The Other "Authoritarian Personality"

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Other "Authoritarian Personality""


1 Council. rrisricol ~ rhsrr~r~~ gron, DC: U. S,!'. pqcmr?.st[rti.slic.v YQ, ng Ol'lice. 190). New York: The Other "Authoritarian Personality" Bob Altemeyer University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Canada ull up from your memories those haunting,! spectacular scenes of the Nuremberg rallies. A huge crowd of ardent Nazis fills the stadium on Party Day. while on the podium Adolf Hitler feasts on their adoration. "To see the films of the Nuremberg rallies even today is to be recaptured by the hypnotic effect of thousands of men marching in perfect order. The music of the massed bands, thc forest of standards and flags... the sense of power, of force, of unity was irresistible" (Bullock 1962, p. 379). A decade after all that power, force, and unity awed the world, the worst war in histoly and a Holocaust later, many of the Nazi leaders stood trial in Nuremberg for crimes against humanity. As the world learned of the horrors ravaged upon Europe by the Third Reich, people trying to grasp the barbarity and the millions of deaths asked, "Why?" A psychoanalyst, Er-ich Fromm (1941), had already given an answer. He argued that the Nazi regime arose from a sickness in the German people. The leaders on the podium at the Nuremberg ral- : lies and the vast crowds of faithful followers be- 1 fore them allegedly manifested the two faces of the sadistic-masochistic personality. This one illness drove both groups, Fromm proposed, lock- / ing them into a dominance-submissive authori- tarian embrace. 1 This explanation and psychoanalytic theory in general helped shape the famous "Berkeley" research program on authoritarianis~l~ (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950). While Sanford and his team did not include an "authoritarian dunzinario17" trait in their model of the prefascist personality to complement the "authoritarian submission" trait that did appear, it is clear from several items on the Fascism Scale that the research team thought the authoritarian personality would both submit arid dominate. Adorno's sti!l-cited metaphor of the bicycle rider who bows from the waist up and kicks from the waist down sums it up (if you overlook the F~ct that one does not kick at anything when pedaling a bicycle).. The Submissive Personality But a funny thing happened to research on authoritarianism after t almost never studied domination, but instead focused on the many people in our qociely who seem ready to submit to a Hitler. This focus makes scnse in that wanna-be tyrants in a democracy are just comical figures on soapboxes when they have no following. So the real fascist threat lay coiled in parts of the population itself, it was thought, ready someday to catapult the next Hitler to power with their votes. So investigators studied the submitters. Research has since painted a fairly clear picture of those most vulnerable to the appeal of "a man on horseback." A< measured by the Right- Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale (Altemeyer, 1981, 1988, 1996; see Exhibit 1 for the latest version), right-wing authoritarians believe strongly

2 86 r Political Psychology in submission to established authorities and the social norms these authorities endorse. They also believe in aggressing against whotnever these authorities target. This personality structure. observable by early adulthood and better explained by social learning than by psychoanalytic theory. is thought to develop during adolescence from earlier training in obedience, conventionalism, and aggression, as modified by the individual's subsequent experiences. Adult authoritarians tend to be highly ethnocentric and heavy users of the "consens~~al validation pill" (Newcomb, 1961). They travel in tight circles of like-minded people so much, they often think their views are commonly held in society, that they are the "Moral Majority" or the "Silent Majority." t has been hard to miss the evidence that certaln kinds of religious training have some times helped produce their ethnocentrism a authoritarianism. High RWA5' thinking. based more on memc zation of what authorities have told them than independent. critical appraisal. tends to unintegrated. highly compartmentalized, and r with inconsistencies. Authoritarians harbor ma double standards and hypocrisies-seemin& without realizing it-which lead them to "speal out of both sides of their mouths" from one citua tion to another. For example, they will procla' n their patriotism and love of democracy at the dr 'OP of a hat. Rut they also seem ready to chuck m~ ost of the Bill of Rights, and no matter how many tin les they say the Pledge ofallegiance, they never set to notice its coda, "with liberty and justice for a EXHBT 1. The 1997 Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale This survey is part of' an investigation of gcneral public opinion concerning a variety of social will probably find you agree with some of the statements, and rii,sacqr.i,e with others. to varying extents. Please indicate your reaction to e statement by blackening a bobble on the bubble sheet. according to the following scale: Blacken the bubble labeled Blacken the bubble labeled -4 if you very.strorrg!): disagree with the statement. -3 if you stronglj disa,qrec with tlie statement. -2 if you nioclercrtc,ly disagrce wit11 the'statement. - if you.rli,qhtlv disajirec with the statement. + if you.slightly agree with the statement. +2 if you ~nodc,ratelv a,qrep with the statement. +3 if you srron~k agree, with the statement. +4 if you ver;r. stronglj ogwe with the statcrnent. f you fccl exactly and precisely rlerctral about an item. blacken the "0" bubble. You may find that you sometimes have different reactions to different parts of a statement. For example. you might very strongly disagree (-4) wit11 one idea in > statement, but slightly agree (+) wit11 another idea in the same item. When this happens, please combine your reactions, and write down how you feel "on balance" (i.e., a -3 in this case). ( t 1. The established authorities gencrally turn out to be right about things, while the radici~ls and protectors are usually just "loud n~ouths" showing off their ignorance. 2. Women should have to promise to obey their husbancls when they get married. 3. Our country desperately needs a mighty leader who will do what has to be done to destroy tlie radical new ways and sinfulness that are ruining us. 4. Gays and lesbians are just as healthy and moral as anybody else.* 5. t is always better to trust the judgment of the proper authorities in government and religion than to listen to the noisy rabble-rousers in our society who are tryiug to create doubt in people's minds. 6. Atheists and others who li:~ve rebelletl against tlie established religions are no doubt every bit as good and virtuous as those who attend church regularly.* 7. The only way ourcountly can get through the crisis ah1 is to get back to our traditional vdlues, put some tot leaders in power, and silence the troublemakers spre ing bad ideas. 8. There is absolutely nothing wrong with nudist camps." 9. Our country rwed.~ free thinkers who will have the courage to defy traditional ways, even if this upsets many people.* 10. Our country will be destroyed someday if we do nolsm ash the perversions e:~ting away at our moral fiber and tr: rditional bcliefs.. Everyone should have their own lifestyle, religious beliefs, aritl sexual preferences, even if it rnakcs them different from everyone else.* 12. The "old-fashioned ways" and "old-fashioned values"!,... show the best way to live. 13. You have to admire those who challenged the law and

3 aq 01 pual Laql pue 'sapm!lle ~!LLO[O~~.,an!ieA.las 01 uo!ss!urqns.r!aq~ uo pascq asuas 1c31Soloq3iCsd [1?!3os r! u! ase.ryd aql 8ysn ulr! 1 'soc!jcl!.roqlnr! Su!i~l-~z/h'!~ sur?!jcl!lorlinn 5'u!~-lqS!.1 lie3 1 uaqm ';s.raii!~ pail?ug!saa s,pof)., sc sa!l!l!lsoq pampu! -n?aj.r!arl] ino 13c 01 uraqi saa?ala.r put? 'saslndru! a~!ssa~ssc.l!aql sly!~lu!s!p ssausnoalrl9!.1-~las!q~.(rro!ssajuo3 01 Su!oS sc rims) s~olc~od~~a l[!ns lua13!jja Lsa~ allros pur? '~L!u!R.~ sno!8!la.r ~!aql 'uo!ldanap-jlas Lq pap /(lqc~ap!suo3 uo!ldan~ad -$[xi r!--s.~aqlo rrcil, Su!puclsdn pup ~c.roru aloru -O!A puu i!aa u~oq uo!i31-ulsap-j[as JO yu!sq aql uo sjalaal Llapos se 'axld sno~a2ucp u se p[.roln aql aas lay^.pajc3s an? SQM~ rlz!q 'isq'.~.slrraur!~ad -xa Lq s.raylo ueql a.rour passalq uaaq aaeq s.rol3uj OM^ ing.uo!ssa~8%c uc!.rel!.loqlnc Qu!M-~~!J J( s1oo.r le3!zoloynlsd Luvm az!saylodly r1e3 auo.uamom pallnossc Lllenxas aaer 01 Llay!~ a.rom a.lam salcru V M q3!~ ~ lerll pirno. (~661) /CaSU!tl() pue 'am0~'jay(2m pur! (7661 Lasuyn2) puc.ray1?,~'a~ou~.rai~~.rn~ iwal\lasruaq Su!pnlnu!-jo yu!ql uc3 nol dno~z L~E lsourl~ aln3as.1ad luau~u.ra~oz ayi d[aq 01 Xpca.1 icla~!lr! a.1c LaqL '~uarr~!.radxa lue~s~!,q-!u!ur e u!.raq3: e sr! Bu!~.ras uaym sy3oqs 1nj.lamod alom.lai\!l Laql sc ~su~~urooq at11.ramor 01 pual Laq~ 'slno!ru pal3!~uo3 110 a3ualuas sscd puc azpnr Lcld 03 pa: uaqm '001 'srro!l3a~!p Jaqio u! ys!y s v ~ ~S!H a 'p!p C: ujcal 01 ~UCM OU op Larp 'as!pnfa.rd jo a.nseau c uo iclqs!q a.1o3s Lay] j! icql Les ualjo [!M Layj.]no pug 01 UBM Kaq~ op.on.3!.1lna30uqla Lla~! -elaj ale Laql azgca.1 L~lensn OU op Larll in8.sic -8!q L~!onuoddo [unba aq 01 ulaas Laq~ 'sa!l!jou!u Lireu~ os p~emol al!lsoq ajr! day1 way1 L! ',y3!y, JO Llrrald aacr1 os~muepcipoqlnc 2u!~-iqS!~ 11!1\,san1nn par -pnaids SJaqCU: q8uol amos ~ nd peaqn s!s!rn aq~,pauanai c! Lay SUJ~>S 6-1 a41 q.7!11+3 JOJ 'ulal! i!o~~-uo> : salos!pu!,.rrnjq a%oodsa~ p+ ol t- agl par! lall?ul 1Xlclln.; 7111 ql!n U ~ ~ U O ~ X1 S ~ ar!ll?!l!lurj dl~ll 01.,Sl31,9S-3lql!l,, all? i pill? L(L1J 'P72JOY >F ZC-f ! ~[UO 'aon.u!~!m 1~10.1~ LJU~OS sno 2u!oos!od s! ~cql 10.1 aql no dulols dlag 01 LW!!D ~!]o!.llcd X~ana jo X~np 141 aq [!M!..'pnaqr! os,, all] sn an!:: slnpcal ~uaruu~rmoe Jno '!,\~?qaq i!aq~ uia,\o? O.,salnJ.. U,MO.~!aq~ aycm 01 puc 'ayq 1+11op 6aq1 s?u!q11su!e41!.1sa1oid 01 ruop -aaq.1a]ra.12 a.jt!rl Xupoi aldoad 8unoh r:ql nj.lapuom s! 11 ' E ;lscd arll u! X[~~!JS a'uolaq suo!luahuoo [r:!nos put spucqsnq -1!aqlol a41ss1mqns ajn uatuom uaqm s6rp 01 SU!M 2qs. ~A;).~~M aq plnoqs..mold s.unmo.n,. v.qlcd an11 JnO 01 73l?q Sn 10% pill: SJ~~l!Ul3~q~Oll 21j1 panu!u!a day j! p.'!~!lsnr aq plno,w sp01~1?m 1sa9 -UOJS aql.sno!jas os 4u!11a4 s! hlunonjno u! uo!lcnl!s 2111 ' 6 ~ *.mol[oj aldoad Jaqlo qnym asoql unql Ja![oq io Jallaq Xuc X~~~crsaa~u OU a~r! q3!q~ smolsno lsnr am Jo!naqaq cnuas puc Xlsapom lu!p~1?4a~ salnr inojo lo[ v '8Z :laplo put! ~ r2~12sald l PUT: SpJRpUClS clom Jno aal:s 01 4~10% a.rt! am J! sjayt:wqqnoii pur! sdno~9 lun!.tap 110 ~ap~cq u.wop ~ S C 01 J ~ ah1:11 >M MO~S 111: ~.13p~os!p oqqnd lua33j 3111 pllr! '~l![~.loll~lll! Rnk'lS 'all!.l> 110 SlJt!J 2qL 'L;,.ll.>ql losu?n Ol lamod ail1 aheg 1uomu~a~o8 aq1 1" 1" 1" ssa!l!unrumoo Jno [! slalqdulrd 1n3!p1?.1 pull S?!Z:~UU iqs~!.~~ a~nq 01.1a11aq s.11 ' 9 ~.Kl!un U! SJ2pl!Jl.ll0 ~u!mo[(~~ all0-6~a~a rll!~ *au![d!ns!p S 1.v011t sp~au d.11u1105 in0 1nq.n,;[:JOLLL~ prm ~JOU s! XM JO sp.~r!pun~~r:ucfi~ad umo ~!aq) dolanap pcalsu! purl 'anuop!nz sno!s![a.l jo sulioj p~o Jaqlo sgl pul! a[q!g aql ol no!iualll? ssal di?d plnoqs?[doad.uo!lsc lo mo ~ nd plnoqs sa!l!joqlnc all1 UOLM 'sasod -~nd ssa[po;i uh\o~!aql.loj! 1r:n.l 01 %L!~J a~r! oqm 'Xl?pol h~unos Jno u! aldoad njourm! 'lc31poi duoa~ a.rr a~aq~ '[Z.dla!aos o! anold [t!uo!l!pc.l~ s,dn0~4.~!aq~ 1dan3n puc dn nqs lsnrp[nom s.~ayriualqnon JO sdnoiz U!!llanJ! JallJq 101! YJOM pln0m i(jl~llo3 S'!lL.,:san[cn L~!UPJ RO!!~S..,.Ljap 01 qsnoua ano.rq Su!aq ~ oj pas!~:~d aq plnoqs sls!u!lu~j pun ~~1:XaSOlll~H *.LvM u.110 i!aq] ale scq Xpoqd-~a~a :aj![ an!l 01..Len\ lqb!~ NO,, ou S! as"l.~u~k.~a:, Su!u!n~ a.n. oqm,,salddl: ualloi,, aq1 jo p!i 12% pur! 'Op Ol sn 1131 S~!!JO~~C ?q~ Op 'S.l3qlt!J2JOJ Jno jo S~VM a111 ~ouoq am J! ~r?ai% aq ~!M A.11i1non.!no *'asj03 -Jaw! cnxas [i?l!mrua~d ~!M 31101~ Ru!q~ou s! ajai1.l.11?!1211xu %u!~sn$s!p plrc hqsi?~] uo sptir?q.1!aq1 la2 OU pinon aldoad lcql or sau!zcr~u~ pajosua.7 sa!l!joqlnn iado~d aql j! auod~a,\a JOJ lsaq aq plnom 1,paqs!und XlSrlorls 2q lsn~u maql yeajq oqm 2soql put? 'ale1 on1 s!! aiojaq psmolloj d11n!~ls aq snu1 a%c!n~~u pur.dqdr!~zon~od 'uo!l~oqn noqr! smcl s,pot) 'Y1,.;auop aq 01 pasoddm a ~c spu!ql LPM ~!UJO,, a111 Bu!Jou -3 puc 'uo!2!la~ Su!z!3!1!.1n 'luaulu~a.~o4 no Bu!2ua[lW" ale o q xoq~ ~ OJ! Lrlunon Jno u! ardoad 1s3q 2q1 JO 2llf0S ' rr qcd 9n.u ino ol yneq sn aqi!i pur 'l!aa ~!M oqm JVP"~ pau!u~alap s9uo.~~s n s! spaau ~llnai,<~lunon Jno 1w.a '..~adr!~d[ooqns rls!loq~! 01.lo.clq2!~ cm!rlr -1q '~lq?!~ UO!lJOqV S,U?UOM JOJ ;?u!~saloid 6q M2A <,kl!jor~lu a41.6'[lc ~oj a3!lsr uaas JaAau i(: saur!] Lucw M lsoru ysnq3 c do~p aq11e L:! ur!epo~d [[N -cnl!s auo mc?cads,, 01 ur: L1Srr!ruaas-- AU?LU JoqJeq q.1 puc 'paz! aq 01 spua) uo ucql maql -uomau~ uo :

