LIVING WITH LANDSLIDE: THE ANCONA CASE HISTORY AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

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1 First World Landslide Forum - november ; United Nation University Tokio Jaan Monitoring Prediction and Early Warning Session n LIVING WITH LANDSLIDE: THE ANCONA CASE HISTORY AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM Authors: Geol. Stefano Cardellini* Geom. Paolo Osimani* On th December Ancona city an historical and caitol region of Le Marche - Italy located on the East coast of the Adriatic sea was involved in a large and dee landslide. (Figure ) - Ancona Municiality Monitoring Centre Italy horizontal maximum and meters on height while on the to meters in horizontal and meters downwards. On the th of December morning after a night of uninterruted movements and noises due to the oening fractures of buildings the Residential Districts named Posatora and Borghetto were evacuated. (Figure ) The landslide damaged rivate houses and infrastructures and about eole were evacuated.. eole were moved to hotels and other residences by Municiality and they remained in that situation for a long time. Figure : Italy and Ancona city An intense landslide interested the northern area of the city the Montagnolo hill started to slide towards the sea. The event involved during the movement about millions of cubic meters of ground. (Figure ) Figure : The National Railway MI-LE (Adriatica) and regional Highway Flaminia Gas and water sulies were interruted too and the city remained for some days without the necessary services. The more significant damages can be resumed as following: hectares extension (affecting % urban area of Ancona) eole evacuated ( families) eole moved to hotels and other residences by Municiality buildings destroyed or damaged (a total of residences) Faculty of Medicine building Oncological Hosital Geriatric Hosital Tambroni retirement home were irrearably damaged farms damaged SME industries shos eole lost their jobs National Railway MI-LE (Adriatica) and regional Highway Flaminia blocked Gas and water sulies interruted Luckily no eole died during the event! Figure : First field ma made the days after the event It damaged structures and infrastructures and some imortant ublic and strategic buildings among them the Faculty of Medicine building the Oncological Hosital the Geriatric Hosital and the Tambroni retirement home. All the older eole and the atients were moved to the nearest Hositals for the first aid. The National Railway MI-LE (Adriatica) and regional Highway Flaminia slid down metres towards the sea. The movements started from the lower border of the landslide and came u the sloe. At the end of the event the movements surveyed were: on the base metres in

2 The dynamic of the Landslide of Ancona can be exlained in two stes:. A gravity settlement haened at great dee robably induced by some dislocations activated during the earthquake then re-activated by the intense rain infiltration (some days before the event it rained for almost days without any interrution).. After the first ste we had an activation of suerficial and medium landslides. These started to move after about minutes with consequent damages to buildings and infrastructures. (this second ste continued for some hours) The suerficial geomorhology of the Ancona landslide is influenced by many and comlex movements. The colluvial soils in some laces of the landside where their thickness is about meters have flown down as a mudslide. This dynamics was heled by the high rate of saturation. Taking into account all the researches and investigations during the last years sent in the site and in laboratory we can conclude that the Great Landslide of Ancona city is an Dee-seated landslide (comlex comosite according to Cruden & Varnes ) reactivated after a long eriod of reciitation; new fractures were oened by a long eriod of earthquakes y before ( months duration). (Figure ) canals. Reinforced bulkheads were built and in some art of the area reforestations were made. Ancona Administration decided to continue the drainages systems both suerficial and dee. In the Regione Marche (one of the main administrative units in Italy) made a law for the eole that also today live in the landslide to give Ancona Administration the resonsibility of creating an Early Warning System and an Emergency Plan for eole. The whole roject has the aim both to issue to the oulation a certification to live safely in their homes and to check the landslide moving. The rojected Early Warning System consists in an integrated and continuous control at a suerficial and dee level of the whole area. The first hase of the monitoring system concerning the control of the surface has been working for some months. Within some months the Geotechnical in Place Continuous monitoring system (II hase) will be activated. (Figure ) MARINA DORICA F LA MINIA... ES IN O DMS.. TO.. = % = % % s=.... da= rt dart % s H G ROTT (IU-/-).... PARCO POSATORA. CIMITERO POSATORA E. DMS.. PARCO POSATORA GROTTE..... (IU-/-)... V IA... E.... D ELL. TRON..... VI A..... RA D A.... (IU-/-) ST UNIVERSITA'.... DMS Plu vi ometro /Termometro DEL CARMINE A C... A B FORNETTO D C B A MI NE. CAR D EL A.. A..... GOLFO SCUOLE COLLODI LOC. PINOCCHIO Figure : Early Warning System Surface monitoring The surface monitoring system is based on: Automatic Robotic Stations (of high recision) reflector oints (installed artly on the inhabited houses and on the structures and infrastructures) geodetic (Global Position System at single frequency L (installed on the inhabited houses) geodetic at dual frequency LL (reference) high recision clinometric sensors for the stability control of the main stations of the I and II level of the net (automatic geodetic boxes). The combination of the different instruments: Automatic Robotic Stations and the clinometric sensors allows us to monitor in the three coordinates (D X Y Z) a great number of oints reviously identified to kee them under suervision with different measuring technical and from different control ositions. The adotion of the geodetic at dual frequency assure an high quality of the measures and a greater versatility at all the system. This monitoring system is studied to try to determine every surface movement both in the area and in the inhabited houses and to roduce some alarms managed by a Control Centre H laced in the Town Hall where a staff of technicians have to estimate the alarms. Only whenever the situation requires the Coordinator starts the Civil Protection Plain. The measuring cycle is set u on minutes but in emergency or after a long rainy eriod the system can oerate on every oints of the dual frequency net also in Real Time RTK and with the Automatic Robotic Stations. (Figure ) Figure. : Geomorhological and seismic section The landslide involves clay and silty clay layers (PliocenePleistocene) fractured with different OCR arameter alternated with thin sand levels. Overlaed sliding zones are active (maximum deth: m maximum deth event is m bgl). Across all the body of the landslide in horizontal direction arallel to the coast there are two natural trenches that cross the sloe. These trenches are ustream of old landslides slid down and now they are filled with heterogenic and lastic soils. These soils involves clay and silty clay mud and thin sand level with some fragments of calcarenitic layers. These trenches together with a comlex structural system of fracture and discontinuity influenced the system of underground water. All the geological and geotechnical analyses of the landslide mechanisms aimed at the consolidation reliminary design in the ; but this lan concluded that a consolidation was imossible both due to very large exenses and to a very strong environmental imact which would have totally changed the site aearance with a severe socio-economical imact. Ancona Administration decided then to live with the landslide reducing nevertheless the risk for the eole living there. During the last years some artial interventions of the total reliminary design for the consolidation stroke have been made. Two drainages systems were done one dee based on trenches and wells and a more suerficial one with

