interviewed 59 Annex 2 List with questions 60 Annex 3 Organizational structure Ministry of Regional Development 65 Annex 4 Organizational Structure Project Implementation Unit of DLGP 67 4

5 List of Abbreviations DLGP: Decentralization Local Government Strengthening Program GoS : Government of Suriname HRM : Human Resource Management IDB : Inter-American Development Bank PIU : Project Implementation Unit 5

6 1. Research and Design 1.1 Background This ISP focuses on organizational change at the Ministry of Regional Development. Organizational change applies to the improvement of an organization but also to a less advantageous situation (Amburgey et al.,1993). This indicates that organizational change can create a better situation but it also can lead to unpleasant outcomes. Organizational change is inevitable in public sector institutions that struggle with performance issues if they want to serve citizens in a better way. However it can be argued that bureaucracies in the public sector of developing countries have difficulties with the implementation of organizational changes (UNDP 2006). Reasons that were encountered are capacity- problems, institutional weaknesses and ignoring obstacles. Furthermore organizations often fail to acknowledge and amend mistakes (UNDP 2006). This explains that there are recurring issues within public sector organizations and that it is important to learn from these experiences. While organizational change may be required it does not necessarily mean that it will improve the situation. In practice factors such as leadership, change strategies and interventions can determine the change outcome. Leadership contains taking action such as visioning; communicating the vision, diagnose the sense of urgency and establishing a powerful team in order to create followers (Kotter 2002). Furthermore it implies fulfilling challenging roles such as commitment, involvement, ownership and dealing with resistance. Strategies imply thinking beforehand how to approach the change while interventions contain taking action. The Colors of Change framework from De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003) indicate which kinds of interventions and strategies can be used. Experts such as consultants can provide support with strategies and interventions. Walenberg (2010) states that consultants can add value to the performance of clients through support with interventions and strategies. Walenberg (2010) continues saying that the quality of this support can have an effect on change outcomes. 6

7 Following the above mentioned concepts it can be stated that the Ministry of Regional Development has attempted to implement an organizational change project. This change concerned the introduction of a Human Resource Management system. Leadership, change strategies, interventions and the contribution of the consultant all affected the change results. Between 2006 and 2008 a HRM Project was implemented at the Ministry of Regional Development. This project was conducted by Consultant Bureau FIX. The project was initiated by the Project Implementation Unit (PIU) from the Decentralization Local Government Strengthening Program (DLGP). This unit is a work arm of the Ministry of Regional Development. Due to performance issues at the Ministry of Regional Development the PIU decided to hire a consultant to introduce an HRM system. Project arrangements were established between the director of the PIU and the consultant of Consultancy Bureau FIX 1. The change contained an introduction of Human Resource Management (HRM) and aimed at increasing the productivity, professionalism and more attention for the utilization of Human capital. This project did not reach all of its goals, because there is still no HRM system (Interview project manager ). 1 This is a fictional name. 7

8 1.2. Research problem Leaders that are in charge of a change process can be held responsible for certain actions during a change process. Kotter (2002) elaborates on actions that have to be taken by leaders to implement a successful change. However cooperation issues can occur if those affected by the change do not really support the change. In this sense the lack of ownership and commitment can influence the actions of these leaders. On the other hand consultants are hired to provide professional support to leaders of organizations (Johannsmann 2007). Johannsmann (2007) presented an overview of important criteria to assess the quality of the contribution of consultants. The effectiveness of the consultant depends on the way in which expertise is used during the process. This can contribute to determining the (right) change approach and direction. The problem is that the implementation HRM project at the Ministry of Regional Development was badly prepared, handled and conducted and not in accordance with important change standards that contribute to success. The assumptions are as following: The PIU had insufficient support from important stakeholders to proceed the project. The cooperation and commitment of the management team at the headquarters was poor. Ineffective change strategies and interventions were used before and during the change process. The consultant was not capable of dealing with all change issues. As a result the project goals were not achieved. Hence the ministry does not apply an HRM policy. 8

