COM 444 Cloud Computing

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1 COM 444 Cloud Computing Lec 5: Cloud Platform Architecture over Virtualized Data Centers: Cloud Computing Service Models Prof. Dr. Halûk Gümüşkaya Computing Engineering Department Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management 1 2 Cloud Services: The Cloud Computing Reference Model The Cloud Stack: Separation of Responsibilities 3 4

2 The Cloud Stack: Applications Cloud applications can range from Web applications to scientific computational jobs Examples: Netflix, Office, GoogleDocs, idrive, Livechat, Web2 etc The Cloud Stack: Data Data Management New generation cloud specific databases and management systems Examples: Hbase, Cassandra, Hive, Pig etc. 5 6 The Cloud Stack: Runtime Environment Runtime platforms to support cloud programming models Examples: MPI, MapReduce, Hadoop Pregel etc The Cloud Stack: Middleware for Clouds Management platforms that enable: Resource Management Monitoring Provisioning Identity Management and Security 7 8

3 The Cloud Stack: Operating Systems Standard Operating Systems used in Personal Computing Packaged with libraries and software for quick deployment and provisioning Examples: Amazon Machine Images (AMI) contain OS as well as required software packages as a snapshot for instant deployment The Cloud Stack: Virtualization Key Component Resource Virtualization Examples: Amazon EC2 is based on the Xen virtualization platform 9 10 Cloud Stack Layers in Service Levels Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management 11 12

4 IaaS: Most Basic Cloud Service Model Cloud providers offer computers, as physical or more often as virtual machines other resources. Virtual machines are run as guests by a hypervisor, such as Xen or KVM. Cloud users deploy their applications by then installing operating system images on the machines as well as their application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis, that is, cost will reflect the amount of resources allocated and consumed. IaaS Examples Amazon CloudFormation (and underlying services such as Amazon EC2) Rackspace Cloud Terremark Google Compute Engine Some IaaS Offerings from Public Clouds Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management 15 16

5 Platform as a Service (PaaS) Cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operating system programming language execution environment database, and web server Application developers develop and run their software on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Amazon Elastic Beanstalk Microsoft Azure Google App Engine Heroku Aneka Force.com Cloud Foundry EngineYard Mendix OrangeScape Examples of PaaS PaaS Offerings from Public Clouds Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Today s Cloud Services Stack 9. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 10. Cloud Security and Trust Management 19 20

6 Software as a Service (SaaS) Cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user, so price is scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point. Google Apps Microsoft Office 365 innkeypos Quickbooks Online Limelight Video Platform Salesforce.com SaaS Examples Service Models at Different Service Levels Five Major Cloud Platforms and Their Service Offerings Java, Go 23 24

7 Cloud Computing Service Models A Stack of 6 Layers of Cloud Services and Their Provides 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management Cloud Services Major Providers Today s Cloud Services Stack Application Cloud Services Platform Cloud Services Compute & Storage Cloud Services Co Location Cloud Services Network Cloud Services Collocation Services(LaaS) : Savvis The company sells collocation services and managed hosting with 50 data centers (approximately 1.54 million square feet) in North America, Europe, and Asia, automated management and provisioning systems, and information technology consulting. Colocation services -- provides services to house, power and secure all the physical and network resources of a data center. It also provides managed hosting, a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone. Hardware/Virtualization Services (HaaS) 27 28

