1 The Australian Healthcare System Professor Richard Osborne, BSc, PhD Chair of Public Health Deakin University
2 Research that informs this presentation Chronic disease self-management Evaluation methods (heiq) Clinical trials Collaborations with UK, Canada, Germany, Orthopaedic Care Pathways Reform (the OWL Program ) Hip and knee replacement surgery (GP to operating theatre) Australian WorkHealth Program-Arthritis Whole of system primary and secondary prevention program Australian Workplace Health Initiatives Survey 2009 National survey to inform COAG on directions for work place diabetes prevention Population Health Epidemiology Survey of 15,000 people (participation) Japan metabolic syndrome prevention initiative Across all projects Implementation science, evaluation, outcomes assessments
3 Australia Commonwealth of Australia Capital: Canberra Type: Democratic, federal state system, the British monarch is sovereign Smallest continent, sixth largest country 6 states, 2 territories
5 Population Statistics Population: 21.7 million Infant Mortality: 4.57 per 1,000 Life Expectancy: 78.5 male 83.3 female Population >65: 12.4% Health Expenditures (government and the private sector) 9.8% of GDP (2008)
6 Population distribution
7 Age distribution
8 Dominant Forms of health care Systems Private Provision Public Provision Public Finance Canada, W Europe UK Private Finance USA Australia:.. Somewhere in the middle!
9 Total health expenditure (as % GDP)
10 Organization Commonwealth government: establishes policies through the Department of Health and Aging, which subsidizes health services provided by State and Territory governments & the private sector. State and Territory governments: provide public hospital services & work closely with the Commonwealth government and professional bodies to ensure quality Local Government: environmental control (garbage, clean air/water), home care & preventive services (immunization).
12 1 AUD = 0.52 EURO
13 Health expenditure (AUD$b) 1 AUD = 0.52 EURO
15 % people with private health insurance hospital cover
16 Regulation Summary Sector Medical Commonwealth Government Responsibility Medicare Benefits Out of hospital Private inpatient State Government Responsibility Inpatient medical care Hospital emergency & outpatients Community Health Centres (Act & Vic) Hospital Rehabilitation Hospitals Hospital Bed Supply Public Hospital management Private Hospital Regulation Psychiatric Hospital Nursing Home Pharmaceutical Other Nursing Home Bed Supply Nursing Home Benefits Drug Approval Pharmceutical Benefits Scheme Regulation of private health insurance Regulation Some public Supply Public Hospital pharmacy
17 Finance & Provision Provision Finance Commonwealth Quarantine services Rehabilitation Hospitals Commonwealth State Private State Public Hospitals Nursing homes Public Hospitals Ambulance Public Hospitals (private beds) Community Health Centres Private Out of Hospital medical In hospital private medical care Drugs/Pharmacy Nursing Homes Workers Compensation (med) Traffic Accident (med) Dental Private Hospitals Out of pockets Allied health Alternative med
18 Three Pronged Approach to Health Care Coverage: Medicare Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) Private Insurance Reimbursement
19 Medicare Basic tenet: universal access to care, regardless of ability to pay
20 Medicare Three main objectives: 1) Fund medical services 2) Fund pharmaceutical benefits 3) Fund public hospital care All permanent Australian residents are entitled to free public hospital services
21 Medicare Levy Started in 1984 Provides 18% of Medicare funding (the remainder of Medicare funding comes from general taxes) 1.5% of taxable income for individuals earning above a certain threshold Taxpayers with high incomes who do NOT have private health insurance pay an additional 1% Medicare Levy
22 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme Covers 90% of prescriptions outside of the hospital setting The government approves the formulary, one of the criterion for approval is cost effectiveness and government negotiates a rate with the pharmaceutical company Moderate co-payments based on income
23 Private Insurance Strongly encouraged by the Australian government 44% of population has Private Insurance Government offers 30% rebate (35% for elderly people) and encourages early commitment to a private insurance company (before age 30) Provides shorter waiting times, more physician/hospital choice, additional services like dentistry
24 Hospitals Public Hospitals: 758 (2007) 70% of beds are in public hospitals All residents of Australia have the right to treatment at public hospitals at no charge Salaried hospitalists Funded by state/territory revenues and by specific purpose payments from the Commonwealth Private Hospitals: 543 (2007) Traditionally with religious affiliations Growing for-profit sector Some emergency services
25 Medical Practitioners Commonwealth sets payment schedule 3.32 medical practitioners 1000 residents (major cities) rural disparities: 0.86 / 1000 outer regional areas General Practitioners (Family Physicians) 42,000 in 2006 Serve a gatekeeper role to hospital based services Reimbursed fee-for-service, private practice Specialists 20,000 in 2006 Some are fee-for-service Many salaried hospitalists Concentrated in urban areas
26 Nurses in Australia 244,360 in nurses per 1000 population Two levels of nursing in Australia: Registered nurses: university degree trained Enrolled nurses: advanced certificate & diploma level courses in technical colleges Nursing registration is applicable across state/territorial boundaries
27 Special Approach to Rural Needs Royal Flying Doctor Service: physicians and other providers flown to remote regions Regional Health Services: community identified priorities for health and aged care Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community controlled health services to meet the needs of the indigenous population.
28 Mental Healthcare Historically, mental health services have existed in a separate parallel system to physical/curative healthcare 23 Public psychiatric hospitals (2002) Currently, Commonwealth, State and Local governments are attempting to mainstream mental health services Development of new settings: 223 (in 2002) community based mental health facilities
29 Long Term Care Home health: community based care mostly through the private or voluntary sector Residential care: 50% non-government operated (private or religious based) with large government subsidies Residential care, aged care home funding, is primarily a Commonwealth government responsibility Individual contributes via flat user fees and income tested fees (typically 13% of total)
30 Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) Chronic Disease Management (CDM) Medicare Items GPs get reimbursed for Health assessments, Care planning, Case conferencing The goal of the EPC Package is to improve the health and quality of life of older Australians and people with chronic conditions and multidisciplinary care needs, through enhancing the quality of primary health care provided to these groups.
33 EPC - Enhanced Primary Care New and different professional relationships featuring GPs as collaborators or members of a multidisciplinary team GPs as planners and coordinators of care GPs as health partners with patients and carers
34 Motivation for GPs to engage in EPC (self-management support) Most GP believe they are already providing Chronic Disease Self-management (CDSM) support to patients. GPs see CCSM as a core skill and are reluctant to refer patients out as they see this as a failure. GPs tend to be evidence based and there is quite limited evidence of efficacy of providing formal CDSM in General Practice. Controlled trials are necessary to convince GPs but are hard to do. Not all GPs are ready to empower patients nor are all patients willing to be empowered.
35 National Chronic Disease Strategy Australian Better Health Initiative (ABHI) ($500 million over 4 years) prevention across the continuum strengthening early detection and early treatment integration and continuity of prevention and care self-management Australian government activities under ABHI Numerous activities State government activities under ABHI Numerous activities Commonwealth Sharing Healthcare Initiative Demonstration projects, training, quality monitoring
36 What about prevention?
37 Preventive health services In 2005/06 <2% of health expenditure spent on prevention services or health promotion >9% of hospital admissions were regarded as preventable Preventative Health Taskforce will provide evidence-based advice to governments and health providers on preventative health programs and strategies, focusing on the burden of chronic disease currently caused by obesity, tobacco and the excessive consumption of alcohol. Beginning to focus on workplace health promotion
38 Acknowledgments National Health and Medical Research Council
39 Thank you Professor Richard Osborne Deakin University
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