9 1.2 Research objectives The objectives of this research are: to gain insights about the course of the HRM organizational change process at the Ministry of Regional Development in order to improve future implementation processes and contribute to management and organization disciplines with regard to the role of concepts such as leadership, change strategies and the interventions of the consultant in a public sector institution. This study will analyze a case of organizational change that was implemented at the Ministry of Regional Development. The research will address the main factors that have led to the Human Resource Management (HRM) change results. 9

10 1.4. Research question The central research question is the following: How did leadership, change strategies and interventions affect the HRM change project and its outcome at the Ministry of Regional Development during the period 2006 and 2008? The sub- research questions are the following: How did leadership affect the implementation of the HRM change project at the Ministry of Regional Development? How did change strategies affect the implementation of the HRM change project at the Ministry of Regional Development? How did interventions used by consultant Bureau FIX affect the implementation of the HRM change project at the Ministry of Regional Development? 1.5. Relevance and Justification The launching of every new activity requires learning from previous experiences. The case study can provide insights with regard to aspects that have to be taken into account when there is a desire to change an organization. Besides the Ministry of Regional Development other organizations can benefit from lessons learned. Hopefully the findings of this ISP will contribute to better achievements in the future. 10

11 1.6. Methodology Desk research and an analysis of important reports were done. Additionally six face to face interviews were conducted. Making field reports helped the researcher to reflect on the interviews and adjust where necessary. Before starting with the research the researcher contacted the people that were on the list to be interviewed. Employees working for the ministry received a letter signed by the current director to ask permission to be interviewed. Participants received a thank you letter after the interviews. Before starting with the interview the topic and the purpose of the interview were briefly introduced. Groenendijk (2003:83) emphasizes that it is important that respondents understand the importance of their input and the issues that will be addressed. Composing a model based on the literature study enabled to researcher to analyze the HRM project. Note pads were used to write answers down. The respondents were told to feel free in expressing their opinion and emotions but had to take the talking speed into account to enable the researcher to write the conversations down. The interviews went generally well. One of the respondents needed some time to recall her memory, because the change process was not so recent. This taught the researcher to send the questions one day in advance. During one of the interviews, the researcher felt the tension, because it was a team member that was dismissed from the team. The researcher told her that she recognized that things could have been addressed in a better way. Generally the researcher felt that participants appreciated the personal invitation and the treatment during the interviews. According to Groenendijk (2003 :83) cooperation of respondents can be enhanced if a pleasant environment is created by the interviewer. The respondents were overall open and relaxed. Moreover some of the interviewees informed the researcher that they were happy with the interview because it enabled them to reflect on what they could have addressed differently. Interviewees were selected on the basis of their knowledge and insights on the change process. Therefore the decision was made to apply qualitative research. This method is appropriate to collect data about e.g. views of respondents on events (Groenendijk 2003:93). Quantifying numbers was not the purpose of the research and was therefore not applicable 11

12 (Groenendijk 2003:93). Furthermore it was important to select people in different positions that could provide specific information. The persons interviewed occupied positions such as: Team member, employee of the personnel department, project manager and deputy director. A disadvantage of the qualitative research is that a selected group gives its opinion about how the change went. Thus data analysis is a reflection of the perspective of this group. For the data analysis fictional names were used. 12

13 1.7. Limitations and scope The scope of this research is organizational change. However it was difficult to find data on organizational change within the public sector of Suriname. The former director of the Ministry of Regional Development at the headquarters and a team member from the Commissariat Wanica promised to give an interview but afterwards the researcher was not able to reach them. However it was striking that the views of interviewees often had similarities. It is also worth mentioning that the researcher was involved in the change process. Therefore she could have had an influence on people. However the researcher managed to limit her influence due to the fact that interviewees were generally open Structure of the paper The first chapter mainly focuses on the research and design of the ISP. Chapter two presents a series of concepts and theories. Three focuses on background information about the actors that were involved in the HRM project, the reasons for implementing the change and the cooperation between DLGP and the Ministry of Regional Development. Chapter four analyses the HRM change. The ISP will be concluded with some final remarks and recommendations in chapter five. 13