8 Network Cloud Services(NaaS) : AT&T AT&T has a flexible and scalable suite of on-demand cloud which offers a cost-saving alternative to many conventional hosting services. Its robust portfolio of mobile apps, voice, and data services can be delivered as a total cloud solution under security protection. AT&T has a good track record of serving corporate and government clients and enterprise hosting clients. It has security capabilities that are embedded and integrated into the core of its network, with physical and network authentication, firewall management, intrusion detection and protection, denial of service mitigation, and encryption capabilities. Network Cloud Services(NaaS) : AT&T One can buy access to cloud computing and cloud storage using AT&T services. With up to percent availability and the enterpriseclass security of AT&T Internet Data Centers, they can provide the performance and network bandwidth needed for most demanding cloud solutions Virtualization Services (HaaS) : Vmware VMware provides virtualization software with a market share more than 80%. The company was acquired by EMC in 2004 for $625 million. VMware Workstation: This software suite allows users to run multiple instances of x86 or x compatible OS on a single physical PC. VMware Fusion: This provides similar functionality like the VMware Workstation for users of the Intel Mac platform, along with full compatibility with virtual machines created by other VMware products. VMware Server: It is provided as freeware for non-commercial use, and it is possible to create virtual machines with it. It is a "hosted" application, which runs within an existing Linux or Windows operating system. Virtualization Services (HaaS) : Vmware VMware ESX: It is an enterprise-level product, can deliver greater performance than the freeware VMware Server, due to lower system overhead. VMware ESX is a "bare-metal" product, running directly on the server hardware, allowing virtual servers to also use hardware more or less directly. VMware vsphere is a "cloud OS" capable of managing large pools of infrastructure, including software and hardware from networks

9 Cloud Services and Providers Cloud Platform Architecture over Virtualized Data Centers 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management Clouds based on Ownership and Exposure Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds Characteristics Public Clouds Private Clouds Public/Internet Clouds Private/Enterprise Clouds Hybrid/Mixed Clouds Technology leverage and ownership Owned by service providers Leverage existing IT infrastructure and personnel; owned by individual organization 3rd party, multi-tenant Cloud infrastructure & services: * available on subscription basis (pay as you go) Cloud computing model run within a company s own Data Center / infrastructure for internal and/or partners use. Mixed usage of private and public Clouds: Leasing public cloud services when private cloud capacity is insufficient Management of provisioned resources Workload distribution methods and loading policies Creating and managing VM instances within proprietary infrastructure; promote standardization, preserves capital investment, application flexibility Handle workload without communication dependency; distribute data and VM resources; surge workload is off-loaded Client managed; achieve customization and offer higher efficiency Handle workload dynamically, but can better balance workloads; distribute data and VM resources Security and data privacy enforcement Publicly accessible through remote interface Access is limited; provide preproduction testing and enforce data privacy and security policies Example platforms Google App Engine, Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure IBM RC2 35 Community Clouds: Shared among several or organizations Hybrid Clouds: Composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) 36

10 Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds Cloud Ecosystems for Building Private Clouds Figure 4.1 Public, private, and hybrid clouds illustrated by functional architecture and connectivity of representative clouds available by Business Models Salesforce.com Salesforce.com's CRM solution is broken down into several cloud service models: Sales Cloud, Service Cloud, Data Cloud (Jigsaw), Collaboration Cloud (Chatter) and Custom Cloud (Force.com). Sales Cloud: A SaaS provider allows user to access anywhere through an Internet-connected mobile device or computer. The service include real-time sales collaborative tool called Chatter provides sales representatives with a complete customer profile and account history, manages marketing campaign spending, tracks all opportunity-related data including milestones, decision makers, customer communications, etc. Automatic reminders are scheduled to keep teams up to date on the latest information. Business Models Salesforce.com Service Cloud: The Service Cloud provides companies with a call center-like view that enables companies to create and track cases coming in from every channel, and automatically route and escalate what s important. The Salesforce CRMpowered customer portal provides customers the ability to track their own cases 24 hours a day. Force.com platform: Salesforce.com's PaaS platform allows external developers to create add-on applications that integrate into the main salesforce.com application and are hosted on salesforce.com's infrastructure