4 'O!1V!J)SFV 183 OO.~~<S~ lll?3ljlllv 3111 JO ~~!SV!lll.lad L!M p~~l.ltl3~ all? SlU?l! 2111.;onrld l!arll u! (~1sdno.18 JO!JqU! J!NO l?l1jq aq plno,\! XJluno~ S!qL,. par:,:load 01 pnlouucqn oq plnoqs?an.liocsr sl! jo '?asl!nj3rl! qllnarn lluno3 l: sy, :patldojp Allnnlil~na o.1a.n lrql lood ma,! (~661) s;ln la c~d luo~l slu2malrls O.\,:sJall~s-alql?l,. z pun 1 rruall sv 'paw oslr :m3l!!l!ll-uoj pull l!?~l-old 3141 pnx!rjal! s.7!pnls i(lu 111.p3513~ s! Aay du!~o~r all1 q~!q.n,101 'u~a~! :J-~OJ! salo3!pu! :rajon ;s(cnha st? sa!jlnnon.raylo lca.11?m lnql B~JO~U! s! 11 *('/(ll~?nha palna.ll aq plnoqs sur:mnq 11~) 'alq!ssod qnnw sn slnnha sr!.iaqloun auo inall oi Ail plnorls 3M ;[enha aq plnc'm srro!leu [[? 'plio~[nap! un 111 'Z,:,6~inno3 s!q~ u! srualqoid.raq aanq pplnom am K1ll:nhn g~oru poina.11 a.nm aldoadi~. *,A~!~nnhg.()..Ai!lellba ltyos paseai3u.(j ;X~!lrliba J!tuotrosa pasr!alnul.g 'slal~10 uo dals 01 /(.rcssanau saul!lauros s!! 'aj!l u! pnaqn la: o~.l.s.~aqlo 01.O!J~,J~! ~sn[a.m aldoad aulos '9 'slaqlo 11~41 ajq u! ax1eq3 r! jo ajom aaeq aldo& aruos J! ulalqo~d 1: lou r! 11.S.s.lsqlo ~iccll ;7~1!aias>p alom lsnr 3.11: oldoad aulos.t/.alaaz aldoad 111: lnnba ~ o q noqrssrjl pa.ics 1.~ ;! JJO iaiiaq aq ~~AZ A.11r1non s!q~.e.sla[plio ui:rli L~JOM 1.10~1 isli[ a.rn aldoad s[~:~~haaqiiou.(ld~u!s an? aldond jo sdnois atuos ra~d n!uqla ql!~ sd!qsuo!~cla~ OaS 'nln3! aql JO dsoloil3icsd aql a~nldc3 oi a.roiir!pnls ducur u! pasn uaaq dpca.rle scq alex -U03 SCM! lanucir!urop uc!jcl!joqlnc jo a.rnsuaur as arll 's.roiuai\u! si! jo ic2~aua aqlol syucil~ poo3 c uaaq Jai\au scq alms VMX aql n8,;liraur.qs!q SF! 1sour i pa~o~d (iirs!]e~.rasuon 3!Luono3a-~c3!l!~od jo -u~a~oz L! sa!lpoqlne lado.rd., Laql 'llc.raijl? fsma!h y3us ql!~nnuo3--sarr!seru! auo 's~cnp!~.rnscaiu snollcn puc 'iuau~qs!und ~s!dl?n jo ~ ~ o d -!pi]! aa!ss!ruqns jlc 1e leu-s~aycru~al aruos in41 11s '.1e~j[n9 ail1 jo 1.roddns 'slqzp s'uaurow 'sa!3 pas!~d.tns aq louun3 am os ';..,luaruu~a~os ul say -!lad le!31?1 load aql Su!p.rl?Sa.r sa!~![od 1e!3os '.S.a) -!.roqlnc.rado.rd aql jo 1uaurSpnr ail1 1sn.11 ol.raliaq sapnl!ac luci\ala.i.raillo ql!~ suo!lnauuo3.rns!3c~ slc~le s!,, 'aldrucxa ~ oj :as~opua plno3 suos.rad y3clg-!luc puc 'as!lqo assalqoujo uo!j3afa~ r! 'rus! ~ucu!urop pun ai\!ss!iuqns qloq ~eql sural! srr!~?luos -]!la ~c.11111nn 'rirs!~o!.r~cd'~us!~cuo!~u jo Sarnscau alms V M aql ~ '! a.rojq ap?3s LUS!~SCJ aql ayg qi!~ (0s. laho Ll[cnsn) SUO!~~~J.O~ a~!ssa.rdw! LJ~A auos dn 2ire.11sa1 arli 'punq jar110 ail1 "0 '( S96 1 'uos -y3c[) LJO, qn.reasay icl!leoos~ad uosy3ef ail] pur? (1861 'qzno9) d.roirra~u1 Li!leuos.rad c!u~oj!le3 aqi qloq uroq sale3s a~ucu!moa aql qi!~ '1uc3 -!j!uz!suou dllrnsn 'SZ' ucqi ssq S-' pa~apua~ oslv m.ro3soas.cjj7 ~6 ql!~ucsg!us!s icllc3!!l!lod u! uo!suaur!p an!len.rasuo+]waq!l aql jo a.rnscalu lnjla~od ]soiu.n0 sap!ho.rd a[cns aql s.rcadde! 'ic~ua~s~suoa ~euralrr! jo s1a.q L.i-eu!p~oe.rl -xa qnns ~!M alens VMZJ aql J~MSLE sire!3!l!lod OU) q1oq pajamsl1e lcql aldurcs au0 aq1 U! p[ ' LUO 'dlluu!~'s~c1 ~ O J ~ ~aqsnol U O asoddo ~ ~ ~ Laql puc paiu[a.i~o3 salcss \ir~x pi~c OaS aqi 'KlSu!p~o33\ir 'luaruqs!und 1cl!de3.OA!J Laq~ 'uo!ljoqe uo sue!] 'a~ucu!urop lcuos~ad.ralu! pun urs!uc!~cl!~oql~ie -a!ur!l ]~!JS asodu~! 01 luc~ Laq~ 'slrls!r( JO llloq 111o.rj luajajj!p Su!qlauros dcl ol aql u! paaluc~en8 sruopaay.raylo puu 'Llqruasse l!nq sv.~ alcnsoas "1 'sa!pnls luapnls Jaho 30 ~qs!.r aql 'ssa.rd aql jo wopaay 'qnaads jo ruop "7dola~ap ic[[nja.ru3 '(zt.1 'd) "lc"qn.rl:.ia!q sns -Say?n!1!~ug smcl ssed pinon daql qs!~ pun 'an!p 3~ 'lnnba aq o] suo!~n[a.r qnns waja~d Lllc~aua2 -nfa~d u!.raqz!q a.lons oslc sjayculmc[ V M qg!~ ~ lo laqlaqm Su!lna~~al 'suo!lc1a.r dno.rslaln! p.1~~01.op s~c~nouraa/s~c~aq!~ )!lnlua!ro [cu!pnl!nc 1n~aua4 c,, dc~ 01 (z vq!q L~!pl:UcJ/S]CJ~OKlaa MaN llc!pl?ur3 UCq] a[cos 3) alcns (OaS) uo!iwim!l~ anucu!moa [c!nos V M aq1 ~ iro.xaqs!rl iuoo-r.sq~ooq 211!1o~ all1 u! 1 pa1ca.c ( ~66 ) atnl/\ [ x~~q~.~orn[~~:l~ 'sn!ul?p!~ s.ra~.roddns.1!aq1 ay!l 'sun!n!i!lod ul?s!~q~iday~ir~~oj!unp!s w!r pin? oncjd ~?!n!lad.lalug -ad Uc!pl?ll~3/X!lVA.~SUO3 Ll?!Pl?UcJ ]l?ql PlnOj !a a~ucu!iuop qons jo alnsrsur poo2 c pap!~o.rd as13 ~Ll!1[1011 's! a[qno.ll 3qJ, 'PMOJ32A!SS!UlqnS anuq salcvj pal!un aql u! salnlcls!?al alcls aql ~lr: icl.mau puc cpcoc3 u! sa.inle[s!sa1 aqljo lsom jo?;a! -pus 'mj 111,.'lq2!1,, 1cn!i!10d aql uo pa~o~~nanuon

5 The Other "Authoritarian Personality" 89,thing else h hniinance iatiius. Pratto, 94) created the )O) scale (Ex- ~al orientation ~g whether one be equal, ver- ly developed cale was built from botl- 11 dominance ales correlatec jered both (not ). SDO scores ly nonsignififrom both the Cough, 1987) :h Form (Jack- up some very )ver 50) with 1, cultural elitand anti-black evant attitudes lor, racial poli- Gulf War, sup- OUS measures m) proved al- tors, the SDO my studies. n ethnic preju- equal." :quais as much as :d equally.)* trics as equals.:r c scoring key is rcnd con-rmit itcms. blcmcnls frotil Pratlo ped: "A< n counlry'.: bc channeled lo th~. fcrior groups s~ayed :, sexism, militarism, punitiveness. and conser- [ism usually appeared as predicted when the ale was tested in Canada, China. srael. Mexico.,,3W Zealand. and Taiwan (Pratto, Liu. Levin, <idanius, Shih. & Bachrach, 1996). n another itudy, persons ridin, commuter trains were clevkrly involved in an experiment that contirrned student-based findings that people would hire High SDOS for positions that serve the interests of privileged groups, and Low SDOs for jobs that serve oppressed groups. ndependently of this. subjects also tended to hire men for the "hierarchy-enhancing" roles, and shunted women into hierarchy-dirninishing positions (Pratto, Stallworth. Sidanius, & S1c -':rsl 1997). Many studies have found that men score : higher than women on the SDO scale in almost every culture tested thus far. - Re -:cause Felicia Pratto shared some of her prelirnin lary results with me, quickly discovered that the S DO scale dominated the RWA Scale when it came : to explaining prejudice. n a March 1993 study involving 187 undergraduates at my school, RWA correlated.48 with answers to the Manitoba Ethnocentrism scale-a 20-item instrument measuring hostility toward aboriginals, Arabs, Asians, Blacks, Francophones, Jews, and so on, th;~ con- sider my best niensure of general prejudice among "white" Manitobans (Exhibit 3). But an early 1 Y- itern version of the SDO scale banged out an eyepopping.71 with the sum of such pre.judices! RWA and SDO correlated 38. Put in my place and impressed-if not stunned- never considered what the two scales could do together. A. The McFarland and Adelson (1996) Study EXHBT 3. The 1997 Manitoba Ethnocentrism Scale Enter Sam McFarland and Sherman Adelson, who employed 438 Kentucky students and 283 nonstudent adults in a grand pitting experiment featuring 22 different psychological measures. Three of these assessed prejudice against Blacks, women, and homosexuals, and a fourth scale tapped patriotic attitudes. Abbreviated versions of 18 personality tests that had shown some connection with prejudice. including the RWA and SDO scales, composed the rest of the longish booklet. The researchers wanted to see how much of the "target" prejudice/patriotism scores could be explained by these personality tests.. f we don't watch out. Asians will control our economy have m;~inly brought disease, ignor;incc, and crimc with and we'll bc the "coolies." them. 2. We should take in more refugees fleeing political perse- 13. Every person wc let in from o\,crseas me;lns either an- cution by rcprcssive governments.* other Canadian won't bc ;~ble to find a joh, or another! 3. Arabs are too emotional, ant1 they don't fit in well in our foreigner will go on welfare licre. country. 14. Ci~n;ld>~ should guarantee that French language rights exist 4. f Sikhs who join the RCMP want to wcar turh:lns in- cross the country.* stcad of the usual hat, that's fine.* 15. t is a wastc of limc to train certain r;iccs for good jobs: is good to livc ill il coilnlry where thcre ac so many they simply don'^ have the drive and determination it takes i minority groups present, such as Blacks, Asians, ant1 to learn a complicated skill. ;~boriginals.:% 16. Canada has much to fear fro111 the Japanese, who are as 6. Thcre are entirely too many people from the wrong sorts cruel ;S they are ambitious. of places being adrnittcd into Canada now. 17. There is nothing wrong with interm:~rriagc among the 7. "Foreign" religions likc Buddhism, Hinduism. and slam races.:' ;ire just ns good as Christianity, all things considered." 1s. Ahoriginal people should keep protcsling demonstrat- 8. As a group :iboriginal people are naturally lazy, dishon- ing un~il they get jus~ treatment in Canada." est. and lawlcss. 19. Many minorities arc spoilcd; if they really wanted to im- 9. The morc we ct people from all over the world into our prove licir lives. they would gct,iobs and gct off wclfure. country, the he~ter.* 20. t is a sad fact that many minorities have been persecuted 10. Black pcople are. by their na~ure. more violent and "primi- in our country, and sollie arc still lreated very unfairly.* tive" than others. 1. Jcws can hc trusted as much ;is everyo~ic else.'"?. The peoplc from ndia who have recently come to Canada Norr.* indicates : con-~r;~ir ircm. for which the scoring key is rcvcrsed.