14 2 Literature review research. This chapter will address the key concepts. These concepts are guiding for the 2.1 Concepts of organizational change The concept organizational change applies to the improvement of the status quo of an organization but it can also lead to the creation of a less advantageous situations (Amburgey et al.,1993). In other words change does not necessarily improve the current situation. Concepts that will be used to analyze the process of the HRM organizational change are leadership, change strategies and interventions. The selection of these concepts is based on theory. Research showed that leaders have to help employees coping with organizational change (Callan 2007). This determines the acceptance of change (Callan 2007). Furthermore literature shows that leadership, strategies, interventions are dominant factors during changes. Authors such as Kotter (2002), Cummings and Worley (2005) and Rampersad (2002) emphasized the importance of leadership during changes. Therefore leadership is considered to be an essential part of the success of organizational changes. Authors such as Kort (2010), De Caluwe & Vermaak (2003) and the UNDP (2006) point out that strategies and interventions are important during changes. During the HRM process a consultant was hired to conduct the process. These experts can add value to the performance of their clients. Therefore it is important to analyze leadership and the contribution of the consultant The relationship between these concepts is that the contribution of both the leadership and the consultants determine the change outcome. Leaders are responsible for the acceptance of change. Consultants are experts and responsible for the ability to apply this expertise in an appropriate way in order to determine the change direction. According to Walenberg the contribution of consultants depends on the results that are achieved. Due to the fact that the researcher works at the ministry for seven years the theory enabled her to recognize recurring issues during organizational changes. This strengthened her conviction to 14

15 select important organizational change concepts such as: leadership, interventions and strategies as well as the contribution of the consultant. 2.2 Leadership: Its important role during the implementation of organizational changes This paragraph elaborates on responsibilities of leaders during organizational changes. According to Mc Gannon (cited in Adair 2009) leadership is not necessarily related to a position but the ability to take action. On the other hand Peter Drucker (cited in The Real Trust) states that a leader is a person that has such an influence on a certain group that they are willing to follow the path that is chosen. Both authors are pointing out that leadership is not necessarily connected to a hierarchical position. Therefore the researcher agrees with both authors. However leaders in (top) hierarchical positions have the power to reject certain decisions or grant facilities. In this regard employees may be inclined to accept their instructions during a change process. Senge (1999 :16) on the other hand argues that there is no fixed definition for leadership. For leadership some of the most important aspects are commitment, ownership and all the components of the eight step model of Kotter (2002). Below Kotter sets out which actions leaders should take to create followers during organizational changes Kotter s analytical framework While reading the book The Heart of Change from Kotter (2002) I looked for information that could contribute to analyzing change process. Kotter s eight step framework is about preconditions to successfully implement change. The framework is useful because it contains aspects that can be recognized in practice. The author refers to the following conditions: pressing reasons to implement change, a strong team to guide the change, a clear direction, communicating the final destination, removing barriers, rewarding people 15

16 periodically when small successes are achieved, creating more change and finally guaranteeing that change becomes lasting. Aforementioned conditions for success are attributed to leaders and play an important role in a change process. According to the opinion of some authors it is easier to persuade people in the private sector of the need for change (De Vries & Balaz in Fernandez & Rainey, 2006). Furthermore Kotter (2002: 38) points out that a powerful guiding team with the right competencies has to be established to lead change. Another striking point is that Kotter ( 2002: 43) emphasizes the fact that tools and skills have to be provided to those that resist change. This could enable antagonists to support the change process. According to Kotter (2002:104) overcoming resistance is possible if employees are empowered. Cummings and Worley (2005:159) add to this perspective that overcoming resistance implies the following: Ensuring empathy, support, encouraging participation, ensuring involvement of important stakeholders, communicating plans and providing up to date information. Cummings, Worley and Kotter are stressing important conditions to implement changes successfully but ignore the fact that poor management can affect the attitude of employees towards change. Van Dam et al. (2008:318) emphasizes that there is a relationship between the reaction of workers on change and the way they are managed daily. Furthermore the sequence of the eight steps model of Kotter is a rational approach to change and therefore the researcher considers it to be an ideal situation. Change can be very complex and is usually not a linear process. In practice (political) power games play an important role during changes but are not clearly addressed by Kotter. People are usually inclined to look at their own interests. The primacy of self-interest fits in the party model which will be discussed further in the text by Tibosch (1992). Tibosch et al., (1992:16) cited Voets 1987, Lammers 1989 and Mastenbroek 1991 and emphasized that irrationality is in line with the party model. In organizations people focus on their own interests and use different (unpredictable) methods to achieve their goals. During changes one can encounter certain problems that can impede change. Visible and invisible power can affect change outcomes. If social networks have a negative influence on advocates of the change, this can lead to undesirable outcomes. Leaders should have the capabilities to recognize certain issues and deal with it properly. However, this is insufficiently addressed in Kotter s framework. 16