11 Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 6. Today s Cloud Services Stack 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management Realizing the Computer Utilities Vision: What Consumers and Providers Want? Cloud Service Consumers minimize expenses, meet QoS How do I express QoS requirements to meet my goals? How do I assign valuation to my applications? How do I discover services and map applications to meet QoS needs? How do I manage multiple providers and get my work done? How do I outperform other competing consumers? Cloud Service Providers maximise ROI, retain customers How do I decide service pricing models? How do I specify prices? How do I translate prices into resource allocations? How do I assign and enforce resource allocations? How do I advertise and attract consumers? How do I perform accounting and handle payments? Mechanisms, tools, and technologies value expression, translation, and enforcement Market-based Systems = Self-managed and self-regulated Systems Autonomic Cloud Management Manage Complexity 1 Develop methodologies and tools to automate the process of cloud management in 4 objectives Supply and Demand Enhance Utility 1. Manage resources to provisioning of service quality assurance and adaptation Resource Management Power Management 3. Manage energy consumption under SLA constraints 2 3 Capacity Management Autonomic Cloud Management Load Balancing penalty 2. Automate the configuration process of VMs and virtual clusters Admission Control Reliability Management 4. Develop fault prediction models for proactive failure management 43 44

12 Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture: QoS Negotiation and SLA-based Resource Allocation A (Layered) Cloud Architecture Users/ Brokers User level Cloud applications Social computing, Enterprise, ISV, Scientific, CDNs,... SLA Resource Allocator Virtual Machines (VMs) Service Request Examiner and Admission Control - Customer-driven Service Management - Computational Risk Management - Autonomic Resource Management VM Monitor Pricing Dispatcher Accounting Service Request Monitor User-Level Middleware Core Middleware Cloud programming: environments and tools Web 2.0 Interfaces, Mashups, Concurrent and Distributed Programming, Workflows, Libraries, Scripting Apps Hosting Platforms QoS Negotiation, Admission Control, Pricing, SLA Management, Monitoring, Execution Management, Metering, Accounting, Billing Virtual Machine (VM), VM Management and Deployment Autonomic / Cloud Economy Adaptive Management Physical Machines System level Cloud resources Many Cloud Offerings: Good, but new issues- vendor lock in, scaling across clouds InterCloud: Global Cloud Exchange and Market Maker Inter-Cloud or Mashup Services Compute Cloud Manjrasoft Aneka Broker 1 Storage Cloud Request Capacity Negotiate/Bid Publish Offers Complex decisions to make? Enterprise Resource Manager (Proxy).... Broker N Directory Auctioneer Bank Global Cloud Exchange Compute Cloud Enterprise IT Consumer Storage Cloud 47 Figure Inter-cloud exchange of cloud resources through brokering. 48

13 Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management Three Cases of Cloud Resource Provisioning without Elasticity Three Cases of Cloud Resource Provisioning without Elasticity Cloud Resource Deployment Using an IGG 51 52

14 Interaction among VM Managers The InterGrid Test Bed over the French Grid Cloud Loading Results at 4 Gateways Cloud Computing Service Models 1. Cloud Computing Services Stack 2. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 3. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS) 5. Today s Cloud Services Stack 6. Public, Private & Hybrid Clouds 7. Market-Oriented Cloud Architecture 8. Inter-Cloud Resource Management 9. Cloud Security and Trust Management 55 56

15 Security and Trust Barriers in Cloud Computing Protecting datacenters must first secure cloud resources and uphold user privacy and data integrity. Trust overlay networks could be applied to build reputation systems for establishing the trust among interactive datacenters. A watermarking technique is suggested to protect shared data objects and massively distributed software modules. These techniques safeguard user authentication and tighten the data access-control in public clouds. The new approach could be more cost-effective than using the traditional encryption and firewalls to secure the clouds. Cloud Service Models Security Measures Physical and Cyber Security Protection at Cloud/Data Centers Security Aware Cloud Platform 59 built with a cluster of VMs, storage, and networking resources over the datacenter servers operated by providers. 60

