CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND CONCURRENT DISCUSSIONS

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1 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND CONCURRENT DISCUSSIONS Hypothesis 1: People are resistant to the technological change in the security system of the organization. Hypothesis 2: information hacked and misused. Lack of proper security system results in organizationally important Hypothesis 3: A proper security system in any organization increases data security and in turn efficiency and productivity of the organization. Hypothesis 4: Proper identification system reduces absenteeism 134

2 Types of Data: The random variables are of two types and two types of data are generated out of them: a) numerical and b) categorical A chi square (X 2 ) statistic is used in order to study whether the categorical variables differ from one another or not. The categorical variable generates data in the categories and numerical variable generates data in numerical form. For example, if it is asked - "What is your specialization?" or Do you own a bike?" are categorical type as they give data such as "computers" or "yes.", whereas questions like "What marks did you get?" or "What is your age?" are numerical type. It is very clear that the numerical data is basically of two types: 1) continuous, 2) discrete. To understand the differences between the types of numerical variables. Data Type Question Type Possible Responses Categorical What is your marital status? Married or unmarried Numerical(Discrete) Number of bikes that you 2 or 3 own? Numerical(Continuous) What s your height?

3 - the Chi Square statistic compares the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two (or more) independent groups. - the Chi square tests are used only on actual numbers and not on percentages, proportions, or means. For example, A case of a medicine trial conducted on different animals. The hypothesis in this case was set that the animals consuming the drug shows increase in the heartbeat as compared to animals who did not consume the medicine. On conducting the study, researcher collected the following data: H0: The proportion of animals whose heartbeat increased is independent of medicine consumption.. H1: The proportion of animals whose heartbeat increased is associated with medicine treatment. Heartbeat Increased No Heartbeat Increase Total Treated Not treated Total

4 Applying the formula above we get: Chi square = 165[(56)(35) - (24)(50)] 2 / (80)(85)(59)(106) = The degree of freedom is very important before proceeding ahead. When a comparison is made between one sample and another, the degrees of freedom= (number of columns minus one) x (number of rows minus one) Thus, degree of freedom = (2-1) x (2-1) = 1. Now, the chi square statistic (x 2 = 2.818), alpha level of significance (0.05), and degrees of freedom (df = 1). From the data collected the Chi square distribution table has 1 degree of freedom and the value of x 2 (2.818) lies between and Thus we can see that the corresponding probability is between the 0.10 and 0.05 probability levels which means the p-value is above As the p-value> conventionally accepted significance level of 0.05 this proves that we accept the null hypothesis. Now if the new x 2 value is and this value exceeds the table value of (at 1 degree of freedom and an alpha level of 0.05). This means that p is less than the 0.05, so the alternative hypothesis is accepted. 137

5 Table 3. Chi Square distribution table. probability level (alpha) 138

6 4.1 Hypothesis 1: People are resistant to technological change in the security system of the organization. H 0 : Technological change in the security system and people s resistance are independent. H1 : Technological change in the security system and people s resistance are dependent. 22. Table showing readiness for change Table 4.1 : Table showing readiness for change S.No. Content Number of Respondents % of Respondents 1 Yes No The above table shows the view of the respondents for readiness for change. The total responses taken are 250 out of which 175 respondents are male and 75 respondents are female. 139

7 Consider the table below: Table : Table showing opinion of males and females for Table 4.1 Opinion Row Total Yes No Male Female Column Total Table : Table for Chi Square calculation for Table Groups OF EF OIJ-EIJ (OIJ-EIJ) 2 /EIJ Male Yes No Female Yes No

8 X 2 = (OIJ-EIJ)2/EI X 2 = Degree of freedom = (Column-1) X (Row-1) = (2-1) X (2-1) = 1 Significant level = 5% Table value for X 2 for 1 degree of freedom at 5% significance level = Conclusion: Calculated value of Chi Square [ ] is less than the table value [3.841]. So we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that technological change in the security system of the organization and people resistance towards change are independent. That is people are not resistance to the technological change in the security system of the organization. 141