6 'SL' 01 iira!n!~~aos aql paisooq.rapuaf) 3nue '9661 '.~alaurailv) alens urs!.rluanourllg eqol!ucq lea alqe!lal aql jo jso~u pau!c~dxa u!r?sr! OL. jo aql.alcns urs!~o!.r~cd s!rl puu 'uaurom d!llnm r!arll ~ M uaq~ X 'oas ~ L U SJ!+J C ~,;x!s pue 'sy3r?18 'slenxasomoq ~su!csa an!pn[a~d runs,, arll 1oj sllrisal awes ail1 la2 no/( 'aldures s!ql u! Li!p![ma[qt?uo!~sanb sl! ~M rus!~o!.rlcd do.rp puc 'sia2lcl aql 01 sarons naqano puc 'leu -!3!loqv 'ws!~ioanourl~g paz!p.reput?]s aql Su!ppe Xq uo!lez!le.rarra3.rod s!scq aqi napco.rq no/( j~.4u!lrrnonnc s!ql 01 sa!urrad Lluo ppe non salens Su!u!cura.r aql ' 9~' ol. a[d!llnur aql yea aapira9.salcmaj ueql axpn[a.rd aroru 4u! jo sa.rnscaru s'pnc[.rc+~a11\1 :salqcl.rca 1a8.11?1 Jnoj aql auren nayl.aleas C]!xaldmo3 cuo!lnq!r1lv (9861) s,lapaax puc 'uos.~a~ad 'zapueura,~ ' s n e ~ o ".rarln]a[+j ~! ~ ~ p!p st? 'pamolloj luau1 -n.rlsu! rrraalsg-jlas a~!lna1103 (~661) s,.ray30.1-~ Plrc uauelqn? '(09 -LS ' 'dd '8861 '.ralauraj[v) ssausnoalqs!r-jlasjo alnseaw Kru puc alcn~ p1.10~ sno.ra4uca Lru jo UO!~A~. c pajams -,woqs ir!e8c salcm qi!~ 'p.r!ql L! ~LU?H~SS,~~[~~S -ue sluapnls uaqj 'alaq su~a3uon rno 01 paiclalirn ('1~' palcnba. ald!llnur.r!arll 's! ~ c!pnra.rd ~ ) sapnl!ilv (cluauruo.r!aua jo La~~ns c ~!M ucsaq 1p.13~0 JO %OS.roj palrrnonoe asny.71?d r? sn V M ~ '.ralul slcp OM] palaldiuon '1ayooq puonas aql puc OaS lcql punoj 'sanue!.rcn prrc sunaru lcnba 'sisal asail1 [?.ramstre 01 -un.roj OJL~~ 01 sa.103~ alp SU!Z~~.~~?S r31~e salnu!ur 09-0s Suapnlwsour TOO]! 'suo!lnn.rlsu! '(,,rues JO wns,?) s1w1.rnoj s~pirr!1~c~n11\1 rtres jo ql!~.lalyooq ail1 papua arnscaur urs!n!lor~nlsd tuns arll jo s!s/(lcuc uo!ssar2a.r v.pir!qaq asuws!p (9~67) s.ynuaslg puc ynuaslg.luaiun.rls 1s alcns V M aql ~ Sir!~ea[ 'salnscairr la8.rc1 Jnoj -u! uraalsg-jlas (~961) s,3.1aquasoa tray] 'pamo1 :~!M sd!qsiro!ir!~a.r 11cla.40 lsaq aql peq sarons -104 alcns a.rninn.rls JOJ paan (~661) s,ua!ra.o s ayj 's4ir!pu!j s,uoslapv prrt?pirr!\1 pue 'sauucrlo~'plog 'ral(crlns,;sadk~ anlei\,,,..,~3!1ds.r d1suo.11~ sllnsa.1 arll 'sa.rtiscaur $0 ajnsearrr (~661) \z].1cmi13~ U! srrla]! ay] jo 95 A~!~trros.rad rll~m axpnfa~d 2u!u!eldxa JOJ sv 11" pire 'pa.readde altos,y, lsnf EL^ 1) s,ncldad.i!q c al!nh lnoqr! panunoq 'Knua]s!suon puc tr!qna uaql 'ajnscaur OaS ail] puc alcss leu.ralu! s~! sc llam sr! lsal r! jo q12ual aql 13a~a.r VhiX aql Jo lo!sjaa 9661 all1 Lq PaM0lo.l '(2661 M 'scqdlc /(1!1!qc!laH ~ms!~o!.rlt?d jo a.rnscaur 'ra2~aqsun~ 78.~aLawallv) alt?ns ius!quarircp ol aql puc 'salcns urs!n!loqnlsd puc p[.roh\ aql Su!aq sno!ldanxa ar11 'suo!lcla.r.lon wal!.ra1u!,juu3 palsod salcns aql jo ~sow ilt~sa~alu! 1c.11 -ua3 jo sd!qsuo!l~:la.r aql puc &paw sarnseaw aql -unj sno!s!la~ c ql!~ ucsaq lalyooq arl] uo!ssas ls.ry arll ul.slaqlo "25 c snld 'pasn pnq uoslapv pur! slsaj ayl jo isoru jo suo!slaa 1lnj 341 pa.ra~stm Caql qn!q~ 4i1!.1np ~uaw!.radxa 30 sa!lrado~d n!.riaruoq3lsd aqi sluasa.rd 'p qqc~ uo!ssas-o~l v u! sluapnls LSo~oqnhsd K.rolnnporl -(! i?qol!ur?j/y psf paaloau! K~yn!nb 'pa~cu!ase+~,ala1dmo3 ol papq sjund!n!lmd 0,221 ~[n!q,n 'ainns rrrs!n!loqolsd aql ql!~ paj.rnoso ssol clr?p 1saZ~cl aql '2u~qlL~a,ta Lllcnl.~!~ pa.rams -ire sluapnls aq].cnsn sy.a[qclaru!~ Ll!sla~!un Sql trr 101s alnir!rrr-sl uoou.rauc uc Su!.rnp llcq a.rnl -331 c L! 0 ~ lnoqqo 1 sdno.19 u! paalas 'Su!sooq:, limo r!arll jo '..raqurnu la.rsas,, c Lq Lluo payluap! 'sluapnls!lda~ pa1sanba.r yn!q.~ 'arns -mu ssausnoa~q4!~-jlas aql pup 'sasuodsar Pal!,?!los qn!qm 'salens adl1 anlch aq] ldanxa s!seq b+ 01 p- c uo pa.ramsur: a.ram sisal at11 jo 1 1 ~ 'lalyooq s!rll 1aAzsrrn 01 salnir!ur 05-op wapnls sour yo01!.suo!~~nr~su! ~oj paau ~cul!u!w ql!~ '19ljooq arll papua La~.rns nrqde~2oruap r! puc alcns "!"uv (9~6 ) scalols.anuci\qa.r.rayl.~nj aoj lsa1 01 'asaql pamo[loj naqano puc s~r!u!2~roqc ~.?MO sapnl!nc JO salnscaur u~or4auroq put? (5~-tz.dd '(salwraj ucql paxp -nfard aroiu Su!aq S~~?U qi!~) salens Su!u!cruar aql1lejo pcarp 's~uapnls aq1 Suowe lxau uo!~cnba aql pa.ralua ~apua4 '~ncj L.[il?s.l~dLil p~ul S ~ ~ ~ J S onu asaql anuo q.7riu1 ~ ~. ~ ~.sisal AJO ay1ji auon.aldmcs qnca u! pg jo. ald!l -1nru e dl1 paa.ras pile an!pnfa.rd lcraao JO quaur -4as lual>jj!p pau!cldxa Lay1 's!sklcuc uo!ssa~4a.r e olu! uaqj payirn~d nok uaqm os '(LO' pue 1~') pa13auuon~a)u! Llarcq sisal o~t1 aql '~t' c paqslou SlaMSlr! v,ux a[!qm 'an!pnca.rd lc.ra,to j0 xapu! s'uoslapv puc puclrr?gsp~ qym 05. lnoqc palc[alron saao~ OaS.saldrucs qloq u! aldru!s L[.ralln pa~o-rd Llacu4 a~!nb uaaq a ~cq plnoo rlo!qnz sl[nsaj aql

7 '0 TABLE 4.1. Results of the September 1996 Study Psychometric pro~erties.. Preiudice toward Mean No. of inter-item "Sum of Corr. with Corr. \ Scales items corr. Alpha Homosex. Blacks Women Patriotism "Sum of Sam" Six" social dom. RW Social Dominance Orientation Right-Wing Authoritarianism Just World Need for Structure ll Self-Esteem Psychoticism Collective Self-Esteem Attributional Complexity Value: Conformity OO.40 Security OO Power Achievement OO OO.01 Hedonism Stimulation OO Self-Direction Universalism Benevolence lo lo Traditionalism Spirituality Religious Fundamentalism Dangerous World OO.49 Self-Righteousness ll Anomie Subject's Sex Prejudice toward Homosexuals Blacks Women Patriotism Ethnocentrism Attitudes toward Aboriginals Attitudes toward Quebec Notes. "Sum of Sam" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward Homosexuals. Blacks. Women, and Patriotism scales. "Sum of Six" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward Homosexuals, Blacks, Women, Ethnocentrism. Aboriginals, and Quebec scales. Subject's sex was coded 0 = female. 1 = male.

8 / -ua~uo3 jo saa.rsap pay.ruiu ~orls /Carl] op.rou 'sa!) : -!~oqlm 01 Su!nzo)mo~ asjopua /(]~l?ln3!l.rd 1011 op soas q8!q 's~~4y q8!q ay!lun 'os '/(la~!l3u!ls!p i 1sal ay) lamsuc OU p!p haql as!m.raqlo n8 '(11 plll? 'X 'p 'SON "Z.3) 33111:J2lO] QL!~DOAPV SU3U -alcls Lqjjo paujnlajam Kay1 puc '(1 ~!q!rlxg u! ZE,;.. ~se.iluo=> pue a~edwo3,, prru $62 'EZ '01 'SON "8.a) /(l!l!lsorl sulos paqsclj r?rl] sruai! pay![ /(?L~ piry nol'q(c3s VMH aqj 01 "ialdoad S.13MSUR J!21[1 au!lu?xa lol UaqM ;loll /(q~,,'9n[3 1.q /(11i?a sau~!iamos uc3 intll S~~O[C~!)~T?.~ Lorrra wx,, 3111 V Quolaq on op s.~o~ou!rrrop [e!sos lsozir no/( oa,. pua,,;,no/( jo p!v.rju aq ol aldoatl ~aqio '11!1~'alcx OaS arli uo al!l,lunh do1 ayl 111 paocld ayq nol p[nom,, sr! sural! rlons ql!~ suo!13autron (uo!]nq!.rls!p V M aql ~ jo sal!)lcnb ruvlloq prrc do1 OaS uo pascq Lpsour s c a11?ns ~ rus!n!loqsicsd sliol arll '.a.!) (1 ) SMO~ S? (CE) SVM~ q21~ /(ut?ur sr! -nqarr arl] y )!~ iro!lcla.r.ron PC. aql 'rr.rnl u1,;(prrem salu!l aajl[l :~~U?~~UZ!S [r:3!1s!lv]s 11aqnr:3.1 /(psua -UW pur? peal ol 1q4!.1 ayl) AlxOHLnv., pup Lpms s!ql u! ZZ'.lo uo!lu[x~.m~.r!aql ','(asrrw!wop 's.raqlo Ja'io lo~luos) ~ g ~ '7~13 o d A~aplduro:, ~ JS~!G. E OM) aql /(us 01 lou st L\3!qM -os,, sc srual! 4311s Lq passasse-~amod Ztr!nlc~.suc!.lni!.roqlnn sir!^ L!M lua!3g~ao3 ~ p arll. alon ' 'P alq~?~ u! samscaui -li18!.1 u! paqlmaun aherl sa!pnls sno!~a.ld 1cql sloo.1 /(l!lwoos.rad.rarlio aq) ~!A suo!lt?[a.r~03 2~13 [c3!30loq3lsd aurcs aq~ aacq lou saop a3!pnrard lr? yool no/( j! uo!isaqsns n ucql a.rom la:! noa.r!sig Su!iC~diu!-sma)q8!~-jlas sc L[.rcarr 3q ol cad.panloau! st anncu!wop 1r:uos.radlalu! 1cqi -dn iaql op.roil 'op sucpcl!.loqlnu sn sno.ra8ucp su slsaszns (,,r~arl~o uo dais 01 K.rcssa3au saw!laulos,cl~carr :u!aq py.10~ arli aas lair op soas qs!~l 'LlSu! s!! 'ajq u! pnaqd 1aS o~,,,) aps O ~ aql S uo sway -1!.17s al!nh ~'UV.OU op sue!.rnl!joll]nl? ~L!M-~L~!. arlljo auo n8.sasnq!uruo /Cl!lunos~ad M ruoy fuaur aq 01 prral s.rolcu!~uop ~C!~OS 'op.~a~~c[ al[l nq salv3s a~ueu~urop rll!~ suo!lsauuos OaS ou prrllql 'SUO!.!PCJ] ~L: h~1iu~~yi103 an1r.h loo?.lnl3nls paau (~66 1) '[? la OnCJd 'awl ja3lt?u!llop pnmv-rad~arli~ OU Op JaU1.lOJ aql 'Ll3llSMOACS!P SUt?!.lKl!.l0q)llF u! rlz'!q aq oslu plno~ soas rlz!y lcql alqnqo.~d nq 'rua~ll noqr! urs!rropail jo ds!~ c aai?q]cu uraas lou saop -pu!ur u! adllolo~d s!ql Srr!daay -!~uop le!sos 'jsc.rluoo u~.op s v ~ qq!q x 1nq "ual i\l\s!~ 'xt?lu alll 01 OaS noqc 1Wr "2Anq p(n0m -oaauaq aq 01 m!nln lou op apss OaS ail1 110 s-la.ra[l!~ ao!scru! nol sr? aps OaS aqi.lamsue pue 'Z -ons q5!q 'L~.n?~!rrr!~.a.rc Xllcnsn s y ~ 1[5!q a 1119 l!q!qxg 01 yxq 09 ~lqs!.r 'Q~aqura.ln~ 1c inn!pod 'sno!4!13~ Ll.~n[ny.rcd 1011 a.le soas i$!q 'Klql?lou aq] uo sa~nfhj aq.l ils.ri~ jo yrr!rll no/( op ruogm )sow.pod D u! scad alqwasa1 LPJVL~ sirt?!~~a!.~oqln~? 'ap!3ouasjo lu!od aql oi 'sdno.14 uaamlaq Cl!lcnba ~!M-~L~~!J PUP SJOCU!lUOp [C!31)S 1Cql 'p -u! palc3oapn lsou~ 3~uq o q SLOS.~~~ ~ aqijo yu!ql a[ql:l iuo~j 33s rrcn no/( 'Ja~amoq'ap!sn urs!~c~.ras nol LiaqM.pu!ur 01 ldcal 'pam!.rd rlaaq aacq no/( -uoo 11?3!1![od pup axpnfald u! sa!lpnlrlu!s qaql q3!q~.roj -s!saq~od/(y ail0 sjoicu!moa [?!" [.rraa~]aq ir! SJ~~?LUM:[ [u.r?q!~ ql!m '(05' = ) SJaqlU3ll dan llvl[l,$yc;7.11s ()as., -0s qs!q oqm 1110 a.rn';?!j ol pa!jl uaql pur: 'sa!l.lcd palsamlu! Xllna.r!p aql ~!M slllwaj asaql pajcqs 1ay.ll:p /(11~1?3!j!uS!s D pamoqs )uaurc!l.rnd 1c.rapaj agl 40 slaqwaru,l\-rcd rrrrojax put? '(1~' = -1) sir: -J"q ucyl.rarl;i'!q Lllrrn3!~!uS!s pajo3s a.rnlnls!';?al el.lqqly ayl jo s.raquraur[ood OaS [c!l!u! (t;f,(,[) s;[? la ollv~d ruo.1~ sluarualcls ;i'u!sn s~ol -cls!sa~ uc!pcirc3jo sxpnls t.66 [ OM u! pau!clqo ajam anrmu!urop pnos q]!~ s;;'u!prr!j m[!rrr!s] ~Llr!!.ll?l!.lo~l1lt? 311!~-]1l~f.l all1./(l%!]3~d~a. '0'Ot puvc'6e pa4p.1~~ prrc.rolcu!ruop 1~130s aq1 :pi).110,1~11,x~~?~!s~l/ 2~17 Slsl:!sni\~ua ~ Q N put? 11?maq!l arll al!qm -6'tp jo ;G!l~?lros.radJo sj7uq o.zti.i]rlo ~ LY.,il!/' ucaru r! pcy sai\!lcajasrro3 2q3 p.-~l-loddns orl~ asoql SJ~?~?~L~.i]ah'~r71 <hr/l 'uo~icnl!~ s!q] u! pasodxa 1 Fur.a[coS 2sirou!iuoa pnos qi uo 0.8~ p"c.ra~c as!pn[a~d jo sprr!y icunur ayl u!l?ldx.a 01 1unM no/( ~P~?L?~Jo /( W.OJ~ aql pa.m~cj oqm Lpnls s!qi!.rod.auo.ra~odla~o 'sa.rnsl:aur Jaylo qi!~ pur! U! qluapnls aql.aa!ll:i\.rasuoo icllcn!~!lod 4u!aq [! suo!lu[ndod.laq]o u!.rl:addca.r 11 plnoqs 'X.ranoos!p VM) q8!~ alqurasa.1 oslr! SOQS ' 1 % ~ 'on!p<a.rd s.rroslapv pup punl.rr:do/\!.lo suo!lr?~!ldu~! aql

