Advances in Power Line Communications and Application to the Smart Grid

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1 Università degli Studi di Udine Wireless and Power Line Communications Lab Tutorial at EUSIPCO 2012 August 27, 2012 Advances in Power Line Communications and Application to the Smart Grid Andrea M. Tonello Wireless and Power Line Communications Lab University of Udine, Italy A. M. Tonello This material is for the tutorial use only. It cannot be copied and/or distributed without author s permission.

2 Introduction 2

3 Fare clic per Andrea modificare M. Tonello lo stile del titolo Andrea M. Tonello Aggregate professor at Univ. of Udine Vice chair IEEE TC PLC Steering committee member IEEE ISPLC Milan Udine Venice University of Udine: students (ranked in the top ten) WiPLi Lab 15 members, part of the Department of Electrical, Mechanical and Management Engineering (150+ members) Activities: Wireless and Power Line Communications Communication theory and signal processing System and protocol design Measurements and emulation RF and base band prototyping Home networking, smart grid, vehicular communications Projects: several EU FP5 FP7 and industrial projects Rome 3

4 Fare clic per Acknowledgment modificare lo stile del titolo acknowledges the work of his PhD students: M. Antoniali, S. D Alessandro, F. Versolatto 4

5 Fare clic per modificare Contents lo 1 stile del titolo Introduction of the speaker Acknowledgment Power line communications and Smart Grids (p. 8) History and application scenarios of PLC Application and role of PLC in the Smart Grid Channel characterization (p.21) Bands and coupling In home channel Outdoor LV/MV channel Effect of circuit discontinuity elements Can we model the channel? (p.39) Top down modeling approach Bottom up modeling approach MIMO channel: multiple input multiple output (p.52) 5

6 Fare clic per modificare Contents lo 2 stile del titolo Noise characterization (p. 56) Background noise Impulsive noise Common noise model in the literature (p. 67) Physical layer techniques (p. 69) Single carrier modulation (FSK), multicarrier modulation, adaptation, and performance increase Possible capacity increases from extended bandwidth and MIMO Other modulation schemes: Impulsive UWB Cooperative algorithms (p. 95) Relaying and flooding Media access techniques (p. 111) Scheduling in linear periodically time variant (LPTV) channels 6

7 Fare clic per modificare Contents lo 3 stile del titolo Systems, standards and MAC details (p. 116) Summary of systems and standards Status of standardization MAC in narrowband systems MAC in broadband systems Conclusions and evolution of PLC (p. 138) References (p. 141) Short bio of the speaker (p. 149) 7

8 Power Line Communications and Smart Grids History and Application Scenarios of PLC 8

9 Fare clic per Application modificare Scenarios lo stile del titolo Idea: exploit the power delivery network to convey data signals Application of power line communications is ubiquitous Broad band internet access In Home In Vehicle Smart grid applications 9

10 Fare Some clic History per modificare about PLC lo stile Technology del titolo PLC exists since early 1920s Used by power utilities for voice and data communications over HV lines. Original solutions were based on ultra low data rate transmission (below 3 khz) A first generation of narrow band (NB) technologies has been then developed, most of them using FSK in Cenelec bands (say below 130 khz) and rates in the order of some tens of kbps. A second generation of NB modems has then been designed using multicarrier modulation (OFDM, below 500 khz) to achieve higher rates below 1 Mbps. In parallel, there has been a lot of activity in broad band (BB) PLC (2 30 MHz). First generation with rates up to 10 Mbps, Second generation with rates up to 200 Mbps, Third generation with rates up to 500 Mbps and possibly above. Development has been fostered by industry, initially, with proprietary solutions and only recently standardization has been started Some credit in fostering interactions and disseminations can be given to IEEE ComSoc Technical Committee on PLC (TC PLC) started in 2004 International Symposium on PLC (ISPLC), started in 1997 (in Essen, Germany), and fully sponsored by IEEE from Next year will be held in Johannesburg. 10