3 Figure : Automatic Geodetic box in Marina Dorica The surface monitoring is based on system in different active levels on Automatic Robotic Stations and a later control with high recision clinometric sensors for the stability control of the main stations of the I and II level of the net: A - system:. Main Network (I level active at the moment) formed by n main stations outside of the landslide area with n geodetic at dual frequency LL (reference) laced on two steady buildings and a third one laced on a Geodetic box at Marina Dorica founded with a reinforced concrete ole ( m).. Secondary Network (II level active at the moment) formed by n main stations inside of the landslide area with n geodetic at dual frequency LL (reference) laced on one building and on n Geodetic boxes founded with reiforced concrete oles (- m). All these geodetic (n n ) form a high recision net working in the Early-warning system on different control levels to assure the net (at single frequency L) installed on inhabited houses a strong network; so that after an alarm it can work in real time RTK.. Third Network (III level active at the moment) formed by n geodetic at single frequency L installed on inhabited houses inside of the landslide area. B - Automatic Robotic Stations The Automatic Robotic Stations (n of high recision) are laced in the I and II level networks in the same laces of the geodetic at dual frequency LL excet for the Collodi school building. They control (angles and distances) of reflector sots laced on the inhabited buildings left and on the consolidation structures built inside the landslide. Geotechnical monitoring (DMS) Now a in lace Geotechnical Monitoring System DMS (atents and trade mark CSG-Italy) is under construction. It is maden by n boreholes ( metres) and into them will be installed n Modular Dynamic System columns. Each column is formed by n Biaxial Inclinometric modules (range /- resolution ) n Piezometric Sensors (range si resolution m) n Temerature Sensors (range - C resolution C) for a total active length of metres with instruments while the first ten metres and the last five ones are without any instruments. DMS can be reassembled and installed in site forming an instrumented column like a siral cord connecting the required number of modules each containing one or more geotechnical-geohysical sensors and the electronic boards for data collection and transmission. The modules are linked by secial D/D flexible joints that allow strong continuous adatability to bends and twists of the borehole whilst maintaining rigorously the orientation with resect to a reference system defined during installation. DMS Early warning management.(figure ) The data from the DMS instrumentation column are sent through RS rotocol to the control unit which comares them with threshold values (set by the user) and storages them in a circular buffer. In case of movements larger than threshold values the control unit sends a warning SMS/direct call to the staff on duty of the monitoring centre. The same is the case of raid change of water-table levels. Warning levels are counted from to in a growing order of danger. In the monitoring centre the control software GeoMaster takes care of downloading the data stored in the control unit memory buffer. Figure DMS Early Warning system The DMS Early Warning is the software that visualizes the subsurface data at the monitoring centre and wherever an Internet connection is ossible. The software in a comact check anel allows the contextual control of dislacement (E-W N-S Module diagrams on Polar and Azimuthal lots) as well as the variations of the level of the water table and temerature; time history of each multiarametric module and dislacement-velocity are also dislayed at selected intervals. Transmission System The transmitted data coming from the different sensors are collected according to the two following rocedures: a. I and II Level Net: data transmission in real time through a WiFi Standard HyerLan to the Town Monitoring Centre. The system is based on a main radio line (sot to sot) between the Automatic Robotic Stations and the Ancona Municiality Monitoring Centre. Data transmission in real time works through some free frequencies radio links of GHz (HyerLan). It realizes a strong transmission and a low environmental imact thanks to their noise controls system.