17 Furthermore Kotter s 8 steps model with regard to the successful implementation of change underlines the importance of inspiring and motivating people to contribute to change which is not an easy journey. Challenging roles of leaders are e.g. the ability to inspire and persuade employees and deal with emotional reactions. For this reason managing activities is not enough to yield success during a change process (Gill 2003:308). Kotter is not clear about creating commitment and ownership. This makes it necessary to include the views of other authors with respect to the aforementioned components in this chapter Characteristics of resistance Leaders are responsible for dealing with resistance. However in some cases leaders can resist change if it is imposed. According to Cuyvers (1999: 173) resistance means that arguments are used by people within an organization to oppose change. These arguments can be either well founded or baseless. Furthermore people can start acting uninterested or use vague reasons for not participating. Cuyvers states that there are many reasons for people to resist change: people want to maintain the current situation, employees lack understanding about motives or believe in reasons that were given. Furthermore resistance can also rise if there is a lack of capacity or insufficient understanding about benefits of the change outcomes. In the researcher s opinion Cuyvers is ignoring the fact that people can resist change in a subtle manner because he only discusses visible aspects. Since power plays are not always observable it is important to also take this aspect into account. 17

18 2.2.3 Commitment and ownership The lack of commitment can be an important reason for people to resist change (Gill 2003).Commitment issues can be recognized as follows: 1. Unwillingness to look for possibilities 2. The failure of managers to take important decisions 3. Refusal or non-attendance of important stakeholders 4. The lack of ownership and responsibility for change (Gill 2003:308). Furthermore Gill argues that hidden agenda s can also influence support for change. According to Rampersad (2002:238) it is important to create commitment among top managers. This author also states that commitment means taking the lead. Cummings & Worley (2005:168) indicate that commitment goes hand in hand with planning beforehand in order for stakeholders to support the change. This implies that the lack of commitment can be prevented. Sarcone (2009:24) clarifies the content of commitment by specifying that it refers to accepting and embracing change. The author states that this may require leaders to attempt to influence, convince and persuade stakeholders. According to Rampersad (2002) that commitment contains taking the lead since promises provide no guarantees for knowing what kind of support can be expected from important stakeholders. Taking the lead is in the opinion of the researcher a method to sustain commitment during the entire process. Previously Cummings and Worley (2005) determined that it is important to analyze support in an early stage. Rampersad (2002) elaborates on this aspect by emphasizing how commitment can be maintained. Furthermore Rampersad states that it can be challenging to maintain commitment because during the change process participants can discover that they will lose power or other benefits if the change is implemented. An aspect that is not addressed by Cummings, Worley and Rampersad, is which strategies can be used to create commitment. With regard to the Colors of Change Framework of De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003) it can be argued that the yellow approach 2 provides the opportunity to deal with power issues. This approach can be used to analyze important forces in the field beforehand (Cummings & Worley 2005: 125). Leaders can determine strategies in order to persuade 2 See page 22 18

19 certain groups in a preliminary stage. If there are doubts about the feasibility (due to the lack of support among e.g. politicians) it may be wise to postpone the plan. Another aspect that is also not clearly addressed by Kotter is how to build a sense of ownership. Some scholars are stressing the fact that if a change process affects a certain group directly it should be avoided to give them the impression that the change is imposed (Canadian International Development Agency 2000:8). Subsequently this institution states that a lack of ownership can lead to the failure of change (Canadian International Development Agency 2000:7). If the drive and leadership comes from outside a change process, it will not end as desired. Furthermore this institution reveals the following: those that are affected by the change must determine important dimensions of the change and the road that has to be followed. Therefore outsiders such as e.g. donors must not dictate components of the content and the road that has to be followed (Canadian International Development Agency 2000). Another source is more specific about methods that can help to build ownership. The central point is that ownership includes involvement which creates a sense of solidarity. Methods that were mentioned are installing committees with different responsibilities such as scheduling plans, brainstorming, evaluating methods, writing documents and designing deliverables (Elizondo-Montemayor et al. 2008:3) 19