11 Fare Outdoor clic per Broad modificare Band Internet lo stile del Access titolo INTERNET Network Operator house building LV PLC LV PLC house MV/LV substation LV PLC MV PLC MV PLC MV/LV substation MV PLC MV/LV substation HV/MV station Itenablescustomerpremisesto access the Internet through the existing electrical infrastructure Services High Speed Internet connection, video on demand, voice over IP, Technology Broad band PLC in the bands 2 30 MHz Deployments Italy, Austria, Germany, Spain, USA,. under development countries Market suffers of highly penetrated xdsl services 11

12 Fare clic per Home modificare Networking lo stile del titolo In Home high speed services delivered through the home gateway Home office networking, video conferences, IPTV, 3D games, video streaming Integration of different technologies is advisable PLC, Wireless (WiFi), UWB, visible light communications This objective can be realized with the use of a convergent layer where PLC provides a high speed backbone Example 1: inter MAC approach developed in the EU FP7 Omega project Example 2: convergence at network layer ADSL FTTH RLL PLC PLC Narrow band PLC for home automation and energy management REF. EU FP7 Omega Project. [Online]. Available: omega.eu/ 12

13 Fare clic per modificare In Vehicle PLC lo stile del titolo In vehicle communications via DC/AC power lines: Alternative or redundant communication channel (e.g., to CAN bus) Command and control of devices and sensors Multimedia services distribution (music, video, games, etc.) Benefits Weight reduction Lower the costs Wipli Lab team in a cruise ship measurement campaign REF. A. B. Vallejo Mora, J. J. Sánchez Martínez, F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez, Characterization and Evaluation of In Vehicle Power Line Channels, Proc. of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM) 2010, Dec REF. M. Antoniali, A. M. Tonello, M. Lenardon, A. Qualizza, Measurements and Analysis of PLC Channels in a Cruise Ship, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC 11),Udine,Italy,April 3 6, REF. M. Antoniali, A. M. Tonello, et al., In car PLC Advanced Transmission Techniques, Proc. of the 5th Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In Vehicle Systems, Kiel, Germany, September

14 Power Line Communications and Smart Grids Application and Role of PLC in the Smart Grid 14

15 Fare clic per modificare Smart Grid lo stile del titolo generation transmission distribution A Smart Grid is composed by several domains Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Customer Intelligent and dynamic grid with Distributed generation and storage options Active participation by customers The Smart Grid elements of each domain are interconnected through two way communication customer from: Convergence of Communication and Electrical Networks 15

16 Fare clic per PLC modificare in the Smart lo stile Grid del titolo house building LV PLC LV PLC house User domain MV/LV substation LV PLC INTERNET MV PLC MV PLC MV/LV substation MV PLC MV/LV substation HV/MV station Network Operator Distribution domain PLC provides an easy to install two way communication infrastructure The user domain is very important for the penetration of SG services Distribution Domain Monitoring and control Fault detection, monitoring of power quality and islanding effects Energy management Decentralized production and storage control Charging of electrical vehicles Smart metering Demand side management Demand response Dynamic pricing Acquisition of user behavior User Domain Internet access Smart home Home networking Automation and control 16

17 Fare Some clic per Specific modificare Applications lo stile of del PLC titolo Monitoring and control with 2 way communications to ease the integration in the distribution grid of Renewable energy sources (PV and wind plants) Decentralized Storage systems (batteries and e cars) Control, authentication and payment of e car charge Smart metering Home energy management systems (HEMS) Demand response and demand management User behavior profiles 17

18 Fare Some clic per Specific modificare Applications lo stile of del PLC titolo Monitoring and control of the grid HV/MV lines status, faults Islanding of micro grids Power quality (frequency, voltage/current, harmonics) Monitor power systems status (transformers, CBs) Load shedding and generator control in remote areas 18

19 Fare Classification clic per modificare of PLC Technologies stile del titolo Extremely Narrow Band PLC Very low data rates (in the order of bps) for application in large grids Narrow Band (NB) PLC Low data rate (up to 1 Mbps) and narrow spectrum Broad Band (BB) PLC High data rate (above 10 Mbps) and large spectrum 19