9 ,;!~!~~ : unj O 1uauiu~a.lo4 J ~ JOJ a"!" y! U ~ ~ M -!.la aql '!CJ sa!ucdmo3 Lueru ~ ol q a % uni ~ ~ ail: sassau slo!llt~l!s 3.C Jl~q.~'Xl~ou(lX 3111 Jlll,(lll!a..14!M SM1:f 1"~llq pj3111? -!snq 41;~ arll sluamu~anos on.1 plnolls 04.w aldond.z 1 -ng,, pue.:s~ol!ns uaylrn.lp a911 Xxioo~ pusds pu1: 'Xmouo3a aql U.suo!ll!a~ sialedxcl arll son lcql pa.!lonri! 1~4 Xaql uaqm dn s?iu!q] Ysaul,(luo salouaric 3!lqnd,. :,,s'~a112s sqor s,bu!qlou op,, L1lcnsn sqof palva~3-1uarn11ia~o. -a[qcl.. riu!.k\ollflj aql ql!n? >less aqlu!ri?q 1 alq!ssod ianauar1.m.~~.;jja -3.1 s! is9 QU!.O~S 2q1 q>!t].n JOJ.11151!!OJ-UOD c sa~ea!pi~! 'sasnns ssal *.(.ZON uo Le~c Lauo~ MOJ~ 1snrLaql as!m.raqro.sla%pnq -!id ueql lallaq sqor Knc~rr op u~?s sa1nua8c loaluuiaao5 'OZ.*'M~J ool Lq paamo s! q3nw 001 'MOU lq:!.~ :Klua~a aiow.lua!n!jja ssal sn Su!qc~u 'yoeq sn ploq Lluo scro!un ioqs~.81 -unos s!ql u! sassau!snq uo saxe] ~at/s!t/ aq plnoqs a.laql.l..paboldmaun aql pul? 'uo!lennpa ~su11?~3oid [cn!pa~u!n!jap ou pul? "'sl~caq Swpaalq., ou 13alo.d ol saue] ~aqb!q Knd 01 Bu!l[!n\ aq plnorls aldoad 'L 'alsem ou :sassau!snq ax![ uni aq plnoqs sa!nuasc ~~[qnd '9 :p()oj ;L~lunos x1qnd oqn a.rcn leu op na!u1:dmo3 wasol B!q at11 ino u! stlno.18 pa%~!rucnpes!p ioj Xl!lonha JRC~JZ asnp 2q ll!m nqqnd aql pue ~ood aql 'SUF.;~O.~ luaulu1a~o4 -oid ol Xu~ouona no ul aua~~alu! plnoqs luaruuia~oz a q 'E ~ jo slol (..?z!lr?n!~d,,). ~a~o aylq as!id.ra~rla all?n!id la1 am j1.91.k~luno~ 'pnu~c aheq s.laqlo ll:rlm ino u! la5 [[!M s%rl!rll ~SOM aql '! alnln5a.r ol sa!.rl pue puads ~snrsluau~rr.~ano~.q~loam alca.13 ues ssaysnq LUO ' ~ 1 a?!.~dialua amn!.ld ~!M sa.laj.ralu! 1ualuuia~o5 arotu aqj. 'p *'a.lej[ah\ s'auoa~ana q1!~ pau~a3110s pue 'nj!njaul *~smc.15o.1d ~r!nos no ~saloid pue sqo: '.!?) aq 01 aneq slrlaruo.ranof) 'sassau!snq ay![ 1011 'suo~l alcais 01 K.~osssnau uarlh\ rqap e uni plnoqs sluawu~ano~.[ -nl!lsu! xlqnd se.sacmlc sl? 's~uanluia~oj oni plnoqs a~ 'tl *'pa~~!jauaq snq Liluno:, aloqm aql 1cq16nm e u! :[!A~.saail no smo J! sc Aauoru puads jo p~?puws i!aql pas!cj pur? siaylom JO slqb!i aql pays![ qn!rlm 'su~e~so.rd ~c!sos an!suadxa Jno uo yscq n3 ol s! -qelsa aacq Kaq~.pa41:.1non1ra aq plnoqs suo!un ioqc~.z malqo.ld l!n!lap s~1uauru~n~o4 aql aalos 01 d e lsaq ~ aql ' ~ 1 'rua!3!ua aioru qanru *'op! apeul snq no!l!ladruon asncsaq.12113q op U:~ as!id.~al sle!s!fio s!iqnd sc saycls~ul bue~u sl! saycru.lolsas alcn -ua alna!~d 'op uen sa!nua%r? luau1uia~o4 lcql Zn!qlLuv. X~olonpo~lu! leql umoqs aaeq sa!pnls ~scd '( 1 ') OU p!p uls!ue!jel!1oqlne nq '(0~') slns Suoiuc a.roiu dn paddo13 a~ucu irroq sa.lons paz!plcpircls jo urns ayl jo a3i1c!lc~ aql jo 3j39~ parr!vldxa Laq.raq)aS(x '(0~' puc SZ') s~~nxawuloq P.?MO /C~![!]soy puc (/C[an!lnadsa.r 'LZ' puc SS') iu~!~~uami~qia paixpa~d y10q 1nq '80' LUO palvlanoo V M pi~e ~ OaS 'uo!una. v plaq sa! -pnls.ra!l.~ca aql uroy ssrr!puy Laq arp '11q0 S.!!~!nbu! LU papua Launs 3!qde~3ourap c pue '~ro!~cu!uro pue 'ssauncaur 'la~od 1euos.rad.lo3 a ~ppaz!saq~odlq c roj Su!qo.~d smal! amos.slalssunox se paqslund Llle3!sXqd uaaq pvq Xaq~ uqjo moq noqc uo!l -sanb r! puc 'alens (SunoL apq~) -rasuv C]Ual?d /Cm 'amscam (dn SU!MOJQ apq~) s!scqdurz~ sno!s!lah r! 'alc3s qms!.11ua3ouq1g ~~O!UT?J,AJ 9661 aql pal21 -unodua sluapnls uaql 'pamolloj salws(t/ ]!q!q /Cqdosol!ild 3!iuouonz~ puc 'slcnxasoqmoh p~c sapnl!~~~ /C~/A,.sa.rnscaiu OaS puc VM~ 'qi <alaos urs![cluawcpund sno!s!laa aql qllm uc ayooq aq1.sluapnls cqo~!ucl/y alour s -!puo3,,jaqurnii la~nas,, lapun sla~.rns jo ]as.: -ue pajals!u!wpc 'pucq u! s4u!pu!j asail1 q -1ra~uo3 jo S" -!.roqine ol SL soas qs!q '! S31 al[] JaMS pue '8 '! -am Xq jjo p PUc 'hz ' 2't F~ SL~! pa: SlaMSUl? l!al[l VMU,, aqlo~ '!S'alu3s 0 (iro!lnq!.r~s!p\, all1 "a.!) ( 1) saw!] aalql :a: Xpnls s!q1 111 Lla1aldqmo3 an -jqs!.r u! parl1.n 1e3!5oloq3Lsd.yql Su!/C1dqm! -dc Xaql op 10 L[acau Su!aq pi -q!ljs al!nb pir :uaw aq 01 pua 'suo!]!pe.1 pue 1011 op Jaur.roj nq 'uraq1 ]no( -!lnop [r!!nos '1 1 -oaauaq aq s qs!q 'd1.1 6sno!8!la~ /Cl.~ / SOW.pod c u! 1 gll!~-lq8!1 C i alqc1 mo~j aa!! -uo3 1c3!11lod1