20 2.3. Change strategies and interventions This paragraph starts with views with regard to change strategies. Subsequently, interventions will be addressed. Consultants can provide support to leaders with change strategies and interventions. If interventions are conducted by consultant they are responsible for the action that is taken Change strategies Kort (2005: 19-20) cited three views regarding change strategies. 1. According to Worley and Cummings a change strategy includes planning as to how change will be achieved. 2. From the perspective of Pettigrew a change strategy contains the intension to use a certain method to implement change. 3. Cozijnen and Vrakking are of the opinion that a change strategy is a conscious and deliberate contemplation to maximize success and reduce resistance during the change. Evaluating the aforementioned definitions, it becomes clear that change strategies comprehend thinking beforehand about how the change will be approached. De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003) developed a framework that can be used to analyze strategies 3. It consists of 5 colors namely yellow, blue, red, green and white. The yellow approach regards pressing for change through power and constituting coalitions. The blue print thinking is corresponding with making a detailed plan. This approach resembles the fact that people will behave as rational individuals during the process. Therefore it ignores resistance. The yellow approach takes politics and interests into account which are disregarded by the blue approach. In essence the green approach focuses on yielding results through learning and developing competencies of individuals during a change process. De Caluwe & Vermaak (2002) explain that the red print thinking contains making change attractive for people through interventions such as incentives and special attention for needs. Finally the white print thinking is in line with facilitating spontaneous changes. The authors 3 See page 22 &23 20

21 De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003) developed a multi dimensional framework. The framework can be useful for experts such as consultants. Moreover Twynstra Gudde (2008) is pointing out how strategies can be evaluated. According to this author it is important to assess strategies as follows: 1. Are strategies working and is an adjustment desired? 2. Which color is dominant? 3. Is a combination of colors desired? 21

22 2.3.2 Interventions While methods refer to what was done, interventions focus on how the consultant interacted with the client (Cullen et al. 1981:181:56). Kort (2005:21) cited the authors Worley, Cummings, De Caluwe and Vermaak with regard to interventions. Firstly Worley and Cummings in Kort (2005:21) defined interventions as a series of activities or events to enhance the effectiveness of an organization. In other words deliberate actions have to be taken to alter an organization or subsidiary. Secondly, De Caluwe and Vermaak (cited in Kort 2005:21) emphasize that interventions contain bringing strategies into practice. Evaluating the aforementioned definitions it becomes clear that interventions contain deliberate actions to improve the current situation of an organization. Below the colors of Change framework will be presented with optional interventions. The Colors of Change Framework of De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003) Interventions Perspectieves about change colors Pitfalls Establish coalitions Facilitate protected people. Power politics plays a role Equal interests has to be brought together Create Win -win situation -Conflicting interests -Lose-lose situation Mediation and negotiation Making analysis Manage and monitor as a project Change is a rational process Clear steps, goals and results has to be formulated together Planning Seeks common and interesrest monitoring and Use of power and influence -Neglects all concerns and resistance Organize pleasant events Assessment and pay Provide incentives to people to contribute to change Reward desired behavior HRM approach -Ignoring power issues, and conflicts. -Cautious 22

23 with sanctions Training Management development Coaching Empowerment Self steering teams Open communication De Caluwe and Vermaak (2003: 58) Create ways for people to learn and strengthen competencies Organizational development interventions are used Change is fostering energy A natural and evolutionary process Obstacles have to be removed Ignores the fact that not everyone is willing and capable to learn Laissez faire 23

