# Statistics in Geophysics: Introduction and Probability Theory

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1 Statistics in Geophysics: Introduction and Steffen Unkel Department of Statistics Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany Winter Term 2013/14 1/32

2 What is Statistics? Introduction Statistics is the discipline concerned with the study of variability, with the study of uncertainty, and with the study of decision-making in the face of uncertainty. (Lindsay, et al. (2004): A report on the future of Statistics, Statistical Science, Vol. 19, p. 388) Statistics is commonly divided into two broad areas: Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics The descriptive side of statistics pertains to the organization and summarization of data. Inferential statistics consists of methods used to draw conclusions regarding underlying processes that generate the data (population), by examining only a part of the whole (sample). Winter Term 2013/14 2/32

3 Statistics in Geophysical Sciences Geophysics can be subdivided by the part of the Earth studied. One natural division is into atmospheric science, ocean science and solid-earth geophysics, with the solid Earth further divided into the crust, mantle and core. As mainstream physics has moved to study smaller objects and more distant ones, geophysics has moved closer to geology, and its mathematical content has become generally more dilute, with important singularities. The subject is driven largely by observation and data analysis, rather than theory, and probabilistic modeling and statistics are key to its progress. (see Stark, P. B. (1996)) Winter Term 2013/14 3/32

4 Statistics in Geophysical Sciences: Example Kraft, T., Wassermann, J., Schmedes, E., Igel, H. (2006): Meteorological triggering of earthquake swarms at Mt. Hochstaufen, SE-Germany, Tectonophysics, Vol. 424 No. 3-4, pp kraftetal_tecto_2006.pdf Winter Term 2013/14 4/32

5 Introduction Example 2: The Hochstaufen earthquake swarms Statistics in Geophysical Sciences: Example Mount Hochstaufen earthquakes 5 / 42 Winter Term 2013/14 5/32

6 Research question Introduction Statistics in Geophysical Sciences: Example Is there a relationship between rainfall and earthquakes? Rainfall Amount Days since January 1st, 2002 Winter Term 2013/14 6/32 6 / 42

7 Statistics in Geophysical Sciences: Example Number of earthquakes Number of Quakes in each of the Categories of Depth Days since January 1st, 2002 Number of Quakes Winter Term 2013/14 7/32

8 Course outline Introduction Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics Linear Regression Generalized Linear Regression Multivariate Methods Winter Term 2013/14 8/32

9 Uncertainty in Geophysics Our uncertainty about almost any system is of different degrees in different instances. For example, you cannot be completely certain whether or not rain will occur at hour home tomorrow, or whether the average temperature next month will be greater or less than the average temperature this month. We are faced with the problem of expressing degrees of uncertainty. It is preferable to express uncertainty quantitatively. This is done using numbers called probabilities. Winter Term 2013/14 9/32

10 Sample space Introduction The set, Ω, of all possible outcomes of a particular experiment is called the sample space for the experiment. If the experiment consists of tossing a coin with outcomes head (H) or tail (T), then Ω = {H, T}. Consider an experiment where the observation is reaction time to a certain stimulus. Here, Ω = (0, ). Sample spaces can be either countable or uncountable. Winter Term 2013/14 10/32

11 Event Introduction An event is any collection of possible outcomes of an experiment, that is, any subset of Ω (including Ω itself). An event can be either: 1 a compound event (can be decomposed into two or more (sub)events), or 2 an elementary event. Let A be an event, a subset of Ω. The event A occurs if the outcome of the experiment is in the set A. We define A B x A x B, A = B A B and B A. Winter Term 2013/14 11/32

12 Set operations Introduction Given any two events A and B we define the following operations: Union: The union of A and B, written A B is A B = {x : x A or x B}. Intersection: The intersection of A and B, written A B is A B = {x : x A and x B}. Complementation: The complement of A, written A (or A c ), is A = {x : x / A}. Winter Term 2013/14 12/32

13 Venn diagrams Introduction A B Ω A B Winter Term 2013/14 13/32

14 Venn diagrams Introduction (A B) (B C) Ω A B C Winter Term 2013/14 14/32

15 Set operations: Example Selecting a card at random from a standard desk and noting its suit: clubs (C), diamonds (D), hearts (H) and spades (S). The sample space is Ω = {C,D,H,S}. Some possible events are A = {C,D} and B = {D,H,S}. From these events we can form A B = {C,D,H,S}, A B = {D} and A = {H,S}. Notice that A B = Ω and A B =, where denotes the empty set. Winter Term 2013/14 15/32

16 Properties of set operations For any three events, A, B and C, defined on the sample space Ω, Commutativity: A B = B A, A B = B A; Associativity; A (B C) = (A B) C, A (B C) = (A B) C; Distributive laws: De Morgan s laws: A B = A B, A B = A B. A (B C) = (A B) (A C), A (B C) = (A B) (A C); Winter Term 2013/14 16/32

