3 FOR THE COMMEMORATION OF 125th ANNIVERSARY OF THE FRIGATE ERTUĞRUL S VOYAGE TO JAPAN
4 General Publishing Manager Radm.(UH) Macit ARSLAN Publishing Coordinator Capt.(N) Cahit S.GÖKGÖZ Authors Lt Cdr. Serhan ARAS Lt. Mehmet YÜKSEL Academic Supervisior Prof. Ali Merthan DÜNDAR Proofreading Ing.Teacher/Author Ahmet AKIN Founder of AKIN Language School Translation Ece IRMAK Graphic Design Emine TOMBUL Logo Design Ens. Mustafa AĞIRTAŞ Printing Coordinator Lt Cdr. Ercan BİCAN Printing House Deniz Basımevi Müdürlüğü Pendik İstanbul
5 PREFACE The tragedy of Frigate Ertuğrul in 1890 has had the most influence in the development of Turkish-Japanese relations in modern times. This final voyage of Frigate Ertuğrul also holds a significant place in the Ottoman history, especially with regards to utilization of the Navy as a foreign policy tool. Prince Komatsu, the nephew of Japanese Emperor Meiji, had paid a courtesy visit to Sultan Abdülhamid II in Istanbul in Frigate Ertuğrul was set out on its fateful voyage to the Far East from 1889 to 1890 in order to reciprocate this gesture and also to rekindle relations with the nations of the Far East. The deployment of Frigate Ertuğrul to the Far East was valuable in terms of leaving remarkable impressions and boosting the morale and motivation of not only the Turkish Nation, but also other nations affiliated with the Ottoman Empire. Hence, on her route Frigate Ertuğrul had made many goodwill port visits and engagements to countries in the region that are of interest to the Ottoman Empire. After an arduous voyage and successful mission Frigate Ertuğrul reached its final destination in Japan and the Sultan s gifts and letters were relayed to the Japanese Emperor on June 13th, The diplomatic mission had been accomplished; the good will visits of Frigate Ertuğrul had laid the foundation of strong relations with not only Japan, but also with many other nations in the region. However, Frigate Ertuğrul was destined yet for another historical mission that was unbeknownst to everyone at the time. On her voyage back to home port, Ertuğrul was struck by a violent hurricane and wrecked off the island of Oshima. The tragedy had deprived many members of her crew and their souls still rest in peace off the coast of Wakayama in South West Japan. There now stands in Kushimoto, Japan, Frigate Ertuğrul s Tomb of the Martyrs and the Ertuğrul Memorial Monument built in memory of those who have sacrificed their lives to accomplish their historical mission for becoming the solemn symbol of friendship between Turkish and Japanese nations. Frigate Ertuğrul is an important part of Turkish naval heritage. ERTUĞRUL is published in order to better preserve and promote this great naval heritage, and also to relay it to the future generations as an important tool for historical consciousness and collective memory. I firmly believe that this book will contribute to the commemoration of the 125th Anniversary of Frigate Ertuğrul s fateful voyage to the Far East. I would like to thank my staff for their efforts and contributions to the realization of this book. ERTUĞRUL is dedicated to the Blessed Souls of our Martyrs, the pioneers of Turkish-Japanese friendship and our Eternal Envoy to the Far East nations. Admiral Bülent BOSTANOĞLU Commander of the Turkish Naval Forces
6 7 In the 16 th century, the Ottoman s had a pivotal location at the crossroads of the transportation and trade network between Asia, Africa and Europe. With its strategic location, the Ottoman was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds since its foundation. After territorial expansion in the 17 th century, the Ottoman became the ruler of the region known as The Old World and became geographically contiguous with neighboring countries.
7 9 The Ottoman played an important role in shaping the identity of the West thanks to its interaction with the World. In the course of time, this interaction has become an inclination of obtaining the Ottoman lands which was geopolitical fundamental element for the world politics of the West.
8 11 To fill the gap in science and technology for the purpose of preserving its existence, the Ottoman entered into relations with the Western world about training competent people and having qualified work force.
9 13 The first efforts for the new formation based upon the scientific and technological knowledge of the West took place at the armed forces. Later these efforts turned towards the field of education and a Western-style system was taken as an example in the fields of government and foreign policy.