20 Role Fare of clic Narrow per modificare Band and lo Broad stile del Band titolo PLC All these services and applications have different requirements: Data rate, latency, robustness, energy efficiency It is believed that NB PLC is the right choice for SG applications. This is because: Low data rates are required Longer distances are covered by NB PLC signals Cheap modems have to be deployed BB PLC has been designed for internet access and home networking 20

21 Channel Characterization Bands and Coupling 21

22 Fare clic per PLC modificare Operating lo Bands stile del titolo AM Radio [520 khz, 1610 khz] Amateur Radio [1.8 MHz, 30 MHz] Defence Systems + FM Radio Radio PMR/PAMR [87.5 MHz, [30 MHz, 87.5 MHz] 108 MHz] TV + Radio VHF [108 MHz, 240 MHz] MHz Narrowband PLC Broadband PLC PSD equal to 50 dbm/hz + Notching (MHz) A Band B Band C Band D Band FCC / ARIB extended bands (prohibited in EU) (khz) Spectral masks have been defined to limit the emissions (EMC) Cenelec: A (power utilities), B (any applications), C (home networks with CSMA), D (security applications) Third generation broadband solutions go beyond 30 MHz (80 and even 250 MHz) REF. IEC, CISPR/I/301/CD, Amendment 1 to CISPR 22 Ed.6.0: Addition of limits and methods of measurement for conformance testing of power line telecommunication ports intended for the connection to the mains,

23 Fare clic per modificare Couplinglo stile del titolo Coupling is necessary to remove the 50/60 Hz power signal Capacitive coupling is often used, especially in LV capacitor protection circuitry RF transformer Size is an issue if used in MV/HV lines Inductive coupling simplifies installation but has lower pass behavior Capacitive coupling in MV lines, courtesy of RSE Inductive coupling in MV lines, courtesy of RSE 23

24 Fare clic Channel per modificare Characteristics lo stile del titolo The channel exhibits Multipath propagation due to discontinuites and unmatched loads Frequency Selective Fading Cyclic time variations due to periodic change of the loads with the mains frequency (mostly bistatic behaviour in home networks) 24

25 Channel Characterization In Home Channel 25

26 Fare In Home clic per Channel modificare Characterization lo stile del titolo Real life residential sites Italian in home scenario Up to 100 MHz More than 1200 links Channel frequency response Line impedence Static and time variant channel acquisitions 26

27 Fare A clic Look per atmodificare the In Home lo stile Topology del titolo In-home Grid Main panel Layered tree structure from the main panel with many branches and outlets fed by derivation boxes. This is typical of EU networks. 27

28 Path Loss and Phase from Measurements Fare clic per modificare lo stile del titolo Path Loss Phase Phase (rad) Path Loss (db) Frequency (MHz) On average High attenuation Frequency increasing attenuation Frequency (MHz) The phase is not uniformly distributed The average phase is not linear at low frequencies Strong fading effects Average channel gain is log normal Tutorial Advances in PLC EUSIPCO 2012 A. Tonello 28

29 Fare clic per Statistical modificare Analysis lo stile del titolo It is important to characterize statistically the channel We define the Root Mean Square Delay Spread as 2, D 2 D 2 D 2 P d P d P t h t h d We define the Coherence Bandwidth as B2 * 0.9 c B R f H H f d R B R 1 h(t) We define the Average Channel Gain as H(f) log 10 B B1 2 B 1 B 2 G H f df 29

30 Fare clic Relations per modificare between lo Metrics stile del titolo The higher the channel attenuation, the higher the delay spread Coherence bandwidth is an hyperbolic function of the delay spread Data from campaigns in Italy, in France, in USA, and in Spain RMS-Delay Spread (s) MHz Italy MHz Italy 2-30 MHz Italy MHz US 2-30 MHz Spain Italy (2 100) State (Band in MHz) ACG (db) RMS DS (s) CB (khz) Coherence Bandwidth ( = 0.9) (khz) France (2 100) Italy (2 30) US (suburban) (2 30) Spain (2 30) MHz Italy MHz Italy MHz France Average Channel Gain (db) RMS-Delay Spread (s) REF. M. Tlich, A. Zeddam, F. Moulin, F. Gauthier, Indoor Power Line Communications Channel Characterization Up to 100 MHz Part II: Time Frequency Analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Del., REF. S.Galli, ASimpleTwo Tap Statistical Model for the Power Line Channel, Proc. of IEEE ISPLC REF.F. J. Cañete, et al., On the Statistical Properties of Indoor Power Line Channels: Measurements and Models, Proc. of IEEE ISPLC REF F. Versolatto,, On the Relation Between the Geometrical Distance and Channel Statistics in In Home PLC Networks, Proc. of IEEE ISPLC