17 Partition of the sample space Two events A and B are disjoint (or mutually exclusive) if A B =. The events A 1, A 2,... are pairwise disjoint if A i A j = for all i j. If A 1, A 2,... are pairwise disjoint and i=1 = Ω, then the collection A 1, A 2,... forms a partition of Ω. Winter Term 2013/14 17/32

18 Definition of Laplace Introduction Théorie Analytique des Probabilités (1812) The theory of chance consists in reducing all the events of the same kind to a certain number of cases equally possible, that is to say, to such as we may be equally undecided about in regard to their existence, and in determining the number of cases favorable to the event whose probability is sought. The ratio of this number to that of all the cases possible is the measure of this. Winter Term 2013/14 18/32

19 Definition by Laplace Introduction For an event A Ω, the probability of A, P(A), is defined as P(A) := A Ω, where A denotes the cardinality of the set A. Winter Term 2013/14 19/32

20 Frequency interpretation (von Mises) The probability of an event is exactly its long-run relative frequency: a n P(A) = lim n n, where a n is the number of occurrences and n is the number of opportunities for the event A to occur. Winter Term 2013/14 20/32

21 Subjective interpretation (De Finetti) Employing the Frequency view of probability requires a long series of identical trials. The subjective interpretation is that probability represents the degree of belief of a particular individual about the occurrence of an uncertain event. Winter Term 2013/14 21/32

22 Kolmogorov axioms Introduction A collection of subsets of Ω is a sigma algebra (or field) F, if F and if F is closed under complementation and union. Given a sample space Ω and an associated sigma algebra F, a probability function is a function P with domain F that satisfies A1 P(A) 0 for all A F. A2 P(Ω) = 1. A3 if A 1, A 2,... F are pairwise disjoint, then P( i=1 A i) = i=1 P(A i). Winter Term 2013/14 22/32

23 The calculus of probabilities If P is a probability function and A is any set in F, then P( ) = 0; P(A) 1; P(A) = 1 P(A). If P is a probability function and A and B are any sets in F, then P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B); If A B, then P(A) P(B). Winter Term 2013/14 23/32

24 Conditional probability Introduction If A and B are events in Ω, and P(B) > 0, then the conditional probability of A given B, written P(A B), is P(A B) = P(A B) P(B), where P(A B) is the joint probability of A and B. Winter Term 2013/14 24/32

25 Conditional probability P(A B) A B B A B Ω Winter Term 2013/14 25/32

26 Conditional probability: Example Gender Died from CHD Male Female Total Yes No Total Table: UK deaths in 2002 from coronary heart disease (CHD) by gender X : gender of person who died. Y : whether or not a person died from CHD. P(Y = yes X = male)=? Winter Term 2013/14 26/32

27 Calculating a conditional probability P(X = male) = number of male deaths total number of deaths = = number of men who died from CHD P(Y = yes and X = male) = total number of deaths = = P(Y = yes and X = male) P(Y = yes X = male) = P(X = male) = = Winter Term 2013/14 27/32

28 Multiplicative law of probability and independence Rearranging the definition of conditional probability yields: P(A B) = P(A B)P(B) = P(B A)P(A). Two events, A and B, are statistically independent if P(A B) = P(A)P(B). Independence between A and B implies P(A B) = P(A) and P(B A) = P(B). Winter Term 2013/14 28/32

29 Law of total probability We use conditional probabilities to simplify the calculation of P(B). P(B) = P(B A) + P(B A). Using the multiplicative law of probability, this becomes P(B) = P(B A)P(A) + P(B A)P(A). In general: If Ω = i=1 A i and A i A j =, then P(B) = P(B A i ) P(A i ). i=1 Winter Term 2013/14 29/32

30 Bayes theorem Introduction Thomas Bayes ( ) Bayes theorem is a combination of the multiplicative law and the law of total probability: P(A i B) = P(A i B) P(B) = P(B A i )P(A i ) j=1 P(B A i) P(A i ). Winter Term 2013/14 30/32

31 Bayes theorem Introduction For two events A and B, provided that P(B) > 0, where P(A B) = P(B A)P(A) P(B) P(B) = P(B A) P(A) + P(B A) P(A). P(A): prior probability P(A B): posterior probability, Winter Term 2013/14 31/32

32 Bayes theorem: Example We use Bayes theorem to obtain an estimate of the probability that a person who is known to have died from CHD is male: P(X = male Y = yes) = P(Y = yes X = male)p(x = male) P(Y = yes). We obtain where P(X = male Y = yes) = = , P(Y = yes) = P(Y = yes X = male)p(x = male) +P(Y = yes X = female)p(x = female) = = Winter Term 2013/14 32/32

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