10 15 The Ottoman also adopted western principles in its international relations. In that period, the Ottoman began to send legates to foreign lands and also send personnel abroad. When one of the ship from the navy was sent for the Ottoman fleets in the international waters, they took the advantage of the navigational routes in terms of the international relations.
11 17 The relationship between the Ottoman and the dominant power of the era have borne a resemblance to the relations between Japan and this sovereign. Especially the United Kingdom spread free trade policy throughout the world. The United Kingdom integrated the Ottoman into its own world system with the Treaty of Balta Limanı in 1838, China with the Treaty of Nanking signed after the Opium War in 1842 and also integrated Japan together with the United States into the same system with the Kanagawa Treaty in Although these treaties had some political, social and economic differences according to the regions, all of them were planned with the hegemonic system underlying the colonialism.
12 19 However, Japan amended these treaties as a result of the positive and cooperative attitudes of the United Kingdom and consequently formed a basis for the traditional alliance. The Ottoman did not encounter with the same attitude because the Ottoman lands were the target area of the United Kingdom.
13 21 In 1871, Japan proposed a treaty of friendship to the Ottoman. The opinions concerning this matter declared by the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamit II to the commander of the Japanese warship Seiki which arrived in İstanbul with cadets in 1875 and also to the envoy who came to İstanbul in 1881.
14 23 In 1887, Prince Komatsu, brother of the Japanese Emperor Meiji, visited İstanbul in 1887 during his trip to Europe. It was the first official negotiation between the Ottoman and Japan.
15 25 Regarding the general framework mentioned so far, it is seen that the Ottoman was a maritime nation considering its borders despite the lost territories. Although the navy of the Ottoman was considered to be deactivated during the reign of Abdülhamit II, sending the Frigate Ertuğrul to the Far East voyage took an important place. Because the Frigate Ertuğrul was charged with a significant mission instead of an operation related with the border defense strategy.
16 27 The Ottoman determinately took the advantage of the navy ships to demonstrate its existence to the local people in its own lands and also to its allies. During the period when the colonial race of the West was escalated for the Ottoman lands after the unification of Italy and Germany, school ships were sent to sail in far seas instead of warships by taking account of reciprocity principles and western countries.
17 29 In 1863, the School Ship Hüdavendigar was sent to Tripoli and Tunisia. In 1873, the Frigate Muhbir-i Sürur was sent to Basra
18 In 1889, the Frigate Ertuğrul began the preparations for the voyage to Japan. 31
19 33 The Frigate Ertuğrul was launched at the Istanbul Dockyard on 19 October 1863 in presence of Sultan Abdülaziz. She had engines and boilers installed in England in 1864 and she returned to İstanbul in She was 79 m long and 15.5 m wide. The displacement of the ship was 2344 tons and her speed was 10 miles.
20 35 Technical Specifications of the Frigate Ertuğrul; Hull : Wood Draft : 7.1 m Machinery : two horizontal engines of 600 hp Fuel : coal/capacity of 350 tons Armament : 1 x 203 mm Armstrong, 8 x 150mm Krupp, 5 x 150mm Armstrong guns, 1 x Whitehead torpedo launcher, 2 x torpedoes Crew : 61 officers and civilians, 548 sailors, total: 609 personnel
21 37 There were debates about sending the Frigate Ertuğrul to Japan. A technical committee inspected the ship and arranged this report: It is seen with pleasure that the frigate is in excellent condition. She can sail to Japan, fly the glorious Ottoman flag in far seas and return home
22 39 According to this report, a route was planned to include Suez, Aden, Bombay, Colombo, Singapore, Saigon and Hong Kong. The Frigate Ertuğrul would make a long journey crossing the Red Sea into the Indian Ocean and sailing across the Pacific, visiting many port cities.
23 41 It was accepted with the official letter dated 21 February 1888 that the Frigate Ertuğrul would be prepared as a school ship and cadets would also be taken to Japan to increase their functional knowledge. The Frigate Ertuğrul was suitable for this voyage and she would be able to set off at the end of March.