31 Fare Narrowband clic per modificare Channel Measurements lo stile del titolo Results from Italian campaign measurements (20 khz 2 MHz) Lower average attenuation than broad band Path Loss (db) Frequency (MHz) Phase (rad) Frequency (MHz) 31

32 Channel Characterization Outdoor LV/MV Channel 32

33 Fare clic Distribution per modificare Grid Topology stile del titolo Medium Voltage: kv length 5-10 km 1 7 MV/LV substation supply cell ~ 300 houses HV/MV station MV/LV substation L2 L1 European LV supply grid L3 N LV supply cable max length 1 km 400 V L-L 230 V L-N High Voltage: kv length ~100 km European LV power supply grid HV/MV station LV (230/400 V) 3 phase distribution system divided in supply cells MV/LV Each supply cell is connected to a substation MV/LV transformer station 300 houses connected via branches (30 houses/branch) Maximal branch length ~1 km Asian/American LV power supply grid LV (125/250 V) single or split phase Many MV/LV transformers Smaller supply cells: few houses Maximal branch length ~100 m Three wires (neutral grounded at the main panel) REF. Power Line Communications Theory and Applications for Narrowband and Broadband Communications over Power Lines, eds. Ferreira, Lampe, Newbury, Swart, Wiley & Sons. Ltd., Chapter 2. 33

34 Path Loss (db) Fare Outdoor clic per LV modificare vs. In Home lo PLC stile Channel del titolo Comparison between OPERA (Open PLC European Research Alliance) reference channels and a typical In Home channel m 350 m 250 m In-Home Outdoor LV frequency (MHz) In Home channels have high frequency selectivity and low attenuation Veryhigh number of branches, discontinuities and unmatched loads Short cables Outdoor LV channels have high attenuation but negligible fading Cable attenuation dominates REF. M. Babic et al., OPERA Deliverable D5. Pathloss as a Function of Frequency, Distance and Network Topology for Various LV andmveuropeanpowerlinenetworks,

35 Fare clic per Outdoor modificare MV Channel lo stile del titolo MV channels exhibit in general (but not always) lower attenuation than Outdoor LV PLC Further investigations have to be done Coupling effects have also to be considered Inductive / Capacitive coupling 35

36 Measurement Fare clic per modificare Results in MV lo stile Test del Network titolo Measurements in a real test network (RSE) with loop length 300 m Three representative channels are here shown Full statistical analysis in REF 0 Border switch Inductive coupler MS C1 C2... HV/MV Transformer Amplitude (db) Average Best -150 Worst (not electrical continuity) G5H10R/43 SS1 SS2 SS3 G5H10R/ Best SW... 0 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 RG7H1R RG7H1R RG7H1R LV LV Test network of RSE, Italy LV LV C3 Phase (rad) Average Worst Frequency (MHz) REF., et al. Analysis of Impulsive UWB Modulation on a Real MV Test Network, Proc.ofIEEE Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. ISPLC 11, Apr

37 Channel Characterization Effect of Circuit Discontinuity Elements 37

38 Fare Effect clic per of modificare Circuit Discontinuities lo stile del titolo Broadband PLC benefits of strong coupling effects at high frequencies Broadband may also help to mitigate the low line impedance problem Crossing an open switch LV Circuit Breaker Cross phase communications Industrial environment Bypass MV/LV transformer Path Loss (db) H 11 (f) H 12 (f) H 22 (f) Frequency (MHz) 38

