Cloud Computing. IST 501 Fall Dongwon Lee, Ph.D.

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1 Cloud Computing IST 501 Fall 2014 Dongwon Lee, Ph.D.

2 Learning Objectives l Understand what cloud computing is l Be able to describe basic characteristics, service models, and deployment models l Discuss examples of cloud computing l Discuss potential issues with cloud computing 2

3 NIST View of Cloud Computing NIST promotes U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve quality of life 3

4 Definition by NIST l Cloud computing: A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction l This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models 4

5 SalesForce s CC 5

6 5 Essential Cloud Characteristics l On-demand self-service l Broad network access l Resource pooling l Location independence l Rapid elasticity l Measured service 6

7 Eg, Elasticity and Measurement 7

8 8

9 9

10 Measured Service: Utility Computing l Computing may someday be organized as a public utility John McCarthy, MIT,1961 l Packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity l A break in the clouds: towards a cloud definition, ACM SIGCOMM, 2009 l Hugh computational and storage capabilities available from utilities l Metered billing Pay-As-You-Go 10

11 3 Cloud Service Models l Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS) l Use provider s applications over a network l Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) l Deploy customer-created applications to a cloud l Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) l Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and other fundamental computing resources l To be considered cloud they must be deployed on top of cloud infrastructure that has the key characteristics 11

12 Eg, SaaS Apple icloud 12

13 Eg, SaaS 13

14 Eg, SaaS 14

15 Eg, PaaS 15

16 Google App Engine (GAE) l Google s approach to CC l Google as the web platform l A platform to deploy and host web applications in Google-managed data centers l GAE delivers a platform and solution stack (as a service) à PaaS l GAE virtualizes apps across multiple servers and data centers l 16

17 Eg, PaaS 17

18 Eg, PaaS 18

19 Eg, PaaS Cocane 19

20 Eg, IaaS 20

21 GAE vs. AWS l GAE is PaaS l Abstract OS-independent platform is pre-built and provided l Users have to create a web app and deploy it to the abstract platform l AWS is IaaS l Users can build their own platform within CC, called AMI à Infrastructure as a Service l Users can create a web app and deploy it to their own platform (AMI) 21

22 Eg, IaaS 22

23 Service Model Architectures Cloud Infrastructure SaaS Cloud Infrastructure PaaS SaaS Cloud Infrastructure IaaS PaaS SaaS Software as a Service (SaaS) Architectures Cloud Infrastructure PaaS Cloud Infrastructure IaaS PaaS Platform as a Service (PaaS) Architectures Cloud Infrastructure IaaS Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Architectures 23

24 4 Cloud Deployment Models l Private or internal cloud l enterprise owned/leases, for internal purpose l Community cloud l shared infrastructure for community l Public cloud l For general public, mega-scale infrastructure l Hybrid cloud l composition of two or more clouds 24

25 Eg, Private Cloud 25

26 Eg, Community Cloud Google s Gov Cloud 26

27 Eg, Public Cloud 27

28 Eg, Hybrid Cloud l Use multiple deployment models together l Eg l Move enterprise level apps to private cloud and less critical apps to public cloud IT Knowledge Exchange, by B. Gracely 28

29 New Deployment Model l Personal Cloud?? l For individual or family usage Transporter 29

30 Common Cloud Characteristics l Cloud computing often leverages: l Massive scale l Homogeneity l Virtualization l Resilient computing l Low cost software l Geographic distribution l Service orientation l Advanced security technologies 30

31 The NIST Cloud Def. Framework Hybrid Clouds Deployment Models Private Cloud Community Cloud Public Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Essential Characteristics On Demand Self-Service Broad Network Access Rapid Elasticity Resource Pooling Measured Service Common Characteristics Massive Scale Homogeneity Virtualization Low Cost Software Resilient Computing Geographic Distribution Service Orientation Advanced Security 31

32 Putting All Together l Most clouds will require very strong security controls l All models of cloud may be used for differing tradeoffs between threat exposure and efficiency l There is no one cloud l There are many models and architectures l How does one choose? 32

33 Effects of Cloud Computing l Small enterprises use public SaaS and public clouds and minimize growth of data centers l Large enterprise data centers may evolve to act as private clouds l Large enterprises may use hybrid cloud infrastructure software to leverage both internal and public clouds l Public clouds may adopt standards in order to run workloads from competing hybrid cloud infrastructures 33