24 43 The route and the ports which the frigate would call at were stated as follows: The initial route was designed to make various necessary stops on the way. The first stop was planned in Marmaris, and the next one in Port Said before the passage through the Suez Canal. Visits in Aden and Somalia would be followed by the stay in Jeddah. Considering the season-
25 45 al winds, the ship would stop by at Pondicherry and Calcutta in India. After staying in Port Akabod and Singapore, she would sail to Malacca by way of the Strait of Malacca. Proceeding to the north, the ship would stop by in Saigon and then in some docks in China to arrive in Hong Kong. Amoy and Shanghai would be the last stops before reaching Japan. Finally, after a stay in Nagasaki, the ship would arrive her destination in Yokohama.
26 İSTANBUL KOBE YOKOHAMA PORTSAİT SÜVEYŞ CİDDE BOMBAİ HONG KONG NAGASAKİ FOÇU OSHİMA ADEN KOLOMBO SAYGON SİNGAPUR
27 49 14 July Tarik Newspaper Telegraph The yesterday s newspapers reported that Frigate Ertuğrul which would visit Japan for the presentation of the gifts and the highest decoration of the Ottoman, Medal of High Honor, from the Ottoman Sultan to the Japanese Emperor would be set out from İstanbul. However the frigate set sail at approximately eight o clock today.
28 51 And the voyage begins The Frigate Ertuğrul departed from İstanbul on 14 July The first stop was Marmaris Port and the next one was Port Said. After calling at Port Said, she set sail towards the Suez Canal. However, the frigate experienced two unfortunate problems at Suez and went into dock to repair. The ship remained in dock for ten or twelve days and after repairs, she set out on 23 September 1889.
29 CİDDE BOMBAİ İSTANBUL PORTSAİT SÜVEYŞ CİDDE ADEN BOMBAİ HONG KONG KOLOMBO NAGASAKİ FOÇU KOBE OSHİMA SİNGAPUR YOKAHAMA ADEN KOLOMBO SAYGON SİNGAPUR A Turkish ship in the Far East waters CİDDE BOMBAİ The Frigate Ertuğrul departed from Suez and visited Jeddah. On 7 October 1889, she called at Aden. The frigate was welcomed warmly by the Muslim communities at the ports ADEN KOLOMBO of Jeddah and Aden. The frigate set out on 8 November 1889 and arrived Singapore on 15 November 1889 calling at Colombo and Bombay. Over 30,000 Muslims visited the frigate SİNGAPUR at Bombay and Colombo.
30 In the winter of 1889 The Frigate Ertuğrul was able to move both by sail and by steam engine. So, she stayed at Singapore for four months to wait for good weather conditions. The long stay of the Frigate at Singapore caused misinterpretations in foreign press. According to their comments, the reason why the Frigate Ertuğrul had stayed at Singapore so long was that she had to be repaired again. However, the Ministry of Navy reported that the reason was to take on necessary supplies and to take advantage of the favorable winds to move by sail. 55
31 İSTANBUL YOKOHAMA KOBE YOKOHAMA SÜVEYŞ PORTSAİT CİDDE BOMBAİ HONG KONG NAGASAKİ FOÇU KOBE OSHİMA HONK KONG NAGASAKİ FOÇU OSHİMA ADEN KOLOMBO SAYGON SİNGAPUR SAYGON In the spring of 1890 SİNGAPUR The Frigate Ertuğrul set sail from Singapore on 22 March She stopped by in the French colonial city of Saigon and then in the British colonial city of Hong Kong on 26 April 1890.
32 59 7 June 1890 The Port of Yokohama The Frigate Ertuğrul arrived her destination in Yokohama on 7 June 1890 calling at the ports of Foçu, Nagasaki and Kobe. In front of the port, the Frigate Ertuğrul was met by the Japanese, British and French ships and entered the port.
33 Silk tablecloth with a chrysanthemum embroidery (the symbol of Japanese Imperial Family) which was delivered by the Frigate Ertuğrul as a gift from the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamit II to the Japanese Emperor Meiji (Museum of the Imperial Collections, 1890) June 1890 at Yokohama The Commander Osman Pasha presented the letter and the highest decoration of the Ottoman, Medal of High Honor sent by Sultan Abdülhamit II to the Japanese Emperor.