16 Security Issues on VMs Man-in-the-middle Attack on VMs during VM Migration Access Control is discretionary. Fine-grained multilevel controls are needed (Iitegrity lock architecture) Secure Boot The boot process needs to be secured. Proper attestation methods desired. More robust logging is needed. Component Isolation Dom0 in XEN supports networking, disk I/O, VM boot loading, hardware emulation and workload balancing, all need to be decomposed into components Logging Introspection a VM running security software is allowed to look inside the memory of another VM. Software such as IPS and antriviruses, using introspection should be safe from tampering. Avoiding man-in-the-middle attack on VMs during VM migration Fine-Grained Access Control with Hive Hive is a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop that provides tools to enable easy data summarization, adhoc querying and analysis of large datasets stored in Hadoop files. It provides a mechanism to put structure on this data with a simple query language called Hive QL based on SQL. Policies include content dependent access control, association based access control, time-dependent access control Fine-Grained Access Control with Hive Table/View definition and loading, Users create tables as well as load data into tables. Further, they can also upload XACML policies for the table they are creating. Users can also create XACML policies for tables/views. Users define views only if they have permissions for all tables Specifing in the query to create the view, they can create XACML policies for the views defined

17 Key Security Issue 1 Key Security Issue 2 (Courtesy of Hai Jin, 2012) 65 (Courtesy of Hai Jin, 2012) 66 Key Security Issue 3 Researches on Cloud Computing (Courtesy of Hai Jin, 2012) 67 (Courtesy of Hai Jin, 2012) 68

18 Reputation Systems for Social Networks and Cloud Systems PowerTrust Built over A Trust Overlay Network v 1 Global Reputation Scores V v 2 v v n Initial Reputation Aggregation Reputation Updating Power Nodes Regular Random Walk Look-ahead Random Walk Local Trust Scores Distributed Ranking Module Trust Overlay Network (Courtesy of R. Zhou and K. Hwang, PowerTrust : A scalable and robust reputation system for structured P2P networks, IEEE-TPDS, May 2007) Data Coloring for Cloud Privacy Protection Data Coloring with Watermarking for Trust Management 71 72

19 Clouds vs. Job Opportunities Clouds forming a major industry thrust that IDC estimates will grow to $44.2 billion investment in 2013 while 15% of IT investment in 2011 was related to cloud systems. Gartner rates cloud computing high on list of critical emerging technologies that are transformational (their highest rating for impact) in the next 2-5 years. There are many opportunities for new jobs in cloud computing with a recent European study estimating 2.4 million new cloud computing jobs in Europe alone by Cloud computing spans research and economy and so attractive component of curriculum for students that mix going on to PhD or graduating and working in industry 73 Conclusions Computing clouds are changing the whole IT, service industry, and global economy. Clearly, cloud computing demands ubiquity, efficiency, security, and trustworthiness. Cloud computing has become a common practice in business, government, education, and entertainment leveraging 50 millions of servers globally installed at thousands of datacenters today. Private clouds will become widespread in addition to using a few public clouds, that are under heavy competition among Google, MS, Amazon, Intel, EMC, IBM, SGI, VMWare, Saleforce.com, etc. Effective trust management, guaranteed security, user privacy, data integrity, mobility support, and copyright protection are crucial to the universal acceptance of cloud as a ubiquitous service. 74 Basic Papers to Read M. Armbrust, et al, Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing, Technical Report, UCB/EECS , Feb K. Hwang and D. Li, Trusted Cloud Computing with Secure Resources and Data Coloring, IEEE Internet Computing, Sept M. Rosenblum and T. Garfinkel, Virtual Machine Monitors: Current Technology and Future Trends, IEEE Computer, May 2005, pp B. Sotomayor, R. Montero, and I. Foster, Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds, IEEE Internet Computing, Sept Acknowledgements The slides have been based in-part upon original slides of a number of books and Professors including: Distributed and Cloud Computing: From Parallel Processing to The Internet of Things, K. Hwang, G. Fox and J. Dongarra, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Mastering Cloud Computing: Foundations and Applications Programming, R. Buyya, C. Vecchiola, S. T. Selvi, Morgan Kaufmann,

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