39 Can We Model the Channel? Top down Modeling Approach 39

40 Fare Top Down clic per modificare Statistical lo Modeling stile titolo The channel transfer function can be deterministically modeled according to the Multipath Propagation Model (MPM) d i N p K i H f A pi f e e i1 a0a1f d j2 fd Propagation phase shift Cable attenuation Reflection effects IDEA: introduce the variability into the model (statistical extension) N p : Poisson random variable with intensity L max pi f : log normal frequency dependent r.v. with a random sign flip : Erlang random variable (uniform distribution in [0, L max ] given N p ) REF., Wide Band Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing REF., F. Versolato, B. Bejar, S. Zazo, "A Fitting Algorithm for Random Modeling the PLC Channel," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, 2012 i 40

41 Fare clic Fitting per modificare the Top Down lo stile Model titolo The MPM can be fitted to the experimental measures It requires the knowledge of the average path loss profile and the RMS delay spread of the measured channels To catch the full variability, we define classes of channels. Each class is associated to a certain occurrence probability, and a set of parameters Examples of fitting the measures in home nets: EU FP7 Omega project (France campaign) Italian campaign (discussed before) Path Loss (db) Class 9 A SW Generator is available at: REF. et al., ATop Down Random Generator for the In Home PLC Channel, Proc. Global Commun. Conf. (GLOBECOM 11), Dec REF. A.Tonello,F.Versolatto,B.Bejar,S.Zazo, AFittingAlgorithmfor Random Modeling the PLC Channel, Trans. on Power Delivery, Frequency (MHz) REF. FP7Theme3ICT OMEGA, PLC Channel Characterization and Modeling, Deliverable 3.2, Dec Target Path Loss Class 1 41

42 Fare clic per Average modificare Channel lo stile Gaindel titolo The generated channels (with the simulator) show the same ACG spread of the measures The best fit (in db) is given by the normal distribution Average ACG= db (Italian case) Quantiles of Average Channel Gain (db) Model - French Setup Measured - Italy Model - Italian Setup Standard Normal Quantiles 42

43 Fare clic per RMS modificare Delay Spread lo stile del titolo 1 Excellent fit with measured data in terms of RMS delay spread The best fit is given by the log normal distribution Average RMS DS=0.257 s (Italian case) Cumulative Distribution Function Measured - Italy Model - Italian Setup Model - French Setup RMS-Delay Spread (s) 43

44 Fare clic per Coherence modificare Bandwidth lo stile del titolo Again, good fitting of the generator with data Average CB= 390 khz (Italian case) Cumulative Distribution Function Measured - Italy 0.1 Model - Italian Setup Model - French Setup Coherence Bandwidth ( = 0.9) (khz) 44

45 Can We Model the Channel? Bottom up Modeling Approach 45

46 Fare clic Bottom Up per modificare Channel lo Modeling stile titolo Idea: Use transmission line theory to determine the channel transfer function Requirements: Knowledge of topology, cables and loads Statistical extension: Develop a statistical model for the topology, etc. In the following, we consider the application to the in home case 46

47 In Home Fare clic : per Bottom Up modificare Statistical lo stile Modeling titolo Random topology generation Regular structure: the area can be divided in clusters (typically one room/cluster) Eachcluster has a derivation box National practices and norms can also be implemented (e.g., UK ring topology) Applying Trasmission Line theory, we can compute the CTF among any pair of outlets for a topology realization : outlets Efficient method based on voltage ratio approach has been developed : derivation boxes REF., F. Versolatto, Bottom up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling Part I: Random Topology Model and Efficient Transfer Function Computation, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 2, pp , Apr

48 Fare clic per TL Theory modificare Application lo stile del titolo From topology to graph representation From graph representation to electrical quantities representation TL theory approach based on efficient methods are fundamental: e.g., the voltage ratio approach (VRA), ascalar version of the ABCD method unit N unit N 1 unit 1 transmitter port V N ZB N γ N ZC N N ρl N VN 1 γ N 1 ZC N 1 Z B N 1 N ρ 1 L N 1 γ 1 V1 V0 Z C 1 ZB 1 1 ρ L1 receiver port Z IN ZI N 1 Z I1 H V x axis x N 1 b xn 1 b1 L b f f f Vb e L f e b b b b b f x 1 x 0 N H f Hb f b1 REF., T. Zheng, Bottom up Transfer Function Generator for Broadband PLC Statistical Channel Modeling, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC 10), Apr. 2009, pp