34 63 While in Yokohama, the Frigate Ertuğrul participated in sea races with the Japanese and British ships. Osman Pasha established relations with foreign embassies and legations there and attended the ceremony held in the palace with his staff.
35 At that night, at about ten thirty, we got on carriages which were especially prepared for us and went to the Emperor s palace. We were welcomed with usual protocol and accepted in presence of the Emperor with a ceremony. Regarding the desire of the Emperor, I read the speech in Turkish. Then the Emperor received the presents and made a speech in return. He laid stress on the recent close relations and increasing friendship between two nations, which created great pleasure and happiness. Then we left his presence. The Empress also stated that the arrival of the Turkish Battleship to Japan for the first time impressed her and she wished the continuation of such good examples. 1 August 1890 Osman Pasha Commander of the Frigate 65
36 67 The voyage of the Frigate Ertuğrul which began on 14 July 1889 and planned to last for six months lasted around eleven months. After the Frigate Ertuğrul accomplished her mission in Japan, it was ordered by the Ministry of Navy that the frigate would call at the Japanese ports of Uraga, Hyogo and Nagasaki and also the Chinese port of Shanghai and stay at each port for one month. She would wait for favorable weather conditions and return to İstanbul.
37 69 The Way Back Home The Frigate Ertuğrul waited for the good weather conditions and a route was planned for the return voyage. However, the crew were afflicted with cholera epidemic at Yokohama. Thirty-seven crew members suffered from cholera. The Frigate Ertuğrul lost thirteen crew members to epidemic. To stop the rising number of deaths, the Frigate Ertuğrul departed from the port of Yokohama on 15 September 1890.
38 71 It is kindly submitted for your information that we will set sail the next day, not tomorrow. 13 September 1890 / Yokohama Osman Pasha
39 73 16 September 1890 / Storm At the time of departure, the weather conditions were good, but the next morning a reverse wind began to blow and got stronger. In the afternoon, it became a typhoon. The distance to Oshima Cape in the town of Kushimoto was 10 miles. It was possible to see Kashino Lighthouse. The wind was getting stronger. A terrible noise was heard and then a heavy silence fell While the Frigate Ertuğrul was sailing from Yokohama towards Kobe, she hit the reefs and sank on 16 September 1890.
40 KASHİNOZAKİ LIGHTHOUSE At that time I was standing near the capstan on the quarter deck. I tried to go down the cabin and noticed that water poured in the main deck. When I went up the deck, I saw that the bow of the ship and the bottom of the hull were destroyed as if struck by lightning. Only the poop deck remained and the ship lay down on one side. In this terrible mass, I saw that the mizzen mast fell down towards the stern. All the crew had gathered together on the poop deck. I waited until the deck completely fell apart. Then I abandoned myself to the wild waves. I was injured and tried to approach the coast. I managed to reach the land. There was no way leading to the lighthouse and there were steep rocks everywhere. I spent that night there. It was so cold that it seemed impossible for me not to be frozen to death and it was too difficult to bear the painful cries of the wounded. When the morning came, we began to walk with the hope to find a way to the lighthouse. At last we found out a path and we reached there. Lighthouse keepers tried to cure the wounded and served us foods. While we were eating the foods, we explained how the vessel sank. However, there was nobody knowing English. So, we couldn t understand each other. Afterwards, in the evening, they put me and the band officer on board a boat and took to Osaka. Then we came to Kobe by a steamer. During the voyage, the captain of the ship showed us sincere interest by giving clothes for each of us. In Kobe, they took us to a police station. We explained everything in detail there. They immediately sent a message to Yokohama by cable. Meanwhile, we had been accommodated at a comfortable hotel. In the morning a German gunboat brought the other personnel to Kobe, and they were hospitalized there. 30 September 1890 from Kobe İmam Ali Efendi... 75
41 77 After the search and rescue operations conducted by the Japanese authorities, the villagers, the German vessel Wolf and the Japanese vessel Boco-Maru, 80 survivors were rescued. 531 crew members lost their lives in Japanese waters. In Japan, there was a tradition of launching aid campaigns after fires and disasters. After this tragedy, some newspapers in Tokyo, Osaka and Kobe initiated social welfare activities. They launched an aid campaign for the families of the martyrs of the Frigate Ertuğrul.