10 ,.'!JJ~P u un auru~a.\o9 aqt 101 as!n\ s!! oarlm suo!lpnl!s nro >~sr[.~.aurouoaa "r11 ~,C!J.~ ~ l[!h\ s,nq 1~5ptiq p;l5uv -lpg,, PLD.,'s.o~!!s 1rxjun.) 2711 AJUOL puads pur: 'Kmouona aql 111 pn.ilonrr! 139 K2q1 11.y~ dl1 s3u!q1 waul.i[{ro s;l!nu2qc yqrid,, :.,S~~S -qqm,. Su!.nolloj "41 ~!A\ >loss 2111 u!zaq 1 qq!s<od JAJUJ~M.~JSJJA -91 S! QL!.OJS 2111 l?!l(m.loj '11131! RJ-UOD C S~lBJ!pll!,'S)lON e~u~3 as!.rd.~aiua ail:n -!.rd ueql lailaq sqor,l~u op ue3 sa1oua9e luamu.lano9 'OZ 'a.rnl!ql oi patuoop a~r, sid~ua11e q3ns 'Lu~ouooa aql jo saxoj [V. -nlw aql ql!nz a.laj.laiu! siuau1u.ra~io8 Su!ycm Lq Liluno3 Jno [! Xi![onba asna.rnrr! oi So!,Cli dois isnlu c6s.rapoo9-oa,,.61 'lua!>!lja ssal sn Su!yn~u '73eq sn ploq Lluo suo!un Joqel '81 :'l)aaold~uaun aq] pue 'no!ionnpa 's~nn~4o.1d [cs!palu lno 13ato~d 01 s'axci ~aqz!q Ll?d 01 Su![l!nz aq plnorls aldoad 'L *.pool: mlqnd aql inoqe iou op sa!r1edu[o3 wasol 81q arll aq 111." oqqnd at11 pup ~ood aqi 'su1n.150.1d luamu~ano:! JO SlOl (,.x!le~!.~d,,) lano 371?1?S!J~JJ~U~ al?~!jd la[ am.11 '91 'paulea anl?q slatllo lurlm puads isnrsiuauru~anot) 'q11oa~ a1ea.n u1?3 ssan!snq Aluo ' ~ 1 *,a.lqlam s,anol~ana ~M pau~a3rron puo 'lnj!n~a~u 'J!PJ aq ol aneq s111a~ulr.ra~ot) 'sassau!snq ay!l leu 'suori -ni!lsu! yqnd se 'SLL'M: 41: 'S~~~~UJ~AOS unl p1noqu~ 'fl,saajl uo SMO~?! j! so ~C~LO~ puads rlytl~ 'su~s~so.~d ~c!sos a,\!suadxa.lno 110 yxq in3 oi s! malqo.~d i!~!lap scluaiuu~a~o8 aql anlos ol LUM lsaq a41 '[ *'OP s11?!3!1~o xlqnd se sayels!ur Lunur sr! sayem ~01x1s. amn L.rolnnpo.rlu! ley1 u~oqs aacy sa!pn~s lscd '( ( 1.) OU p!p rus!uc!.rn!joq]nc lnq '(0~') sln3 fuorur? aloiu dn paddo13 a3ul:u -!mop [c!3os 'u!"e aouo -&' pue ~ 9' 'p!p VMX 1nq '(,/.-) d~i SU'MOJS al!rlm iio!4!1a~ uo paneid s!serldura ~!M JOU (bo.-) ms![cluarucpunj sno!s -!la.l ql!~g]~jjo~ 30u p!p uo!lc~uapo a~ueu!iuop ["!nos (.dno.r%.rt?[n"!lcd Lue SU!U?U ]noql!m suo!lcla.rjon s]! dn sapd alcss OaS ail] sca.raqhz 'su~al! cjaaas u! s[cnxasomorl suo!luam! sc 'Su! -s!ldlns 1011 s! s!rl~).slcnxasouloil p.rc~ol sapnl -!lie ql!~ d!qsuo!~cla~ Suo.11~ sl! jo asnunaq peal aq1 8rrq" y ~ q]!~ x 'saluns an!pn[a.~d OM] asaq] ruoq salons paz!pscpuais jo urns arp jo anuc!mi\ arp jo % 9~ pau!i?ldxa Laq].rarlla%)~'(0~' puc 8 ~') slcnxasoriroq ~J:MO L~!~!lsoq puc (L[a~!]~adsa.l 'LZ' pur 55') rus!.uuamuqla palxpald qloq lnq '80' Lliro paiela.l.ron V M pue ~ OaS.r~o!i~na~ 1: play sa! -pnls.ra!l.rca aql u~olj s4u!pug Lay aql 'llcjo SJ!~ -!.rd aq1 '!C. sa!uedmo3 Lunm moq las1oj unj am sassau -!snq (CM 3q1 S)U~ULJ~AOQ UnJ P[llOlS 3M L~?s OlM aldoad 'z.suo!ll!m s~ai(edxl!i aql ison leql sqo!.,l:u!q~ou op,, Lllunsn ale sqor palcan-lu3rnujanof). 'sasncs ssal -LJOM uo LRM? Lauour nzolql is$ Laql as!n\jaqlo.sla9pnq pajucleq a.\eq oi ~ slq l panloj aq plnoqs S ~U~U.~AO~ *'M3J 001 i(q paumo Sl qxllu 001 'MOll 14%!.l :i([ll rpnm ]no 3q plnoqs L~inno~.rno jo lll[??m a q '6 ~ wn.1 01 iucm sassau!snq loqi (.,az!lcn!.~d,,) suo!ie~ado qaqi qlas p~noqslnalunlanol;).s $:.LJl -one:, s ~ u! q sassau!snq ~ uo saml.ra1/8!y aq plnoqs a.larl1 'L,si!s!lap ou put?,,'si~caq i?r~!paalq,, ou 'alsl?~ ou :sassau!snq ax![ unj aq plnorls sn!3ual:u yqnd '9,:.,C~~unos ]no u! sdno~s pa9t?iucnpcs!p JOJ Ll!lcnha.rnica.rS aonp -o~d oi Xmouooa.!no u! auanjalu! plnoqs luau1n.rano9 aql 'S.L.riuno3.rno u! la3 ~!M s3o11li asjom aqi '11 alnln8a~ ol say pup as!~d.lalua alo,\!.rd ~!M sa.lapaiu! U~LUUJ~AO~: JOU at11 't.,;srne.~so.rd r?!nos Jno i3alo~d pue sqo! ale ~(J?ss~~~u U3llM lqap r! 1nJ plnolls Sll~lUllJaA~t) '[ :pail!lauaq seq Arluno3 a[oqm aql leqi KVM 1: ui 9u!n!l jo prepucis qaql pasp pue slaylow jo slqs11 aql paqs!l -qclsa ancq Laq~.psSn~nosua aq plnoqs suo!un ~oqe7.z.iua!3!lja a1om q3nm 11 aperu seq oo!i!iadu~on asnooaq 1211aq op un3 as!.rd~ai -ua?~nn!~d'op ueo sa!soazc luauru~ano8 loll1!l!nbu! Lur papua La~~ns n!qde~sourap c puc Luo!lcu!u~opug 'ssauucaru 'la~od ~euos.lad.roj aa!lp paz!saqlodlq c JOJ 8u1qo~d smal! auras 's~als8unol sc paqs!und /(llezi!-slqd uaaq pcq Lay1 ualjo ~ o noqe q uo!l -sanb e puc 'alens (dunol a[!y~) ~a4uv [ciua~cd/(u 'ajnscau1 (dn %U!MOJ~ al!q~) s!scqdurg sno!s![ah c 'alc3s rus!.~lua~ouq]g cqo]!uew 9661 aql pal21 -unodua sluapnls uaql.pamo[loj salens (p ~!q!i Lqdosol!qd 3!urouo3g puc 's1cnxasoruoh pjr sapnl!nv LAJ wrnsnaru OaS puc ~ M 9q1 H 1 'alcns rus!lcluamupund sno!4!1a~ aql ql!~ UT lalyooq aqj 'sluapnls cqol!uaht aloru ol s -1puo3.'.laqurnu lalnas., lapun sla~1ns jo ]as.: -un pa~a]s!u!wpr: 'pucq u! ssu!pa!j asaql q!nsn uo? -ua~r~o:, jo sa: -!.roqlni? 01 Su! soas qs!q 's lsal aql JaMsi PUG $8 'P 'Soh -alcls Lq jjo p: Puc'6Z ' 2'P ley] smal! pay S.laMSUr? JaLll : VMX,, 018 '!S 'a1e3~00( (oo!~nq!.lis~p a111 '.a.!) (11) a saw!] aa.rqi :an Lpnls s!ql u! ; Lla~aldruon air? -lq%!.~ u! paql.rr 1cn!5oloq3Asd.r!aili 3u!Lldir1!- -dc Lay) op lor Ll.ruau Su!aq pl -yys al!nb pu ti~am aq 01 pua 'suo!l!pc.ll pue iou op Jaruloj lnq 6r~~ay3 noc -!LllOp [F!3OS '1 -oaauaq aq OJ ) -103s qs!q 'b1. 'cno!8!13.1 LJ:] ; l\ol/~ 'pod c u! ' 9 LU!M-~L~Sp a1qx ruro.lj aaq -UO~ 1cn!1!1od r

11 The Other "Authoritarian Personality" 95 Spence an, Women scale, $7 with these,.45 and.5s, and togethe, 3f the sum of ons ships ap. higher SDO : no such dif-.le (.00). The o either varii scores cane :ss educated 10 had no re- Finally, high church nore -. 13). tudy ~risons of so- ~thoritarians mts of about.s in October be answered luthoritarian., SDO, and le Left-Wing iis test mealorities dedient," aggresnce to the he Attitudes 'ter-radicals noc centrism nt was asked prejudiced red with the then poked ', meanness, :actions to a of Canada's tse "it gives ographers, :r. 1996, p..t sentences :ted of spit- ling on apretnier, of muggings, and of heroin dealing Burt's (1980) Rape Vyth Acceptance Scale and a demographic survey ended the booklet. R~SL/S. The SDO and RWA scores of the nts who answered Booklet A correlated.50 and. 41. respectively, with ethnocentrism, and.41 and. 57 with hostility toward homosexuals. ntercotin ecting.17, they accounted for 51% of the variance of the combined standardized prejudice,cores. As in earlier studies, High RWAs did not think they would prove more prejudiced than oth- - /-- era ( ). But high SDOs. to some extent, knew they would (.28). W hat about the other measures? Social dominancl e and authoritarianism correlated.20 and.35 with willingness to help persecute "radicals.".2 and. 32 with sentences handed out in the Trials situa tion,.24 and.32 with acceptance of myths -LA.. auuut rape, and.20 and.57 with willingness to repeal Canada's Bill of Rights. While all these pointed in the expected direction, the RWA relationships emerged significantly stronger in all cases except Rape Myth. Let's put that in the back of our minds for a moment, along with the relationships with the remaining variables in this questionnaire, and go on to the second booklet. 2. Booklet B Answered by 243 parents, Booklet B began with the Religious Fundamentalism, RWA, SDO, Eco- 1. Highly placed people in the national government are planning to impose a Communist-type dictatorship soon. / 2. The federal government is NOT plotting to destroy freci dom in our country." 1 3. Our country is basically controlled by Jewisli-owned financial institutions. 4. f people knew the truth, they'd know that Jcws are causing most of the corruption and suffering in our country. 5. The federal government is NOT taking away our rights, nor is it conspiring to destroy democracy in our country.* 6. There is an international Jewish conspiracy that is trying to dominate the world through control of banks, the news media, the movie industry, and so on. 7. t is ridiculous to think that some group of Jews or anyone else is planning on selling our country out to the United Nations or some mythical "world conspiracy."* EXHBT 5. The Militia Attitudes Scale notnic Philosophy, and Left-\?'in; Authoritarianism Scales. Next came an anti-semitic "Militia" scale, which developed after the Oklahoma City bombing (Exhibit 5). tried out some other personal power, meanness. and domination items. Then presented four situations in which High RWAs had shown double standards in the past: abuse of power during an election by a left-wing or aright-wing provincial government (Altemeyer, p. 323). Quebec's right to leave Canada versus Montreal's right to leave a seceding Quebec. sentencing a prohomosexual or an antihomosexual activist who led an attack upon opponent demonstrators, and sentencing either a panhandler or an accountant who attacked the other after a sidewalk argument. (Accordingly, two versions of Booklet B were distributed to homes. n one, parents judged the seriousness of a conservative government abusing its power, Quebec's right to leave Canada. an antihomosexual who led an attack on homosexuals, and a panhandler who attacked an accountant; in the other version of Booklet B parents judged the opposite cases.) The booklet ended with the Religious Emphasis scale and the question about being physically punished while growing up. A demographic survey wrapped up the task. ~esults. Mean responses to the 12 Militia items indicated these parents put little stock overall in the premise of a Jewish-led conspiracy in the federal government to take away everyone's guns and impose a left-wing dictatorship on the country. But 8. Jews are not trying to take over the world. That is simply a myth spread by bigots to make people fear and hate Jews.* 9. Our national government has been taken over by homosexuals, radical feminists, atheistic Communist-types, and, especially, by Jews. 10. Our country is a much better place because of the Jews who live in it.:". Powerful elements of our government, led by Jews, want to take all the guns and spirit from the people so they can enslave us. 12. We have more freedom than almost anybody elseon earth, and no group of Jews or feminists or "lelt-wingers" is plotting to take it away from us.* Nore.* indicate(; a con-trait iturn. lor which the scoring key is revursed.

12 Lay, n?ouy SVM~ q2!q puc :alc3s slcnxasouroh p.remol sapnl!nv aqi no pl!m-soq os 01 riraqj mollu L1!lcnxasowor[ sajcq pol3 lcq1 ssu!q3cal sno!8!la~ <pucy.raqlo aql uo.a[doad jsoru ol palcdriro3 rr!cw -2.1 Aaql 3!.rlua3oirq1a moq az!ir?a.r lou op Aaql pue 'ssaupir1lq-jlaw!el.ra3? ~!JJU!,,$a13.1!3 lq8!1,, prrc ssausnoalqs!~-jlas.r!aql lng ye3s urs!~lna3ouqlg a111 ol a+% Aaqi uamsul? aql s.radrual8u!q3eal s!ql puc '5uo.r~ LC.OU S! ay!ls!p prre Jeaj Lay1 sag -!JOU!L 3q1 ]su!ese azupnlxd 1cq11qSn1?1 a.ram Aaqi Xl[~nsn.1uauruo.r!i\ua sno!%la.r e u! dn M~JS ualjo s v ~ qs!~xpnra.rd a 'iua3uon [r!.rlua3 Jno aqr!l p!p Laill yir!r1l 'Lpsop~.suc!Jvl!Joqlnr? 811!~-1q8!~ ay![ pal3e S.lOlCU!lUOp [?!30S ~13nur moq aay ol icl!~mpd Lpnls s!ql pau8!sap aa!lca.rasuo3 Su!plo~,p8' jo vqdlc uc 8rr!onpo~d 12' jo uo!~r? asu.ra~i? arli '(~u![l~ p[o ire) s1uapnls Srrowl: ucqj slua.rcd Suoruc paz!ucs -.lo.rallaq pa~o~d sapril!lle n!ruouo33.sluapuodsa.r ~ 8 p ~ a g 1 ~ ' palelanon o sajoos trn~a puc OQS.sraqlo ucql slow y311.11~ as!m.raqlo Jn payucds slam slua~t:d OaS qz!~ou VM>[ il'li!~.raql!arr jna.p!p Lpnls 9661 ~aqo130 aq1 u! sluap -111s arll rrcrll rra.rpl!q3 sr ajour A[1~14!19 paqs!~rnd A11v3!sLqd uaaq Srr!hr!q pal.rod~ s~ua.rl?d asaql.sva.rv 1c~n.1 U sour alny e a q 04 papual SUl?!JE]!JOq1llE ~~!M-]~~!J 'Al[l?u!~'alUo3U! 01 (10.- -) pa) pa~o.rd u!u5c OaS jnq '(zz.-) ~a~ood 'OU p!p soas rls!q!.rn aq ol papual s y ~ q4!~ x 'Lpn~ s!ql u! aps.raqi!a uo sajons puc uo!le3npa uaamlaq pa.rcaddc uo!l ~wcs aql jo /Cll!nB punoj lunjuno3sc uc p!p Lag1 uvq1 wja1 uos!.rd 1a8uo[ e 01.ralpu~?r[ircd aql pa3r1a1 -~auuo:, ON '(10') ue!.r~!~or~lnc 2u!~-lqS!.r sour OU lnq '(61') salcrua~ ircql lucn!rnop Ll[c!3os arom aq 01 paprral u!csc salr!ur sn!qde~4oruap ~ osy j 01 1 ('92' ~ wo~j ' pasrrc~ OaS ql!~ stro! rual) a]qcl3!pa~d aql paaclds!p siri?!lcl!joqjnc SU!M,;ssal!l!d prrc ircaw a ~ no/( a ~qf!noq~ ~ aldoad J!,, -~qs!a.svm~ qz!q aql u! punoj?~ ucq~ ssal puc may1 Jaqloq Xpr?[nn!ucd iou ~1110~ 31 p!cs /(a111 Lllcnb:, 1nq 'uo!ssanas Su!p~e4ar ~ JC~UCS alqnop,;aldoad Jnq Lllca~ saur!~aruos uc3 ley1 sayor le3 arum aql pamoqs s.iornlr!zrlog ~~!DVS qs~q pnc -113~1d aleq,, Laqj p!p JON.[s.raZvuwu ''x L~oay~,. MO qiog.(silnsa.~ sno!~ajdjo uo!len!~da~ r!) s y ~ a (0961) s'jo~~.~)~aj JO aur spir!ura~ qn!qm] "!jaj -u! sc 1ou 'slayrom mollaj sc uaq11va.11 pue 'uo~lc -lap!suon 'ssaupu!y ruaql molls ol s! uo!s!~~adns qs!q Suomc JaS~ul paldn~a pacpucls alqnop aq~ lnq!l?pcuc3 rr~o~j apasas 01 p~?q mqmo u~"q1 ~laqano Acmcyca~q r! uroq apa3as 01 irls!.r r! jo ajour per1 (r!ajluom lrlsnoq1 slua~nd ~ M mol H pun qzrrl qlog PP Laq~,;saur!i ic ssalqlnl aq ol azeq no/( ajaqm pl~om 4op-lea-Sop c s.11.. paa.rsc puc.';noic jo p!c~jv aq ol aldoad.raqlo a?!] nol oa,, 01 sal p!es s.~olr!u!~uop c!nos q3!q 'aldurcs a111 u! s.raqlo L!M pa~cdruo3.sauo ma11 maj r! pappc pu~? s4o!pug sno -alcns V M aql ~.roj alcn!lda~ ol a.rn[!ej e-o!.rcuans.1a~od-~u3!1!lod-jo-asnqc arll rr! dnuals!suonu! lni?:, -y!us!sppamoys soas qs!q ~ou s v ~ 491q a Jaql -!au hsuo!len~!s p~vprrc1s-a~qnop Jnoj aql ~ oj sy (.~!q c rr! uo!lj!pr!.rl -!had paurjyuo3 s!saqlodaq asucrl!urop pue 'ssau -uoo Su!uraas s!ql jo asux aymr [?LS 2 ~.(zc).) ) -Ucaur 'la~od ~nuosrad aql jo suo!lc~oldxa aq1 urs!uc!~ei!.ror~lnc SU!M-!~?~ k[]r!!oadsa pul? '(c*') urs!ire!~c~!~oq~n~? SU!M-J~'!J '( c.) uc)!lcirra!.ro