49 Fare clic Why per a Bottom Up modificare Approach lo stile del? titolo 1 Cumulative Distribution Function of RMS Delay Spread Quantile-Quantile Plots of Average Channel Gain CDF A f = 100 m 2 A f = 200 m 2 A f = 300 m RMS Delay Spread (s) Standard Normal Quantiles The bottom up approach allows the connection to physical reality (topology, distance, time variant loads ). But more complex. This theoretical approach matches the measured metric distributions, e.g., delay spread and average channel gain. db Average Channel Gain quantiles A f = 100 m 2 A f = 200 m 2 A f = 300 m 2 REF., F. Versolatto, Bottom up Statistical PLC Channel Modeling Part II: Inferring the Capacity, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 4, pp , Oct

50 Fare clic Why per a Bottom Up modificare Approach lo stile del? titolo The PLC channel can be time variant due to Changes of topology Time variant loads connected to the network The bottom up approach allows to take into account these effects Examples of time variant loads are: AC/DC converters and chargers Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) Dimmers Variant load banks Industrial machinery Overall home load changing with time 50

51 Time Fare Variant clic per Loads modificare and Effect lo stile of the del Topology titolo Time variance is less pronounced when the receiver is far away from the time variant load Channel acquisition 1 Channel acquisition 2 The channel can be modeled as linear periodically time variant (LPTV) because of the periodic change of load impedances with the mains cycle (2 state cyclic behavior) REF. F. J. Cañete, J. A. Cortés, L. Díez, and J. T. Entrambasaguas, Analysis of the Cyclic Short Term Variation of Indoor Power Line Channels, IEEE J. on Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 24, no. 7, pp , Jul

52 MIMO Channel: Multiple Input Multiple Output 52

53 Fare MIMO clic per Channel modificare Main Characteristics lo stile del titolo In the presence of more than two conductors, multiple input multiple output links are available network transmitter transmitter receiver receiver The channels are strongly correlated The ratio between the minimum and the maximum eigenvalue has been shown to be constant in frequency and equal to 0.2 on average (for in home channels) The noise is correlated as well Higher correlation in the lower frequency range P PE and N PE noises are the most correlated (more than P N) REF. D. Veronesi, R. Riva, P. Bisaglia, F. Osnato, K. Afkhamie, A. Nayagam, D. Rende, L. Yonge, Characterization of In Home MIMO Power Line Channels, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC 11), Apr. 2011, pp REF. D. Rende, A. Nayagam, K. Afkhamie, L. Yonge, R. Riva, D. Veronesi, F. Osnato, P. Bisaglia, Noise Correlation and Its Effect on In home MIMO Power Line Channels, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC 11), Apr. 2011, pp

54 An Fare Approach clic per to modificare MIMO Channel lo stile Generation del titolo We combine multiple transmission line theory with the bottomup approach to obtain random MIMO PLC channel responses 0-10 Phase-Neutral / Phase-Neutral Phase-Neutral / PE-Neutral PE-Neutral / Phase-Neutral PE-Neutral / PE-Neutral unit N unit N 1 unit 1 Amplitude (db) transmitter port YB N γ N ZC N l N ρl I, N γ N 1 ZC N 1 YB N l 1 N ρ 1 L I, N 1 γ 1 Z C 1 Y B l 1 1 ρl I,1 receiver port Frequency (MHz) YI N YI N 1 Y I1 x axis x N xn 1 x 1 x 0 REF. F.Versolatto,A.M.Tonello, A MIMO PLC Random Channel Generator and Capacity Analysis, Proc. of Int. Symp. on Power Line Commun. and Its App. (ISPLC 11), Apr. 2011, pp