42 79 To the attention of Clerk Akiyama, The Frigate Ertuğrul, a ship from the Turkish Navy, encountered a typhoon off the Kashino coasts, hit the reefs and sank on 16 September After we were informed by the administrations of the village, we immediately went to the site of the accident to provide medical treatment to the wounded. However, we could not find an opportunity to record the number of the wounded whom we treated and the medicine we prescribed to aid these suffering people We would like to declare that we do not claim any payment or compensation for the treatments and drugs. We just thought that the wounded need help and we wanted to help these people wholeheartedly. Doctor Kawaguchi Sanjuurou Doctor Date Ichirou Doctor Matsu Shima 22 September 1890
43 81 The control of the social welfare activities was obtained together with the increase in the newspapers in Japan. However, the aid campaigns had remained national until An aid campaign was launched for foreigners for the first time in Japan together with the tragedy of the Frigate Ertuğrul. The Association for the Ottoman Navy also launched fundraising activities.
44 83 Japan obtained permission from the Ottoman to recover items from the wreck and started salvaging expeditions. The items removed were transported to İstanbul by a steamer of Messageries Maritimes.
45 85 The cannons recovered from the wreck were fitted to the Ironclad Osmaniye. The Ottoman was pleased with the sincere interest the Japanese showed in rescue operations and salvaging expeditions after the tragedy and also with their kindness and friendship. On this occasion, the Ottoman Sultan extended his thanks on behalf of himself and also his nation to the Emperor of Japan and Japanese nation. He tried to express his gratitude towards the Japanese nation with monetary aid, decorations and medals.
46 87 All of the survivors were transported back to İstanbul aboard the Japanese battleships Kongo and Hiei as a result of Japan s close interest.
47 89 The Commander of the Steamer İzzettin Rıza Bey was sent to meet these ships and he assisted them during their voyage.
48 91 These ships stayed in İstanbul for twenty days. The Ottoman Sultan presented medals and gifts to the crew of the ships.
49 93 Three monuments were erected to commemorate the martyrs of the Frigate Ertuğrul. First of all, a stone column with inscription was erected by the villagers of Oshima.
50 The memorial was restored in 1929 by the help of Türk-Nippon Trade Association. 95
51 97 It was restored for the third time in 1937 when Hüsrev Gerede was the Turkish Ambassador to Japan.
52 99 The Frigate Ertuğrul was welcomed in the ports which she called at during her voyage and this occasion appeared in the newspapers of that time. A newspaper called Kasıdı Bombay wrote on 28 October 1889 that the ship s crew were found clean and gentle. Their uniforms were neat. All these made a favorable impression upon the local people. Especially Indian Muslims demonstrated sincere welcome to the crew.
53 101 A newspaper called Avocat of India which was issued in English wrote many good expressions about the Frigate Ertuğrul and her crew on 29 October In this newspaper, it was stated that the Frigate Ertuğrul participated in the Russo-Turkish War of under the command of Hobart Pasha. The frigate was visited not only by the Muslims, but also by the non-muslims.
54 103 This voyage of the Frigate Ertuğrul left a great impression both on her own nation and also on other nations living in different countries. The Frigate Ertuğrul is still commemorated as an inaugural step of the relations between Turkey and Japan which officially initiated in 1887 and has steadily grown and reached a remarkable level today.