13 .~waua% u! aplsoq al!nb puc 'pan!pnra~d Krq%!q aq Lay1 MOlq z 01 pa~o.1~1 aldoad K~oi3!pe~luo3 K1Su!~rraas asaql pjf?mo] Sapnl.sale3s VM~ put? V M al1l ~ 1/10q uo apl~cnb do] /Cl!lanxasorus aql u! papucl oqm sa!pnls /Cur o! palcaddc Lllual 'pucq ~aqlo a -s!suo3,,sqs!rl-r[%!q,, jo dno~3 sno!.ralslw e 'pueq -a1 daql 3!.nc laylo aql LO.saldmcs/Cur U! qlaal,suaq sr! an.ress sc.slem Kucur u! JJJJ!~ K(lcnsn s.rolcu~urop 'ssaupu!lq-j~ uaaq scq,,val aql uo ncpelpoqlne,, aql lnq 'wa s!q [t?!30s puc suc!~el~.1or~lnu 4u!m-iq%!.1 loql uogda3 ssausnoalq9~ ~noqe 1q4!.1 uaaq aaeq Lcur sl!q~ 'ajc3~ VM~ aql -.lad aql %u!'sp~cpuc~s alqnop ou ~sourlc all1 01 Kc uo swal alnlosqc uo KlqS!q sa.ro3s oqm,'adli-]s!u pamoqs SOCS qs!q lna.k3uaa!suo3 cujalu!.roj pue '3uo.1~ -nurwo3/ls![c!oos7, al4u!s c puy 01 lal aheq waqi 811!q3av3 aw!l q3nur puads lou op daql '(8 -!.~ou!ru aql~,;a~u Lay1 sra ~aldcq3 '9661 '.ra/(aruallv) ya!.(aq.!aql jo u!clja3 Ll[ensn -luau -yewa[qno~~ sno.~azucp arli se sa!.reuo!lnloaa.r Su!m Klle3!lum%op %u!!~gorlinc Zu!Kco3 Kq :snap! SVM8 Y~!H ': -u"[ jcaq p11ioqs aldoad os 'y.rom Jahau ]!M LUS! J!aql jo Lt~em pa.r!nb~ day] dcm aqi 01 sp.rcpucls 'OU p!f i -[?!~OS,, pue :"arro poos LJ~A F: [[!S S! ~ood aql 01 alqnop JO asn 1Lanba.~,sv~a q%!q alnq!.lnc SU!M-~K$!J qlluam sl! ZUA!S puu luaurrls!lqslsg Su!~-lq8!.1 aql,;a~.lasap Laql lcrlm la% Su!y!yqnl!q al!qm 1 q3nw moq aa ~U!MO.L~~~AO JO Cap! 3!SBq 2q] ]nq 'sml21.j S]! SVq padel la:! o q uawom,, ~ puc,,xas amq 01 Zu!ll!m 1 rus!unrumo3,, :uo!ssn3s!p Japun "lrrauraaour d.~e -uo!ln[oaaj,, arll 01 saureu ~ado.rc1 a~u% lcql s! aqs ~r?ql saqdur! alep ~s.rg qaql uo ucrrr u ~ U~LU o -uedc.lo amoq aqlol saos oqm UBZUOM v,, 'W,l* :, "1 jo Su!uu!Saq aql lc 'Gs.rallas-alqe~,, om1 aql 30.i3mod aql olu! RJ sa~~awaqi %u!nal [ JOj 1nd 1 'a3ua~a.~a.1 40 arue.rj s!rp UMO~!EL o~ ajom SLU!J~!A adn.1 paulelq soas qz!q lna ';Ja quo ; OlU! SUl?!.ll?J!JOLllllr! SU!M-~J~~ S,Sl!LlSjO ll? St1!Yl?03 xas saajql j! qncj umo Jaq s!! 'F jueq, 3[!qM--2[T?3S VMT 3L11 UO ~U!.O~S ruo.lj UO jo ]no la4 ssu!ql sial aqs pue Su! %u!q3au os pue 'sls!unurruo3 'smar 3u!m-ljal Kq pallonuo3 sem ~uaurqs![qeisg aq1 lq8noql o q aldoad ~ daaq pinom,'5rr!m-ljal,, sa!~cuo!~nlo~a.r aql puc ':~u!m -1qS!.1,, lrraruqs![qalsg aq1 3u!llm KL~ padoq sascsua J!Z ell,, puy'alqno.~~.roj Su!ysc ~snf a Laql 'sdo~ 1q4!i pue sl.r!ys uoqs Zu!~vam JO ssalu. pun0jc 0% UaWOM.UaL[M,, :~plllo.l~ 127.iOUl UO.1-3!~ adc~ pauurapuo~ 1cq1 sqllur olu! lq2noq "'la~od svfia q%!~ 'suoseal luajag!p ~eqmarrros JOJ or si! KRMC 4u!yr1 pug '~naurqs!!qelsg aql ~ UMOJ~ Laql 'ajnscaw ~ ~/C/V adeg aql ql!~ 'leoaj [!M 01 12' UloJJ P -Jam ol palcn!pap ~uamanom ~NM-UZJT walou 'K~.m~!u1!spalela.uo3 saps om1 aql uaqm uaag,;ssal!l!d puc -ap,luaruaaou[/crr?no!lnlo~a~, e sca.rarlm.cpeue3.sanss! asaq] lnoqe pal!3xa sc ]as OU ( ~aql Jaqloq 1 u! sanjoj ~ NM-LH~~ aql pa111?3 ualjo ale oqm soas qz!q lng,;waql pu!rlaq Zu!p!q,, a.ram sl,;aldoad "nil syueq pue suo!1e~o&o3 as~;jcl aql 'aldoad sa!qllcam -uo!uoqe puv 'slcu!u1!.13 's.1aydo.18ou~od asnrq: -!13~.1d aluq,, A 3ql 's! lcq~.kruouo3a aql JJAO lo.rluo3 1salca.18 s1q8!3!a!~jo saa~uc~cn% leuo!~ni!~suor, 2u!qs!l (0961) ~~~o aql 'la~od SOW aqi peq Ll[euo!i!pe~i aanq oqm 01 alom K~luc3y!u8!s paal%c oslc s ~ qs!l ~ a -U! su lou 'ria: d.11uno3 Jno u! aldoad aql ol slajal.luarnqs!lqci 'SJO]?U!U1Op [8!30 -lap!suo3 'ssa -q, at11 'mo11oj 1rq1 swal! aql ul,. :spcaj lcqi alc3~ saop 11 ucrll suk?!lcl!joq]nc 01 a.rour 101 u srrcaur JnoX lapun dn ~M-J aql 01 alqwca.rd c 4u!dolanap 6q s~uapuods pur! 'luaurqs!und pauo!13ues /C1!.1oq1ne paqs![cl' P!P 6aq~ ':sar -3.1 ~ oj a~1a.13ja.1 jo awcq s!ql a1r?a pmq pa!.ri suo!lenl!s slc!.~~ puc assod aql u1,;su!lcu!~ PlJ0.M Sop-lc: ' L ~ ~ u ~ J.un!~u~!.roq~ne o ~ ~ Q aq plno3 sadd1-~s!s ar11 puc "aa!ss!wqns,, aql u! uo!ssa~%sc JO S1 P!cJJe aq 01 a1 -sty st? l[am sc sadll-1s!unururo3 ]cql sisaqloddrl lualag!p aql sloaljaj s!q~ lyu!ql 'u!csv.p!p SC ~~01nu!wop [? (~~61) %S!LS salol all?" V\JM? aql padola~ap 1 qz!q uaql samscam slr!!jl puc assod ayl uo Ll!? Paleduo3.sar i, uo Su!o3 S! sapoaql Loc.1!dsno3 X O ~ alow pamoqs s v ~ q3!q x s~su~luos JaqlouF: Jo: -!Aa.fd pam.ryr: jju.1 $0 arucu?l[] u! lnq~ :~[ejo d!qsuo!lcla.r lsa!]qs!ur.i(llua~edd~ ': -ucaur '~amod an! aql no pa.reo.1 sajons urs!uc!n?l!loqlnl? Szi!,~-~j~l OU op lsnf Laq~ sow rrr?q] ~an!pnra~d ajow 'an pup 's~rraw!l~ras c!~!l!ru plaq oslc s.loll:rr!wop [t?!3os ~oa~ Laql ~eyi lualxa u!l?llas c ol mouq op Lay1 os 'S" 'u03un paao.rc amos lllg.(pnls s!q] u! sasuodsa~ alcns r?!l![!]/li q]!m loq -q3!~-jlas Llq31q waas 6aq1 op JON.s[cnxasou-.. uaq1 3JOLU qnl ~[p![ospa]ela~~oos SaJO3S QMa 'paapu! puv y"(6 'd JO aq!ls!p.r!aql dn drund ol JOU.alcss ~ s! n ~ VAQ ~ L!M ~ 'Lla ~ '966 1.raKawallv) uo os puc.s[nnxasomoq 'sls!u -qlg 241 ol slamsue qaql,,.u!pq MO~,.JO~ SJ~~~~' peq urs!ue!~clr -!uraj "s~ar Su!m-~jal dq pad.~nsn uasq sl:q (rro!~ sno!s!lar ;l~~?q K[lcs!dK] lou op soas qg!q lng -"xasouloq p.11-11l!lsuo3 aql.lo ' 111~ s&pog jo Su!l?ca.r.r!aql '.S'a) '(8s.d igabl..m6zwaltx' 'Ouqla ql!m Ll!.roy~n~: paqs!lql:]sa "lca.l,. aql aaa!laq Lgql U ~ L ~ M op aldoad lsour ucql ajom slenxaso~ol1 ay!' VMa 41!&

14 98 Political Psychology called these puzzling people "Wild-Card Authoritarians." and the Militia wale provides the key to understanding many of them. The pretent stucly indicates most Wild-Card Authoritari:~ns have anti-semitic militialike sentiments. Of the 25 high RWAs-high LWAs in the sample that answered Booklet B, 17 (68%) also scored in the top quartile on the Militia scale. So most of these "wild-cards" seem to be right-wing authoritarians who overrode the preamble and table-setters to the LWA Scale because they "know" the Establishment is composed of Jews and their accomplices who control an oppressive, plotting, gun-grabbing government. Accordingly, the LWA scale's scan for revolutionary authoritarianism uncovered such authoritarianism in the anti-semitic militia-oriented High RWAs. Moving beyond the mystery of the Wild-Card Authoritarians, which seems more understandable now, who overall harbors anti-semitic militia sentiments? Of the 60 respondents who scored in the top quartile on the Militia scale, 20 were High RWAs, 14 were High SDOs, and an additional 10 were both. So right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance-the two major consorts of prejudice in our society it seems-provided 73% of the anti-semitic Militia types in this study. G. The November 1996 Student Studies Both the parent studies indicated that SDO-RWA results obtained with student samples had broader validity. So prepared another booklet for some yet-unsurveyed Manitoba introductory psychology students, which 185 of them completed in November under "secret number" conditions. However, circumstances dictated that this questionnaire had to be answered on a 48-hour "take-home" basis. As this can produce sloppy responding, attached a slip of paper to each booklet that read. "t is a condition of this study that you will answer carefully and honestly. So do not participate if you cannot do a conscientious job." stressed this precondition when describing the experiment in the students' class. The booklet began with the Religious Fundamentalism, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Social Dominance Orientation scales. Then Christie and Geis's (1970) Machiavellianism ("Mach V") scale appeared, followed by some "Mach-type" items of my own invention. An up. dated version of the Manitoba Ethnocentrism scale once again provided a broad-band measure of prejudice: it ended by asking respondents how prejudiced they thought they would be compared with the rest of the sample. then presented my choicest assortment of personal power, meanness, and dominance items. A demographic survey ended the task. The results proved considerably stronger than had any right to expect, so gave essentially the same booklet to another untested class on the same take-home basis. Their 177 sets of answers simmered down the earlier findings when stirred in. and shall present the results from the merged samples. Results: Old Tricks and New Tricks SDO and RWA correlated. with each other. but.67 and 40, respectively. with Ethnocentrism. Together they explained 54% of the prejudice scores-obviously due mostly to the social dominance measure. As usual, high RWA students seldom realized they would prove more prejudiced than average (-.02), but high SDOs usually knew they would (.44). As before, right-wing authoritarians tended to be religious fundamentalists (.80), toaccept the teachings of their home religion (.52), and to attend churcll(.53). But high SDOs had no such leanings (-.02, -. 15, -.08). Males popped up more often than females among the socially dominant (.39) but not among the high RWAs (.03). Now for some new tricks. The Machiavellianism scale had a low mean interitem correlation of. 1 l and an alpha =.72. Whatever its items measure, its summed score correlated.54 with SDO and -.8 with RWA. The hefty relationship with social dominance got its heft from such "Mach" items as "The biggest difference between most criminals and other people is that criminals are stupid enough to get caught"; "The best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear"; "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so"; and "All in all, it is better to be humble and honest than important and dishonest" (with which High SDOs disagree). The suspicion that high social dominators tend to be Machiavellian (in the generic sense) was reinforced by the Mach-type items wrote, nearly all of which correlated with SDO scores. The stron-

