Fundamentals of Information Systems Security Unit 1 Information Systems Security Fundamentals

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1 Fundamentals of Information Systems Security Unit 1 Information Systems Security Fundamentals

2 Learning Objective Explain the concepts of information systems security (ISS) as applied to an IT infrastructure. Page 2

3 Key Concepts Confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) concepts Layered security solutions implemented for the seven domains of a typical IT infrastructure Common threats for each of the seven domains IT security policy framework Impact of data classification standard on the seven domains Page 3

4 DISCOVER: CONCEPTS Page 4

5 Introducing ISS ISS Information Systems Information Page 5

6 The CIA Triad Availability Page 6

7 Confidentiality Personal Data and Information Credit card account numbers and bank account numbers Social Security numbers and address information Intellectual Property Copyrights, patents, and secret formulas Source code, customer databases, and technical specifications National Security Military intelligence Homeland security and government-related information Page 7

8 Integrity Maintain valid, uncorrupted, and accurate information. User names and passwords Patents and copyrights Source code Diplomatic information Financial data Page 8

9 Availability X X X Page 9

10 Conduct and Ethics in ISS ISS is a classic battle of good vs. evil. No global laws, rules, or regulations govern cyberspace. U.S. government and Internet Architecture Board (IAB) have developed joint Internet acceptable use policy (AUP). Security professionals are in high demand as the good guys. Page 10

11 Compliance Laws Driving ISS Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act Children s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) Page 11

12 IT Security Policy Framework POLICY Standard Procedure Guideline A short written statement that defines a course of action that applies to the entire organization A detailed written definition of how software and hardware are to be used Written instructions for how to use the policy and standard Suggested course of action for using the policy, standard, or procedure Page 12

13 Seven Domains of a Typical IT Infrastructure Page 13

14 Common Threats in the User Domain Lack of user awareness User apathy toward policies User violating security policy User inserting CD/DVD/USB with personal files Page 14

15 Common Threats in the User Domain (Continued) User downloading photos, music, or videos User destructing systems, applications, and data Disgruntled employee attacking organization or committing sabotage Employee blackmail or extortion Page 15

16 Common Threats in the Workstation Domain Unauthorized workstation access Unauthorized access to systems, applications, and data Desktop or laptop operating system vulnerabilities Desktop or laptop application software vulnerabilities or patches Page 16

17 Common Threats in the Workstation Domain (Continued) Viruses, malicious code, and other malware User inserting CD/DVD/USB with personal files User downloading photos, music, or videos Page 17

18 Common Threats in the LAN Domain Unauthorized physical access to LAN Unauthorized access to systems, applications, and data LAN server operating system vulnerabilities LAN server application software vulnerabilities and software patch updates Page 18

19 Common Threats in the LAN Domain (Continued) Rogue users on WLANs Confidentiality of data on WLANs LAN server configuration guidelines and standards Page 19

20 Common Threats in the LAN-to-WAN Domain Unauthorized probing and port scanning Unauthorized access Internet Protocol (IP) router, firewall, and network appliance operating system vulnerability Local users downloading unknown file types from unknown sources WAN Page 20

21 Common Threats in the WAN Domain Open, public, and accessible data Most of the traffic being sent as clear text Vulnerable to eavesdropping Vulnerable to malicious attacks Vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks WAN Page 21

22 Common Threats in the WAN Domain (Continued) Vulnerable to corruption of information and data Insecure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) applications Hackers and attackers ing Trojans, worms, and malicious software freely and constantly WAN Page 22

23 Common Threats in the Remote Access Domain Brute force user ID and password attacks Multiple logon retries and access control attacks Unauthorized remote access to IT systems, applications, and data Confidential data compromised remotely Data leakage in violation of data classification standards Internet Page 23

24 Common Threats in the Systems/Applications Domain Unauthorized access to data centers, computer rooms, and wiring closets Difficult-to-manage servers that require high availability Server operating systems software vulnerability management Security required by cloud computing virtual environments Corrupt or lost data Cloud Computing Page 24

25 DISCOVER: PROCESSES Page 25

26 Implementing the CIA Triad AUP Confidentiality Security Awareness Policy Enhanced Access Control Page 26

27 (Continued) Integrity Implementing the CIA Triad AUP Threat Assessment and Monitoring Security Awareness Policy Vulnerability Assessment and Management Enhanced Access Control Asset Protection Policy Page 27

28 Implementing the CIA Triad (Continued) Data Classification Standard AUP Threat Assessment and Monitoring Security Awareness Policy Vulnerability Assessment and Management Enhanced Access Control Asset Protection Policy Availability Page 28

29 DISCOVER: ROLES Page 29

30 Who Implements the CIA Triad? Confidentiality Integrity User IT administrator Network administrator Human resources Senior management User IT administrator Network administrator Human resources Senior management Availability IT administrator Network administrator Third-party vendor, for example, telecommunication company Page 30

31 Summary Terms associated with ISS include risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Layered security strategy protects an IT infrastructure s CIA. IT policy framework includes policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines. Data classification standard defines how data is to be handled within an IT infrastructure. Page 31

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