55 To Ertuğrul My Blessed Martyr, You are in your final resting place, In far seas, In friendly lands, Where the Sun sets on you And Sakura trees are blooming for you. You are the grief of the Navy, You are in our hearts, In the easterly wind blowing upon us Ertuğrul Rest in peace, you completed your mission with valor The perennial bond of friendship Through the track of waves you left behind Now close your eyes You are not alone We promise you We will never forget you Teardrop Bottle Recovered from the Wreck of the Frigate Ertuğrul (Tufan TURANLI collection) Serhan ARAS Lt Cdr. 105
56 OFFICERS 107 Admiral Rear-AdmiralOsman Commander Commander Ali Assistant Commander Commander Cemil Deputy Commander (Second) Lieutenant Commander Nuri Deputy Commander (Third) Lieutenant Commander Mehmet Deputy Commander (Fourth) Lieutenant Commander Ömer Company Commander Lieutenant Hulisi Company Commander Lieutenant Nuri Company Commander Lieutenant Ömer Lutfi Company Commander Lieutenant Mehmet Gunnery Officer (Second) Ensign Saffet Assistant Navigation Ensign Necip Mechanic Machinery Captain İbrahim Mechanic Machinery Lieutenant Commander Ahmet Mechanic Machinery Lieutenant Mehmet Sait Mechanic Machinery Lieutenant Mehmet Cemal Mechanic Machinery Senior Lieutenant Arif Mechanic Machinery Senior Lieutenant Şevki Midshipman Rıza Midshipman Asaf Midshipman Tevfik Midshipman İzzet Midshipman Ali Midshipman Ahmet Navigation Officer Senior Lieutenant Hasan Tahsin Torpedo Officer Senior Lieutenant Reşat Deputy Commander (Fifth) Senior Lieutenant Tevfik Quartermaster Captain Cemal Gunnery Officer Lieutenant Celal Company Commander Lieutenant Hamdi Assistant Navigation Ensign Şemsettin Assistant Navigation Officer Ensign İbrahim Şevki Assistant Navigation Officer Ensign Basri Assistant Navigation Officer Midshipmen Mehmet Assistant Navigation Officer Ensign Hasan Tahsin Mechanic Machinery Ensign Ali Rıza Mechanic Machinery Ensign Kemal Mechanic Machinery Ensign Sadık Mechanic Machinery Ensign Kadri Shipbuilding Engineer Ensign Ali Chief Physician Captain Dr.Hüsnü Physician Dr. Şevket Deputy Physician Senior Lieutenant Dr. Yasef Gunner Midshipman Ferdi Midshipman Haşim Midshipman Ali Midshipman Şemi Midshipman Ahmet Ziya Midshipman Mehmet Ziya Midshipman Salih Midshipman Agah
57 MARTYRED SEAMEN Mehmed s son Osman Ali s son Ali Salih s son Mustafa Ahmed s son Hüseyin Mehmed s son Süleyman Bekir s son Emrullah Yakub s son Ahmed Tufan s son Arif Abdullah s son Hüseyin Mustafa s son Zekeriya Ali s son Salih Agah Süleyman s son Mehmed Ali s son Ömer Mustafa s son Kerim Sadık s son İshak Ali s son Halil Mustafa s son Mustafa Salih s son Mustafa Emin s son Mehmed Mehmed Ebu Türk s son Eyüp Yusuf s son İlyas Yusuf s son Halil İbrahim Abdullah s son Raşid Hasan s son Ahmed Hasan s son Salih Bayram s son Mehmed Halil s son Hamid İsmail s son Hasan Mehmed s son Şükrü Mehmed s son Hasan Osman s son Nuri Hüseyin s son Mehmed Ömer s son Ahmed Mustafa s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Abdullah Mehmed s son Osman Selim s son Mehmed Ali s son Ömer Mustafa s son Yakub Ömer s son Ali Hüseyin s son Ali Ali s son Hüseyin Mustafa s son Mehmed Emin s son İsmail Mehmed s son Mahmud Mahmud s son Ali Mustafa s son Mehmed Süleyman s son Mehmed Ali Mahmud s son Ömer Mehmed s son Hüseyin Hüseyin s son Hüseyin Ahmed s son Hasan Osman s son Mehmed Bilal Ali s son İbrahim Abdurrahman s son Bekir Salih s son Temel Hüseyin s son Emrullah Mustafa s son Ahmed Hüseyin