55 Fare clic per Model modificare Validation lo stile del titolo E s We have realized a T shaped MTL test network We have simulated and measured the coupled insertion loss Z s tx Yr tx V g tx V r l l l l l 1 3 l m 2.30m 3.60m rx V g rx V r br Y g br Y r Y br rx Y g rx Y r Y rx Insertion Loss (db) Coupled Direct Frequency (MHz) (a) Amplitude Direct Phase (rad) Coupled Phase (rad) Simulated Frequency (MHz) (b) Phase Measured Strong matching between the measured and generated insertion loss REF. F. Versolatto, A. M. Tonello, An MTL Theory Approach for the Simulation of MIMO Power Line Communications Channels, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 3, pp , Jul

56 Noise Characterization 56

57 Fare clic PLC per Noise modificare Classification lo stile del titolo The PLC noise comprises five components Impulsive Noise Background Noise Narrowband Noise Colored Noise Periodic Impulsive Noise Synchronous Periodic Impulsive Noise Asynchronous Aperiodic Impulsive Noise channel REF. M. Gotz, M. Rapp, K. Dostert, Power Line Channel Characteristics and their Effect on Communication System Design, IEEE Comm. Mag., vol. 42, no. 4, pp ,

58 Noise Characterization Background Noise 58

59 PSD (dbm/hz) Fare Background clic per modificare Noise Comparison lo stile del titolo Noise PSD Comparison In-Home (worst) Outdoor Low Voltage Outdoor Medium Voltage Frequency (MHz) Background noise has an exponential PSD Narrowband interference exhist FM disturbances (> 87.5 MHz) AM (< 1.6 MHz) Radio amateur (from 1.9MHz up to SHF) In Home PLCs experience the highest level of noise Overhead MV background noise due to corona discharges The strong electric fields determine the avalanche generation of free charges in the surrounding air, which in turn induce current pulses in the conductors REF. Noise models from : 1. T. Esmailian, F. R. Kschischang, and P. Glenn Gulak, In Building Power Lines as High Speed Communication Channels: Channel Characterization and a Test Channel Ensemble, Int. J. of Commun. Syst., vol. 16, no. 5, pp , Jun EU OPERA Project, Deliverable D5,

60 Noise Characterization Impulsive Noise 60

61 Fare clic Impulsive per modificare Noise Components lo stile del titolo Periodic impulsive noise Synchronous: components with low rate (50/100 Hz): rectifiers Asynchronous: components with high rate (200 khz): switching devices The amplitude is small with spectrum confined in frequency Aperiodic impulsive noise Bursty nature: on off and plug in out Less frequent, but more disruptive High amplitude greater than 50 V Amplitude (V) Amplitude (V) Time (ms) Time (ms) 61

62 Fare clic per modificare Furthermore lo stile del titolo Appliances generate asynchronous noise components that are periodic with the mains cycle Noise PSD (dbm/hz) We measured the noise by the inverters Spikes of asynchronous periodic noise Motor 2.2 kw Motor 5.5 kw Motor 7.5 kw Inverter 10 kw Inverter 3 kw Frequency (MHz) Measurements at the Micro Grid Test Lab Strathclyde, by WiPli Lab team within FP7 EU DERrI Project 62

63 Fare clic per Time Variant modificare Analysis lo stile del titolo The stationary characterization of the noise is not sufficient to get the picture of its whole complex nature PSD (dbv/hz) Frequency (MHz) Time interval (ms) 20 short term PSD during the mains cycle REF. V. Degardin, M. Lienard, A. Zeddam, F. Gauthie, and P. Degauque, Classification and Characterization of Impulsive Noise on Indoor Power Line Used for Data Communications, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp , Nov REF. J. A. Cortés, L. Diez, F. J. Cañete, and J. J. Sanchez Martinez, Analysis of the indoor broadband power line noise scenario, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 52, no. 4, pp , Nov REF. M. Katayama, T. Yamazato, and H. Okada, A Mathematical Model of Noise in Narrowband Power Line Communication Systems, IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol.24, no.7, pp , Jul

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