4 b. III Level Net: data transmission through eriodic GSM in dialing with a data acquisition every hours. First data and conclusion After some months of observation and studying of the data of the surface monitoring system aart from any ordinary variations connected to the days and seasons some little movements have been located inside the landslide. Some geodetic at single frequency L installed on inhabited houses inside the landslide area (third network) have collected movements of - cm towards north (in valley direction) (Figure ). The interested area is where the landslide has the maximum deth ( m) and where lots of lastic soils into the two trenches are found. But the movements examined don t worry because they haen in a restricted area and during seasons changes (summer-winter) when the clay soils loose their humidity and reduce their volume. These data have ermitted to verify the monitoring system sensibility also for what concerns the smallest movements in the colluvial soils. Figure : Time history of a movement In this way the Ancona administration has chosen to LIVE WITH THE LANDSLIDE : this new concet imlies that the safety of the oulation is achieved through a high-quality and comrehensive early-warning system. This in contrast with the more static concet of standard engineering remediation works which are clearly imracticable so far in our case. This roject is the result of the best conjunction between human resources and a more reliable technology in the Early Warning monitoring field ut in use for a best safety and eacefulness for the eole living on the Ancona landslide. Reference. De Bosis F. (). Il Montagnolo: studi ed osservazioni. Encicl. Contem. Gabrielli Fano.. Segrè C. (). Criteri geognostici er il consolidamento della falda franosa del Montagnolo litorale Ancona-Falconara. Boll. Soc. Geol. It. -.. AA. VV. (). La grande frana di Ancona del Dicembre. Secial Number of Studi geologici Camerti... Cotecchia V. (). La grande frana di Ancona. Atti del Convegno dell Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei: La stabilità del suolo in Italia: zonazione della sismicità frane. Cotecchia V. (). The vulnerable town and the geological evolution of the middle Adriatic coastal environment. Proceeding of the IAEG International Symosium Engeneering Geology and Environment. Athens Greece.. Cancelli A. Marabini F. Pellegrini M. and Tonetti G. (). Incidenza delle frane sull evoluzione della costa adriatica da Pesaro a Vasto. Mem. Soc. Geol. It -.. Santaloia F. Cotecchia V. Monterisi L. (). Geological evolution and landslide mechanisms along the central Adriatic coastal sloes. Proceedings of the Skemton Conference vol. - London.. Cotecchia V. (). Interventi di consolidamento del versante settentrionale del Montagnolo e della relativa fascia costiera interessati dai movimenti di massa del Dicembre. For the Ancona Town Council. (Unublished).. Bally A.W. Burbi L. Cooer C. and Ghelardoni R. (). Balanced section and seismic reflections rofiles across the Central Aennines. Mern. Soc. Geol. It. -.. Ori G.G. Serafini G. Visentin C. Ricci Lucchi F. Casnedi R. Colalongo M.L. Mosna S. () The Pliocene-Pleistocene Adriatic Foredee (Marche e Abruzzo Italy): an integrated aroach to surface and subsurface geology. III E.A.P.G Conference Adriatic Foredee Field Tri guide book Firenze... Lavecchia G. and Pialli G. (). Modello geodinamico dell area umbro-marchigiana e suo significato sismogenetico. Ann. Geol -.. Cello G. and Coola L. (). Modalità e stili deformativi dell area anconetana. Studi Geol. Camerti -.. Patacca E. Sartori R. Scandone P. (). Tyrrhenian basin and Aenninic arcs: kinematic relation since late Tortonian times. Mem. Soc. Geol. It. -.. Crescenti U. Nanni T. Ramoldi R. and Stucchi M. (). Ancona: considerazioni sismotettoniche. Boll. Geof. Teorica Al. / -.. Cotecchia V. Grassi D. and Merenda L. (). Fragilità dell area urbana occidentale di Ancona dovuta a movimenti di massa rofondi e suerficiali rietutesi nel. Atti I Conv. Del Gruo Naz. di Geol. Al. & Idrogeol. / -.. Cotecchia V. and Simeone V. (). Studio dell incidenza degli eventi di ioggia sulla grande frana di Ancona del... Proc. Int. Conf. Prevention of hydrogeological hazards: the role of scientific research -.. Bianchi F. (). Progetto di reinterretazione di linee sismiche AGIP nell area comresa tra la foce del fiume Esino a nord e lo Scoglio del Trave a sud. Comune di Ancona Regione Marche. For the Ancona Town Council. (Unublished).. Mazzotti A. Ferretti A. and Nieto Yabar D. (). Studio e monitoraggio geofisico dei fenomeni franosi nell area di Ancona. Relazione finale nell ambito della Convenzione fra il Comune di Ancona e Università di Milano Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica serimentale e Società Telerilevamento Euroa.

5 . Colombo P. Esu F. Jamiolkowski M. and Tazioli G.S. (ITALGEO ). Studio sulle oere di stabilizzazione della frana di Posatora e Borghetto. For the Ancona Town Council. (Unublished).

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