15 .,ssu!gi Bu!lloiloo:,.ssoq, aql aq ol L. 01 uaql r11:nba S: arcload ll!,\\ ~(J.\!cJ~~o~ XOM q Y.11 'pl?oj PUS1>112p! LlMOp pspl22q 3111,zd!i~ ramod, uo aldond., puo :,,,(n9 ~aqlo aql 110,>$pa oi L OU op 1 :d!qslau~sod nnha ue u! cssqln ql!m q.10~ O ~a.lald., :, -sol. 10j ain i(q~~!dmxs pot,l~![niuxu!~~~as :ay[ U pv~qwar oi qsnol q 41 a.\nq noa,. Xq pasrlda~ ail? 81 pu~ 'pl $8 sulal],! sa~oidlll~ alax r~ym-dd alll,lo dsuals!sr~os r:ulalu!?q~ rql pall!xpu! sa!pnls ialsl p3sjaaal s! Zu!Xay aqi qn!q\ ioj 'mai! ~!eil-uo?! SJF.~P! *.S)ON 's[1!04 pul? suvld dur sqsolq d[alcsaq!~ap or{,* 2uo,(uv do.11sap 01 lsaq dur op [M 1 '02 ;lxou op 1q8!ru laqm noql? pap -S~M daql put? 'aldoad pal~p!u:!lu! J! am Jaqloq pllio~ 11 '61,;,gldoad i.lnq dllca~ saul!lamos rroo l~qi sayof lnn113n.1d Xeld 01 alnq nod oa ;,no,l jo p!t?s11? aq 01 aldoad iarllo ay!l no,( oa ' ~ 1.;,ssal!l!d pur! uram ajam nod 1qSno1ll aldoad saqlo! nod.laqloq 1! plnom '91 ~.L?M nod s%ll!ql Op aldoad Su!yl?ru puc szu!q~ jn a91nq3 Bu!qnl Lo[ua nod oa.s.i.uoviod iir1!~!4s01 puv allua4? <? UMOU~ aq ot aq!l nod ;p!dnls rott 'alqe.r!mpl? s! (Su!il~ou JOJ Bu!qlau~os Lpoqa~uos %UA!~"a'!) dl!~rq3.c aless a3ueu!luoa pue 'ssauueaw.l~m aas MOU ue3 am pue 'aseala~ s!ql paau lor1 op soas q4!q leql uaas aacq am 1118 ~uo!ssa~881?.r!aql s~!q!qu!s!p s!ql pue 'snoa1q5!~-jlas al!nb Su!aq jo lu!od aq] 01 "'sapnp snoaiq8!1,. sr! saalasruaq1 aas osll: sv~y q8!~.8u!lea aqi op 01 pa~r!ru.r?~ -ap ale--aldoad lsoru L[!M pa~vd~o3-pue "8op lea Sop,, sr! aj!1 aas.lpna.qn soas q8!q '1se.11uo3 tr~ 'alsrrnr Su!llnsa~ aqi u! ualea aq [!M Laq] pur: asdc1103!m UO!~W![!A!~ )r!ql/(1y3!nb os 8u!lqrnn.m am suo!uaauos pue K~!JO~~G lgq1.rr?aj Laq] p u ~!sa[3.r!s s!.rluasouqla '~qs'!) u! 1aAe.u 01 pas!c.r ajam Laql asncnaq L1u!cw pas!l>"a~d L[qo9!q aq 01 maas 'avfl-dd uo q8!q a~ox rou op o q 'sun!jclpoqlnr! ~ Su!~-lq3'!~.a~pnfa.rd OaS put VMX JO "00.1 alc~edas aq~ asod~a suo!ie[a~a~ asaql yu~ql.sui?ld qaql sy3olq Lla~n~aq![ap o q auokuv ~ Lo~isap ~!M Xaql Lcs daq) 'aldoad lsoru ucq~ ajow 5~21 -yd puc uvaur pa~ap!suor, %!aq puy OU pinon\ Laq~ op 1q9!ur Kaql lcqm lnoqv pa!.uom pur! '~~341 JO p!e.rjmldoad Jaqlo Zu~yv~u Korua Larl~.1njazuan put? 'papoolq plo3 'ssalqlnj Xlai\!le[a~ 8u!aq JO lu!od aql 01 '! Su!sn ys!a.r pue.lamod 1ncM Kaq~ waql ~ o1su!q1 j Lruo aqi s! Bu!uu!~ ~Su!mu!mop aql op 01 ~UEM K~li?uos.~ad Lay1.s.ra -q]o aleu!urop 01 lucatu ajam aldoad auros aaa![aq Xluo OU Karp '.ra!ln?a pastrums am sv 's.r?q~o 01 'aaul!l 11: ssslglnnq ol ahnq nod araq~ pl.10~ 4op-1r?a-Zop c s.11 '21 :la~od pun dauour ahaq ol ucql slaqlo ql!~411!lrap.mod u! A!J%~~! a,\l?q 01 q!~ U! lual~odui! aiotu t(3nul s! [ ;.no,< ~u!oddrs!p.lo J ~~U! daql uaqn aldoad unq O.~amod aql4u!,\nq dofw nod oa.0 1,;pa.rnaj aq ol unqi pa~ol aq ol iallaq qontu s! 11 '6 ;,nod ? uvam sa!lnxn[ pun 'qi[eam 'd~~oor oa,x *.ap!nii.lno aq SM?~ [aio~~ ptle uo!sscduros la[ plnoqs a,%...lsnll!l aqljo VA!ASS,, xp,.(q P~U.~AO$ LON <! q!~ 'L i,sleo4 inoh qnca.1 01 qooi i! lct[m S,l?t[l J! '(~JJ~u~A puv papoolq PlO3?q nod plnom '9.dcm inoh la4 01 aacq noh saha -~oq 11 asn plnoqs nok 'uo!l~?nl!\' n ]!.~MO~ aar:ll nod J.$ 2'S10!1aJU! S! OU 's.~~~jom MOllaJ sl: waql lea.ll pun 'oo!lcj?p!suon 'SS~~U!~ L U ~ ~oqs ~ 01 s! uo!s!~jadn<.mod iaprln dnoi% R peal 01 L?M lsaq arll 'p.;iiu!g~ illto aql S'! :5u!q1 isi!~ at11 OU s! 4u!uu!~., 'E,i,paau U! asoql 01 oosiad lnjd12q ~U? pu!~? aq 01 ay![ nod plnom 'Z waqlo nll:rr!ulop 01 lunour ajam eldood awes,'.aljunf aql JO M",, aq~!m aiapa~u! 01 ayws!~u s.11..1apua8 ql!il ZP' pue 'ms!.r~ua~ouqig ql!~z 2s. 'VMX qi!~ 80" 'OaS ql!~ 19' snons!qurerrn ur? palclan03 sajo3! avn-dd paluurns.~8. JO cqcil~r! 8r1!1e~auai 'a5e1a1ie aql uo 12. 'pa13auuo3.ra1u! smal! sl l!q!qxg u! u~oqs ale3s (,,av~-dd,,) ameu!w' pur! 'SSatlUl?aAJ 'JaMOd EUOSJad 30q pt L[~J!] aqi 'sa!pnls asaqljo pua aq) Lq 'la8aq,,junj SO( saycur lcqfi,, JaAoss!p 01 sldwallc zu!qo~d LW,;UCM L[p?a~ nox lcq~ nok la8 Laql j! par_l!~snr uu3 Su!~caq:, pue pnaa,, puv :"a3uoq3 ayl la8 " rraqm 1s.r~~ waq1 la8 01 aanq lsn! nol os,%ox M~J: 01 ]no ajc aldoad ]sour ~ouy noa,,!,,q]!m h1 128 UG3 no/( ]VqM 01 llmop S[!oq [? 11,'SUOJM, P.)q8!.1, sv Zo!ql qnns ou s! Lllca~ ajaqj., :,<l!jau UMO rnok ~ opalv[nd!unur j L11oo3 put? ~ lla!~~ 01 s13arqo a.w aldoad.k[len!sea,. :'GL~Zll!3U!~v a11 PU? aka aql u! lqs!c.~is auoawos yo01 01 moq dola~a plnoys uos.rad e s[[g"njasn 1s0" aq auo.. ql!~ palno~ds (01~' JaAo 11") sdd!q~~!l"aj S: -uo~ls aql'sa. Xl~eau 'a1o.r~ -a1 SRM (3~~3 pual s.rolcu!u '(aa -uoqs!p pue lr o1.1a11aq s!! ' ssalun Su!qla~ llal JaAaN,, :,' s! a~doad alpu qsnoua pldnls S["U!"!'" ]SOL sc srual!,,q3tq 213OS ql!m d! - pur! oas L 'alnscaur sura: 1 ' JO uo!lela~ rns!ur?!llaac!qn '( 0') svmt 1 -!wop dllc!~os i dn paddod salr ou pcq soas L '(~5') UO!~'!PJ : '(08') s]s!~elua -Je]!.rorlnc 8u!, Mauy Lllensn pas!pnra.rd aro -1as slrrapnls v pas.~am aql ur 'U! pa.u!ls uaq. -[u!s SlaMSUr! ; arucs at11 uo ssr aql Lllc!luassa 1 ucql J~SUO

16 ~1 aql jsluapnls Ll!s~a~!rrn Suourr? "Xl!pluaur ~!M UO!C!~OSS~ avm-dd ayl ins 'uo!ll?lua!jo u!l!l!ur,, n!i~aras-!lne ur! 30 sax~'1 pu~j auo U C ~ a~ueo!mop.[c!nos rli!~ d!qsuo!iela.r S! r[8no.1qi '(St-Zt7 'dd '8861 L~ja!qD '(~9') wsyuasouqla paln!pa~d avwdd G~aLarua)lv) aw!~ puonas e ska~~ns.lahisue aldoad '(5 ~).8upaau!urop prrc 'ucaw 'L.rSunq ~a.uod Su!aq uaqm suaddcq Cllcnsn leq~ inq 'lle3 agl u! ucq~ L.~ 01 pa~sauuos L[lc~u!u!u a.ram sa.ross V M iu~e?a ~ -nucy u! ra8no~ls pa~o.rd Laq] Lllc.raua9 'as!pn[ald n8 '(6s') qua.rcd asayl Zuoure pa~vaddnal sluap ql!~r~o!lsa~uos VM~ ~B oas se qnns 'sluapnls -111s qi!~ pau!elqo OaS ~M d~qsuo!lcla.r avw asaql ~ M paqs!lqmsa Lpea~le sd!qsuo!wla.r 30 suo!l -dd 8~0.11s aql '88' 30 ~?qdlr? ur! Su!] 'ase~a -!pa Mau arll 8u!z!u!ln.r3s u! lu!od ou s! alaql - ~ aqi c uo 65;' paqsalulalu! sway avm-dd aql.saps avm '(or) ~VMU qg!~~ (EC) aq -g put? c!]![!w n!l!ruas-!lue 3ql 'slrra.rcd q]!~ / C ~ O 01 Lsuapnai ~!aq1 01 uvd u! anp '(0b') pas!pnra.~d pasn L[sno!hald slsai OM] ajam waq]?uourc pasnds aq 01 /(lay![ pahold u!~su sapni!nt? ~!r~rouona ah!] lng xmwmu avw-dd pur! '~usu~uasouq~~ 'oas -c~.rasuo3 Sn~ploq slualcd (.sluapn~s Suourr? u~ql '~MX aql paluasard-3.1,,'pa~[o~u! saless aql JO slualcd Suowe.rarlS!q aln!l r: alclarron V M pne ~ Cpnls Ll!l!qc!la.r ~s?la.r-lsal,, r! jo l~ed se Llpasod oas '1elana3 u! tald~rrc s!ql u! LE pel1 s.101 -dns sluapnls pl Lq palamsuc 'lalqooq ls~g ar[j -xpa.rd OM aq~).anun!.rt?~ sl! 30 %'/,8~ pau!l?ldxa al1sn~wcuoue 8u!~~as ~ayla8ol pue 'wspluasouqlg qi!~ /C~l~!luclsqns slrred!s!lmd arp L~!M lr!w.roj,lauroy-aynl'lcp-om],, palelal.ro3 (9.b') wyue~.~~~.~oq~n~ 3u!fi-lqS!~ prrc aql pasn suo!~c?!jsa~u! aa.rql 1 1.sLa.i~ris ~ uurnl (19') uo!leluauo anucu!ruoa (r!!ms 'alou asuo -tic LLU pajamsue pnq 3uql sasscln Su!l!s!~a~ '~661 Llcnucr u! sa!pnls luapnls a.row aa~qi!llca pasn swal!.'adll -qnt?~,, pur? ws!ue!l[aae!rlncl,q woq dn pay.rom pvq 1 ale3s (avng) L]sarroqs!a caomv ah!lelnd!u -em a~!l!oldxg 3oq pr? ur! L~!M Suolc 'u! paysnl SCM (6861).[RA!3lad pill? 137VlAJ U! pal~rasa.rd SUlal! 30 pasodmon Xlu!r?ru) aless ~ uawssc~c~ cnxag '(1 1 ') ~VMX qg!q aq 01 Xlay!['iou alam Larll 'u!csc ural!-91 pasuelcq c 'uo!l!ppt?[l?os( 1v~ lng.(6~.) 3!.1lrrasonq]a alom pa~o.rd pue '(Es') -ad pur""1~!11ua30rrqlg 'oas 'VMX 'Lqdoso[ sanss! luawssclcq onxas paqood-qood '(Es') OaS -!qd n!urouong aql Su!u!eluon lalyooq n pa.rams uo.1aq9!rl palons osle slna.rcd qnns. L' Syaq uo!l -ue Ll3u!S!lqo siua1cd cc 'alduruxa.rod '1cj snr11 -?laj.103 p?pj-p?n "1 '[am Sl? (JvM-dd /C~~l?llSll palnlde3 ssu!pug aql anslnd put! asuallaqo ol ap!m 2laM slrra~nd a~j4r-g 9 % '$38' ~ jo vrldlr: uc Su! pur! J?J sal!cuuo!~sanb 4un~ 1 slcp![oq seuls!jq3 -A!S.aSr!.ranr! aq) uo 62 palula.uonlalu! sural! oz sl! !aq1 ruoq paujnjaj s~uapnls se uoos sv 01 sasrrodsax 3q9!1 ale no.( 'S]!t?.l jo sau SL!L!M -.rain! s!ql u! asnld olrr! Lllcau d!p ol %u!oz (1 ~!q!rlxg) alcns Llsauoqs!a lelowy a,i!lclnd!un~ a.qoldx3 izzau aql oo salons i~?ql asuas nol 11,.ra!l.rva nits am nlap anunda3sv L~L~AJ adea aq~ PUP rlaurom ~JCMO sapnl!liv ($3~6 [ ) qn!a."~rla~ PUP anuads aql ql!~ az!uomloq sd!qsuo!~cla~ luaurssc~cq [cnxas asaqk '(SZ.) sy~a pue '(82') 'uo!lc~!low leuos -lad ~!aq~ puc 'apl uo yoollrio.r!arll 01 cn!iaql!lun s! 11 '11~raua5 u! Ll!lmiha lnara.~ 01 pual /Carl1 asncn -aq op aldoad lsoru ucql a.rom alcns OaS arp uo S~A!~?AJ~SUOD D!LUOllO3a '(SS') SavW-dd '(6~') d~rlcnba 1nafa.,(aq~;,s.rolnu!urop[e!nos am s.rolnu ~OQS q4!q s') n!.~~ua"ou~pa aq 01 papua] sanss! -!moa ~r!!ms Luc~u XL~M ol sl: C~alsLm Lui? alaql s! uaulssc~cq lcnxas paz!m!u!ru o q suos~ad ~ '(6l.) 'lallcur leql rod 'vaqlo %u!lr!u!mop put? ' UR~LU Japna9 ql!~ uo!lnlal.ros pa13adxa ayl saplsag '3' 4u12q JOJ 'la~od Su!l~axa.~oj sia2.ic1 Lses np!~o.rd = Pqdl~? ur! Su!pla!X 'aw:~a~c aql uo ZZ. palnauuo3 sa!l!.lou!ur ycam ;,pan~pn[a.rd an!~r!~uop v!n -JXu! (l!n.rl-uon c-'tu~alqo~d [r!!nos sno!.ras r! s! -0s Xuciu os X ~ M 01 sc L.ra~sCtu Luc a.r,7q1 s! o~ uo!l~?p!rn!ln! [nnxas,, :t'ah!lnc~lir: spug ay ucwom 1: 01 sanuchpc lcnvas ayvru 01 rrcur c 10j lc.rnlnu Alrlo s! 11,. '.?a) sural! 1uaurssc.rcq cnxas aql,;ql!m XCMC la2 U:~ nox?~m ol umop spoq ~ [e $1 t,2~o.~~, pue.lys!~. sr? 3u!ql yms on s! L11l:>.1 alaqj,,, qdoad ]sour ucqi a.row.saaa!laq YL') pcalsn! OLM 'SMC ~CJOU Lq pap!ns 3u!aq slnar9r sluan!d aql Ruourl: panpqns a.rour pahold lapiraa orl~ auoaluos o) alll!l sucaw,l1as11 ssausno~~qs!~