s son Durmuş Mehmed s son Salih Süleyman s son Necib Hasan s son Hüseyin Mehmed s son Ali Ahmed s son Osman Ömer s son Mustafa Mustafa s son Hasan İsmail s son Necib Ahmed s son Mustafa Arif s son Kasım İbrahim s son Yusuf Ali s son Dursun Mustafa s son Musa Ahmed s son Hüseyin Süleyman s son İsmail Mehmed s son İsmail Ali s son Zühdü Mustafa s son İsmail Ahmed s son Ömer Ali s son Mehmed Mahmud s son Osman Ali s son Hilmi Genç Ali s son Mehmed Yahya s son Ruşen Sadık s son Mehmed Yunus s son Kadri İbrahim s son Hasan Halil s son Halil Osman s son Salih Mustafa s son Mehmed Mehmed s son Muhsin Mehmed s son Hasan Ahmed s son Abdullah Ali s son Halil Hasan s son İlyas Hamdi Yusuf s son Ahmed Hamdi Mehmed s son Ahmed Ali s son Mustafa Halil s son Ahmed Hasan s son Ali Süleyman s son Mahmud Mehmed s son İsmail Mehmed s son Mustafa Hasan s son Hüseyin Mustafa s son Osman Hüseyin s son Ali Ali s son Mehmed Mehmed s son Receb Veli s son Hüseyin Ali s son Mehmed Mustafa s son Osman Ali Osman s son İbrahim Ali s son Şevket Ahmed s son Mustafa Osman s son Mustafa Ali s son Mustafa Süleyman s son Şaban Mehmed s son Osman Ahmed s son Ali Osman Arif s son Mustafa Hasan s son Ömer Ömer s son Şakir Ali s son Arif Abdülbari s son Kemaleddin Musa s son Mustafa Veli s son Ömer Mustafa s son Mehmed Mustafa s son İsmail Ahmed s son Mehmed Musa s son Mustafa Halil s son Mustafa İbrahim s son Mehmed Latif s son İzzet Yusuf s son Feyzi İbrahim s son Ahmed İzzet Ahmed s son Şerif Sadık s son Lütfullah Halil s son Ahmed Ali s son Şaban Mustafa s son İlyas Resul s son Hasan Halil s son Hüseyin Hüseyin s son Hasan Mustafa s son Mehmed Ali s son Ahmed Sadeddin s son Mustafa Kamil s son Tahsin Hüseyin s son Ömer Salih s son Selahaddin Süleyman s son Hüseyin Hüseyin s son Hasan Ali s son Musa Hasan s son Mehmed Mehmed s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Ali Süleyman s son İbrahim Mehmed s son Mustafa Seyit Mehmed s son Şerif Osman Mehmed s son Selim Hasan s son Arif Abdi s son Yusuf Receb s son Temel Mehmed s son Osman Ahmed s son Necib Mustafa s son İbrahim Hasan s son Osman İsnadpos s son Mustafa Ahmed s son Mustafa 109
58 Arif s son İsmail Mustafa s son İsmail Mehmed s son Hasan Ali s son Ali Osman s son Abdurrahman Mehmed s son Kamil Mehmed s son Osman Mehmed s son İbrahim Mustafa s son Ali İsmail s son Emin Hüseyin s son Hüseyin İbrahim s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Hüseyin İsmail s son Hasan Mehmed s son Hasan Ahmed s son Şükrü Salih s son Şaban İdris s son İsmail İbrahim s son Mehmed Mustafa s son İbrahim Mustafa s son Ali Mehmed s son Hasan Mahmud s son Mustafa Ahmed s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Ahmed Hasan s son Mehmed Hasan s son Ali Mehmed s son Kadir Mustafa s son Mikdad Ömer s son Hüseyin Mustafa s son Ahmed Mehmed s son Ahmed İbrahim s son Mustafa Salih s son Hamid Ahmed s son Mehmed Osman s son Hüseyin Şerif s son Emrullah Ali s son Arif Receb s son Emin Süleyman s son Mehmed Mustafa s son Mehmed Ömer s son Mehmed İsa s son Mahmud Mehmed s son Abdi Hasan s son Salih Halil s son Ahmed Ali s son Halid Arif Hasan s son Halil Şaban s son Süleyman Hasan s son Şerif Murtaza s son Mehmed Hasan s son Hüseyin Süleyman Hasan s son İbrahim Mehmed s son Mehmed Mustafa s son Osman Osman s son Hüseyin Mahmud s son Ömer İbrahim s son Receb Kebirli Ali s son İzzet Ahmed s son İbrahim İsmail s son Cemal Ömer s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Receb Muhsin s son Bilal Abdullah