9 4.2 Hypothesis 2: Lack of proper security system results in organizationally important information hacked and misused. H0: Security system and information hacking are independent H1: Security system and information hacking are dependent 18. Table showing views of the employees on use of a proper security system to save the data from getting hacked or misused if you feel data is not secured in a proper way. Table 4.2 : Table showing views of the employees on use of a proper security system to save the data from getting hacked or misused if you feel data is not secured in a proper way. S.No. Content Number of Respondents % of Respondents 1 Agree Indifferent Disagree

10 Table : Table showing opinion of males and females for Table 4.2 Opinion Row Total Agree Indifferent Disagree Male Female Column Total Table : Table for Chi Square calculation for Table Groups OF EF OIJ-EIJ (OIJ-EIJ) 2 /EIJ Male Agree Indifferent Disagree Female Agree Indifferent Disagree

11 X 2 = (OIJ-EIJ) 2 / EI X 2 = Degree of freedom = (Column-1) X (Row-1) = (3-1) X (2-1) = 2 Significant level = 5% Table value for X 2 for 1 degree of freedom at 5% significance level = Conclusion: Calculated value of Chi Square [ ] is greater than the table value [5.991]. So we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that security system and information hacking are dependent. I.e. if the security system is very strong information hacking is not possible. If there is a flaw in the security system the information can be easily hacked and it can be misused against the organization. 144

12 4.3 Hypothesis 3: A proper security system in any organization increases data security and in turn efficiency and productivity of the organization. H0: Proper identification system and data security are independent H1: Proper identification system and data security are dependent 19. Table showing employees views about the proper security system in the organization increases data security and in turn efficiency and productivity of the organizatoion. Table 4.3 : Table showing employees views about the proper security system in the organization increases data security and in turn efficiency and productivity of the organizatoion. S.No. Content Number of Respondents % of Respondents 1 Agree Indifferent Disagree

13 Table : Table showing opinion of males and females for Table 4.3 Opinion Row Total Agree Indifferent Disagree Male Female Column Total Table : Table for Chi Square calculation for Table Groups OF EF OIJ-EIJ (OIJ-EIJ) 2 /EIJ Male Agree Indifferent Disagree Female Agree Indifferent Disagree Total

14 X 2 = (OIJ-EIJ) 2 / EI X 2 = Degree of freedom = (Column-1) X (Row-1) = (3-1) X (2-1) = 2 Significant level = 5% Table value for X 2 for 1 degree of freedom at 5% significance level = Conclusion: Calculated value of Chi Square [ ] is greater than the table value [5.991]. So we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that proper security system and data security inturn efficiency and productivity are dependent. That is proper security system increase data security and in-turn productivity and efficiency of the organization and security system. 147

15 4.4 Hypothesis 4: Proper identification system reduces absenteeism H0: Proper identification system and absenteeism are independent H1: Proper identification system and absenteeism are dependent 9. Table showing views about the proper identification system reduces absenteeism Table 4.4 : Table showing views about the proper identification system reduces absenteeism S.No. Content Number of Respondents % of Respondents 1 Agree Indifferent Disagree

16 Table : Table showing opinion of males and females for Table 4.4 Opinion Row Total Agree Indifferent Disagree Male Female Column Total Table : Table for Chi Square calculation for Table Groups OF EF OIJ-EIJ (OIJ-EIJ) 2 /EIJ Male Agree Indifferent Disagree Female Agree Indifferent Disagree

17 X 2 = (OIJ-EIJ) 2 /EI X 2 = Degree of freedom = (Column-1) X (Row-1) = (3-1) X (2-1) = 2 Significant level = 5% Table value for X 2 for 1 degree of freedom at 5% significance level = Conclusion: Calculated value of Chi Square [1.1092] is less than the table value [5.991]. So we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that proper identification system and absenteeism are independent. That is proper identification system does not bring any change in the absenteeism directly. 150

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