24 2.4 Consultancy and requirements for assessing the quality of their effectiveness This paragraph will address expectations from consultants and how they can approach changes. According to Walenberg (2010), consultants can provide support to leaders by means of strategies and interventions. The quality of this support determines the effectiveness of consultants. Therefore it is necessary to assess expectations of advisors which are considered to be a yardstick to measure the effectiveness of events. In this regard Walenberg (2010:15) cited Hrivnak and Halfhill in Boros (2009) as follows: The effectiveness of consultants is the capability to produce or bring about a desired outcome or result. It is contingent upon goals and the agent, method, process or way the goal is achieved, as well as the context and circumstances in which achievement is reached. Furthermore Walenberg (2010: 8) made a distinction between an expert and process approach. The first approach contains that of the consultant who is responsible for the methods and results with regard to organizational changes. The second approach holds clients responsible for the change. However another source reveals that the lack of capacity can lead to undesired change outcomes in the public sector (UNDP 2006:8). In order to assess actions conducted by consultants it is necessary to include expectations from these experts. Johannsmann (2007:13-14) is specific about identifying good advisors during a change process. This author argues that a good advisor does not provide answers, but asks questions to bring them to the surface. This author mentioned expectations that clients should assess. A few components that were mentioned are: 1. Skills to change an organization 2. Acting diplomatic 3. The ability to maneuver between political obstacles 4. Knowledge about political relationships 5. Insights into human nature 6. Clear and good analysis 24

25 7. Vision 8. Empathy 9. Creativity 10. Divide details for key aspects 11. The ability to acknowledge weaknesses, learn and correct shortcomings 12. Impartial 13. Provide autonomous advise The aforementioned aspects are indeed important and useful. The researcher agrees with the author that autonomous advice is important.. An important dimension that the researcher would add to the list of Johannsmann is that an advisor should be a people s person and also not conceited. It is important that consultants go among the people in order to listen, observe and connect with them. There is a possibility that aforementioned components are included in the dimension self refection but the researcher prefers to be very specific about it. Furthermore advice has to provide feedback and coaching to clients. 25

26 2.5 Summary This ISP will address four aspects. These are leadership, change strategies interventions and the contribution of the consultant during the change process. Leadership means taking action in order to create followers. Using the eight step model of Kotter enables scholars to analyze how successful change is conducted by leaders. Ignoring the elements can result in unwanted change outcomes. It provides insight in actions that leaders need to take during a change process. Yet it is not considered to be an exhaustive list of activities. Hence other activities can be added to the list in order to prevent and overcome resistance. Additional components in this regard are: ownership, involvement, listening, empathy, communication and commitment of (important) stakeholders. Moreover the researcher s opinion is that leaders should have the capabilities to recognize and deal with power games. The second aspect deals with change strategies. Strategies contain thinking beforehand about the general change approach without being concrete about action steps (Kort 2005). Through the colors of change framework an interpretation is given about possible approaches. Yellow takes politics and interests into account. Blue approaches the change process rationally by means of a plan but ignores resistance. Red focuses on making change attractive. Green is in line with changing the organization by means of training and development. White contains facilitating unrehearsed changes. The third aspect namely interventions are considered to be an outflow of strategies. The colors of change framework presented an overview of possible interventions. Interventions are in line with important actions aimed at the realizations of the ultimate goal which is improving the effectiveness of the organizations. Furthermore consultants are experts who can be hired by clients. Therefore these experts have to comply with certain expectations. Therefore it was necessary to include requirements of these experts. Another aspect is that consultants can use the expert approach during changes or the process approach. Both can also be used. 26

27 Literature review enabled the researcher to select critical factors that resulted in the HRM change outcome. Therefore the focus will primarily be on applicable key elements. These elements will be used to analyze the HRM change process. The model is composed by the researcher and primarily based on Kotter s, Johannsmann and De Caluwe and Vermaak s theories. Below are the variables that will be used to analyze the HRM organizational change. The components are interrelated. 27

28 Analytical model Leadership: 1. Responsibilities: commitment, ownership, communicating the vision, dealing with resistance, establishing a powerful team. 2. Effectiveness of leadership Change strategies: 1. Characteristics: making change attractive, learning approach, using a plan, using power to take political interests into account 2.Effectiveness of strategies Interventions : 1. Characteristics : training and development, listing actions, motivation events 2 Effectiveness of interventions Contribution of the Consultant: Acting tactfully Insights in Human nature Maneuver between political obstacles Ability to change the organization The influence of the advisor on events 28

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