s son Hasan Hasan s son Ömer Aziz s son Hüseyin Davud s son İsmail Rüstem s son Mehmed Mehmed Ali s son Selim Osman s son Mehmed Hüseyin s son Şerif İbrahim Hasan s son Hasan Ali s son Mustafa Osman s son Hasan Cumali s son Hasan Veli s son Receb İbrahim s son Şerif Ömer s son İbrahim Ömer s son Ali Yusuf s son Mustafa Bekir s son Mehmed Hüseyin s son Ali Mehmed s son Salih Mustafa s son Kara Salih Arif s son İbrahim Ahmed s son Mehmed Mehmed s son Halil Süleyman s son Emin Ahmed s son Hakkı Osman s son Numan Mehmed s son Dursun Halil s son Hasan Hasan s son Hasan Mehmed s son Mustafa Mehmed s son Osman Ali s son Esad Mehmed Ali s son İsmail Ali s son Ahmed Ahmed s son Mustafa İbrahim s son Mehmed Hasan s son Hasan Ali s son Emin İbrahim s son Abdullah Mustafa s son Süleyman Ali s son İzzet Osman s son Osman Süleyman s son Yusuf Mehmed s son Bilal Mehmed s son Aziz Mehmed s son Halil Ahmed s son Emin Ali s son Mehmed Yusuf s son Mehmed Cemal Salih s son Süleyman İbrahim s son İbrahim İbrahim s son Hüseyin Mahmud Mahako s son Ahmed Mehmed s son Mustafa Osman s son Mustafa Bilal s son İbrahim Osman s son Mehmed Ali s son Temel Raşid s son Mehmed Ali s son Emin Hasan s son Hasan Mehmed s son İbrahim İsmail s son Hasan Kamil s son Mehmed Ahmed s son Hasan Mehmed Emin s son Palamutçu İsmail Mehmed s son Hüseyin Mehmed s son Ali Mehmed s son İsmail Hasan s son İbrahim Ali s son Mehmed Osman s son Ahmed Hasan s son Salih Ali Osman s son Şerif Ali Hüseyin s son Hüseyin İbrahim s son Hasan Hasan s son Osman İsmail s son Mustafa Hasan s son Mehmed Mehmed s son Rıza İbrahim s son Mustafa Ahmed s son İbrahim Hasan s son İbrahim Mehmed s son Süleyman İsmail s son Hüseyin Şaban s son Ali Osman s son İbrahim Ahmed s son İsmail Hasan s son Mustafa Halil s son Hüseyin Mustafa s son Ali Arif s son İsmail Musa s son İbrahim Temel s son Hamza Mehmed s son Halil Hasan s son Ali Ali s son Mehmed Bekir s son Mehmed Ali Muzaffer s son Raşid İbrahim s son Temel İsmail s son Osman Hamza s son Hasan Hüseyin s son Zeynel Mehmed s son Ali Abdullah s son Yusuf Hasan s son Mustafa Mustafa s son Hasan Mustafa s son Hüseyin İbrahim s son Ahmed Ahmed s son Mustafa Yakub s son Mahmud Mehmed s son İsmail Hasan s son Ali Mahmud s son Osman 111
The Age of Exploration It all began with Prince Henry the Navigator. What About Henry? Died 13 November 1460 Place of death-sagres, Kingdom of the Algarve Born in 4 March 1394 in Porto, Kingdom of Portugal
EUROPE ENTERS THE MODERN AGE Objective: Students will analyze the motives and technology that allowed the age of exploration come to pass. Age of Exploration: a period of European exploration and discovery
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Objectives Summarize how Portugal built a trading empire in. Analyze the rise of Dutch and Spanish dominance in the region. Understand how the decline of Mughal India affected European traders in the region.
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This is George. He lived in Africa. He was very happy. But he had one fault. He was too curious. One day George saw a man. He had on a large yellow straw hat. The man saw George, too. "What a nice little
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In 1914, Britain ruled over one quarter of the world s surface area and 434 million people. This was known as the British Empire. When war broke out, Britain was desperate for men to fight. Unlike France,
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