34 Issues of Cloud Computing 34

35 Issues of Cloud Computing l Privacy l Security l Availability l Legal Issue l Compliance l Performance l 35

36 Eg, Security Problem 36

37 Eg, Availability Problem 37

38 Eg, Availability Problem APR 20, 2011, 11:56AM 38

39 Eg, Availability Problem 39

40 Sunny Thoughts on CC l Tim O Reilly, CEO O Reilly Media l I think it is one of the foundations of the next generation of computing l The network of networks is the platform for all computing Everything we think of as a computer today is really just a device that connects to the big computer that we are all collec:vely building 40

41 Sunny Thoughts on CC l Sun Microsystems CTO Greg Papadopoulos l Users will trust service providers with their data like they trust banks with their money l Hosting providers [will] bring brutal efficiency for utilization, power, security, service levels, and idea-to-deploy time CNET article l Becoming cost ineffective to build data centers l Organizations will rent computing resources 41

42 Criticisms on Cloud Computing l Richard Stallman (GNU, FSF, Emacs) l cloud computing was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time l Larry Ellison (Oracle CEO) l everything that we already do" and that it will have no effect except to "change the wording on some of our ads 42

43 Case: NYT and Nasdaq (4/08) l New York Times l Didn t coordinate with Amazon, used a credit card! l Used EC2 and S3 to convert 15 million scanned news articles to PDF (4TB data) l Took 100 Linux computers 24 hours (would have taken months on NYT computers l Nasdaq l Uses S3 to deliver historic stock and fund information l Millions of files showing price changes of entities over 10 minute segments l The expenses of keeping all that data online [in Nasdaq servers] was too high. Claude Courbois, Nasdaq VP l Created lightweight Adobe AIR application to let users view data 43

44 Case: Gov s Use l President Obama s Citizen s Briefing Book Based on Salesforce.com Ideas application l l l l l Concept to Live in Three Weeks 134,077 Registered Users 1.4 M Votes 52,015 Ideas Peak traffic of 149 hits per second l US Census Bureau Uses Salesforce.com Cloud Application l l l Project implemented in under 12 weeks 2,500+ partnership agents use Salesforce.com for 2010 decennial census Allows projects to scale from 200 to 2,000 users overnight to meet peak periods with no capital expenditure 44

45 Hype Cycle for CC (Gartner, 2010) 45

46 Pros of CC l Lower-cost computers for end users l Improved performance on users PC l Lower IT infrastructure and software costs l Fewer maintenance issues l Instance software updates l Unlimited storage capacity l Increased data safety l Easier group collaboration l Universal access to data/documents 46

47 Cons of CC l Requires a constant internet connection l Doesn t work well with low-speed connections l Can be slower than using desktop software l Features might be more limited l Stored data might not be secure l If the cloud loses your data, big problem 47

48 Who Benefits from CC? l Collaborators l Road warriors l Cost-conscious users l Cost-conscious IT departments l Users with increasing needs 48

49 Who Shouldn t be Using CC? l The Internet-impaired l Offline workers l The security conscious l Anyone married to existing applications l Eg, MS Office (now one can use MS Office in CC too) 49

50 Using CC Services (SaaS) l Calendars, Schedules, & Task Management l Event & Contact Management l l Project Management l Word Processing, Spreadsheets, & Presentations l Databases l Storing & Sharing files l Sharing digital photographs l Sharing songs and videos 50

51 Presentation Services in CC l Collaborating on presentations in CC l l Pros Web-based or Phone-based presentation app l Users from multiple locations can co-work l No need to carry around presentation files l Cost-effective free or nominal fee! l Cons l l l Network access is critical Don t always have the same range of features Compatibility issue with existing presentations 51

52 Sharing Presentations in CC l Web-based services that aim at sharing (not editing) existing presentation files in CC l Upload existing presentation files for sharing l Supports formats like PPT, PDF, or ODP l Cannot edit existing files l Eg, l AuthorStream.com l SlideBoom.com l SlideShare.net 52

53 Database Services in CC l Dabbledb.com à acquired by Twitter (2010) l Teamdesk.net l Trackvia.com l Baseportal.com l Springbase.com l Viravis.com l Infodome.com l Creator.zoho.com l Quickbase.intuit.com 53

54 Reference l Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online, Michael Miller, Que Publishing, 2009 l Dot.Cloud: The 21 st Century Business Platform Built on Cloud Computing, Peter. Fingar, Meghan-Kiffer Press, 2009 l Cloud Computing Tutorial, Peter Mell and Tim Grance, NIST, 2009 l Many pages of this slide are adopted with the permission of the authors 54

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