17 .P~SJOA>. s! Lay?!J~?\: nq~ q>!q.~.ins 'uia~! i!i!rl-r~oo r: saln>!pu!,..aloar ;l!aoap pur! uo!lelnd!rrcm lou 'An!lod lsaq aql s! Xisxroq mql smouq uosiad iicms.cln~r aql 'OZ..rl!aq oi U!M Xgqi lvqm uaql S! a~doad 2[pUl?q 01 SXVM ~Saq aql~o auo '61 *'asla arroauros 01 9u!A[ JOJ asnxa ou s.ajarjl.81,aji! rink qrr~ql siaqlo uos.lad aqi aq X~li:nix 01 ucql s~aqlo jo spo!tu aqr u!,~~as~~ioljo a4au1! pons t! ali?a.rn ol lur:i~odm! a.rour s! 11,L[ *.paa.13 put? lamod Xq 1c1u 's[c.~oiu sno!s![a~ prro sald!ou!id lr!n!rlla qz!q Aq pau.rsno4 aq plnoqs sang J ~ O '91,:.Su!X.rl dn a~!;7 uaql 'rjargo 4u! 'flu1a1 'qsauqnjun Xq 4rr!ll1aulos la2 XUO U?~ 11oXj1 ~ SUC~U aql Xj!lsnr~o~ s20p pua arl~.araqr jo a2nlor?~p1: 171:1 ol ~ o u~r?al q aldoad iii:rus prlr 'alnu!ro u.~oq Jaysns n s,,:-6auum jo s~ol ayl:tu puv,,~uaqi yl!m Xl?~l? 124,, Ur!O X~ljl lal[m U3Aa 'SJ! lla2op plfloqs au0 ON.Kl!unruuton ~nox u! a1doad lucllod~u! aqi lo aulos tp!m lnr:luon aal?q pup a%?ru! poo3 c i3aroid ol s! rls.lnq2? oi ;iu!xuolaq ~ oj r1osca.r ~ wq arll ' ~ 1,;sasr?n lie u! As!lod isaq aqi S Xisauo~ 1 '31;) 'aq!.rq oi uaq~ 'uaina.rr1i 01 uaqm 'i311cll 01 uaqm 'q9nol aq oi nsq~ 'auoauros.a~[as-~jos., O uar1.w am am!^ ~qs!.r aql li? aaour irls!.~,, aq1 Xu!mouy s! a.\nq ucn auo 111ys isaq a q '01 ~ ;uraql u! qpj 2avq nob J Lqi~ofi1sn.11 air! ydoad 1so~ 'iqnop aql jo l!lauaq aql s.rarllo a~!4 plnorls auo '6 'lu?m.<[!~j nok V~M noc la:! Xaql rraqm pag!lsnc ~J? 411!11!aqa prir: llama.8.l!lauaq LMO inoa 101 paiclnd~unw ptn: Alla!nb aq 01 sinarqo a.117 aldoad 'X~~RJ!S:~.L :sarl~!.l prlu ~ a ~ 1aS o d 01 X~aqsca.11 pul! ]!amp sasn aq J! Bu!qloii uosiad n su!n Ar2ui -nu!.\uoo a!] pul? axa aqi u! lq9!1:.1is auoaluos yon1 ol moq s! dola~a pplnoqs uoslad n s11!qqnj?sn lso~u aql jo auo.g *.asla auoawon oi ~!!~L Su!qlhuc op.lamu pun,no.( olun op rr1at1i 3~11q p ~ n nox o ~ S? s.raqro olun oa p.~m Acmr! 139 rrnn no,< leqm oi umop sl!oq 11" 11,.'~~oJM,, pul!,'ll$!j,. S? 3lll~ll ll2fls OU S! A[1~2.1 3.laLlL 'E,'lsauoqslp pul! lucl -iodur! ui?ql ]s?uoq pul? alqnrnq aq ol iallaq s! i! '!u! [v 'i.s~un!q" aql la3 no6 uaqm SJ!~ waql la4 ol a,\eq nok os *nox ',Mains,, 01 )no a.rt! aldoad iso~u inql ~ouy noa -3 put C!l![!L pasn Llsno!~; lng.salnseac 'VMt ay1 Lpn~s L~q!qc -dns sjuapnls slned!y~ed a aqi pasn suo -nc Lw pajam L~enucl u! sal -nn ZU!M-~L~S!J L1atua~lxa uc uaaq ahcq 01 stuaas ']![ Ltr~i L~atua~~xa atuos lc Suq3!d ( J~~!H JOJ ;Cl!p!ll:i\ 'salcss asaql suoddns s!q~ 'q81~ S aq lcql solcz!lsahu! pa.l.rcss aq] ajnssc op,la ~'[!.w!~jo?j~x~ :sasnscaw JnoJ asaql no,'ai!~o~d,, al!u!jap c pannpo.rd a4c~tr! s,jap!h jlopv os '08 1 LUllLll!X?LU 'Jaylour? auo so) Su!qnno~ L~[cnu!ltros suo!lclndc luasa~~!p asay mosj s4u1pug qolem 01 auo ajc Leu1! al!qm.satuo31no pascq-lua~ed dn pay JO 95~8 JO Z'E-T %!aq 'l!lu!l aql paq~eo~d Kpnls S!L~ 'sllnsaj luapnls Jagma pa~so~u!a.r k -dc oslr alrx avm-3 a"y 00, 9aMsuc pa.lla:ru! -~ns ltla~cd L~cnuar aql ss lsn! 'az!.lcruurns oj s! 'OZ ~ wnur!xcm aql jo 6 JO ~'80 1 8~1!$?l?~a~V '(6~') qs!av ' a ~ ~ - XlqZ~q d d Zrr!aq sc uaas oslr! si:~ Jall!H -3 L[~!W pahold,,sadl~c!l!l!ly., '(6 '-) SU~U!U~~.(9~1 JO urnul!xcm at11 jo o/,z(, -lo) z.9 11 JO ~caiu n tug SUA!:! 'paltta!~~ antien!moa c!nos ajow avly-3 Lclds!p 01 ;ilay!lun Xllucsy!uS!s paho~d syfiy q4!~.urs!.rluasourllg t13!~ zp. pue'oas uaha aq plnom.lall!h 1qSnorll sluapnls aql '(pa.ro3s Ll!M 19. 'avm-dd Yl!M 81' lcq~aw~' Jaha snq aspa[nzouy Xw 01 aua or1 q?!q~) OLZ pallnch oslu sajns1:aru JaqloJno ql!~ sd!~ls~o!lcl: lo ~r!lol alq!ssod urnlu!xl?ur aqljo %98 00, s~unou~r avm-3.sllnsaj lua~cd ayl ucqj Ja!yol CL~M~LU~ ley1.o'eez pa11:nha 'sluapnls Su!pundsa~ 0s JO vqdlt? LV ~ U C JO uo!lcla.u03 tua1!j21l /Cq pahld-a101 SF 'SSaMSUC all?ns VMu Sc.lall!H ucam r! dn pahjas srual! avm-3 oz 2q.L.,11aj cc1lna.i ail M O noqc ~ tl1n.11 aql llal ol a.lam.(()) qloq.lo '(t.1) soas qs!* '(1 1) q4!h 2q j!,, 'plnom.rall!~ jlopv 3qSnoql Laql sc salcns Jarll!a?.ram S2J03S r!!l!l!a JO al!l.lnnb do1 aq] '! avril/v-g p ~ 'av/\r-dd c 'oas <VMX aql Su!t~!r!l papul? n q s1unpnls ~ PS ayldo (T)!,s~) Xl!.lo!~m p!fo" -uon lalqooq cjahzsnc 01 sscln L4olorloiCsd X~olsnp e.slua.lcd aql ql!~ sv.sasrrodsas avm-dd ql!' -o.rlu! un tr! sluapnls pal!nu! 'icc.41 aurvs aq~ ur~q 0~. pu~~us~s~uanouq~3 ql!~ zy. 'oas ql!m z' MS s.13qlo ~ aqiaq~ lsal OL.ad61 OaS q5!q LJ~A c S?M J ~ ~ 1~~11 H UO!~!~O pa11?is-sa!l.rr!a Ktu ~u0.r~ 9so.1~651 LJC~U~ u! Kpnis luqm~s pnonas iclq '~MX L~!M SC. pqlnanuon sa.rox c!l!l!~n '~39~~~' U ql!~ pau!l:lqo sanp ;lures aqi--88') ~?qdlc ur! pcq puc 6C. palnlauon.1alu! s~ual! c!l!l!y '(1 1') SVMX 1 l"8 '(6E') s!. sanss! luawss tro ~arlz!q paj' -clauon pcm allm slua~cd -A!: 'asc~a~ ol sasrrodsax -J~U! s!q~ L (L 1!9!4G) 211 an!l!ofdxq M: '.ra!ljea MCS put uamom Pun anuads ualussejeq [ saa!len.xasuo: Soas qa!~ '( luaurssc.~eq r JapuaS yl!~l = cqdlc uc 8u -Jalu! (1!1?u-u ~o!i~p!rn!~rr1 "1 sanunhpr L1uo S! 11,. '.:

18 oi /(lay!] sr! lsur paho~d Laql 1118 'Ki~aq![ jo saalur!.klah!l~adsal'll' puv pqrnba -1en4 ~ CUO~~~~SLO~ urnl.raao 01 srreuelpoq~ne S~!M sa.rnseatu.lnoj aql jo seqdlc aql.).~oqs Kl3u!:r! -1r[S!.1 rlerll parr!lnu! ssal rlnnru pahold Laql 'asuajap -JO~S! 1123 (P') puaa pur! (60') luaruasuctlrrg J!aqi ul ~KD?.~oLu~~ ualea~ql soas qs!q oa aqdaoaa-jlag lnq '(6 1.) ~allaq p!p 1u3ura9cue1/\1.a.rc~ lor1 op lnq 'pas!pnra.rd Lla~!lela~ uo!ssa~dru~ '(~1' = uo!iela~.ro3 ural!~a]u! rreaur) a.rv Kaql lei11 MOLY ualjo Kaqi sc ~sn['x~iue~~qsuou Xooals!suo3 [cudaiu!.mod pvrl aumo.l3-amoln?m puc KlSu!mouy X[.r!ej os op puc-spua UMO aql.sluapnls 902 ol (yo9 LUJOJ) sa.rnscaur aasr[l qaql aaa!qsn 01 L.lessa3au uaqm Alaay al!nb splcp s'snrllncd pug 'au~o13-a~o[.rc/\ 'oas ' y~a a111 -ucis alqnop asn!m ssoleu!urop le!nos 3~~11 131p Sn!u!eluo:, ~~[yooq c pa~nq!.ris!p 'ssalaql.raha~ -a~d pnom os.on Lsases asoql jo Lur! rr! aql,sluaurn.risn! q3ns uo LlqS~q paloss Jaharr ahcq u! 'iaaj JO 'su0.11 LMO.1!aqla1a~ n8.klq!ssod ~,SU! sa.alasurarll 01 sa~lasruaq~ ~noqc smau pcq ]!~r~pe -pnc~sql!~~ou glens ~QW-9 aql 01 s.ta.msrre.!aql 01 luci3nla.r prrv a~!suajap XlqS!q ajr! slz~azr~!.racl~~ '[1Walj? Xl!~2aio! 1r!uos.rad JOJ ahyls Kaql oa i,lsal r~ro.rjmouy am O ~ M pur! 'u1s![r?uo!lrra~uo~ J!arll jo sp.rcpnels alqnop ar[i ssed Xaqi p!p ~ o,,'pa3ual q asnc~aq Sl!l!qc~~sap ~c!~os ~o sa.rnsearu uo s.raqrrrnu -[erlu[d!srr!.~d,, K[an!lela~ an soas qs!q J S!q dn y3v /4no OL~M 'SVMX ~S!H 'JaAamoH,;(ss~,d) ajq JO KCM uasoqo s,auo JOJ mamas.rop.c!uaa puc ']uarua~ucquz~ ah!ldama-;l[ag 'luaru -ua put? asr![os '~u!~ur]s [1?!30S 'L]~JGs Qu!~L~:J~ -as~uc~/y uo!ssa.~dur~ JO sa.rnsi?alu rual!-oz pado rr! 313s aql 01 lnjasn :uc!~cl!l!ln Lpn!.rls., s c uo!s ~ -lahap scq (1,561 'p!ax 78 snqlncd '.%.a) snqlnr!d -!la.' asoqm %Mad aql u! pal~ods aq lrl8noq](g961) prrc 'prr!w 03 sauros (pg61 'amo1.1qq aumoj3) 11odll\~ uop.rof) rrlorlm sldoad,,paluapo Llleo!s U~!-EE arll,;sa!jsnu -o!.rlxa,, aql Suomc 11ej 01 pual qn.lnqn poailc o q ~ -hls~?o,, Koap pur! sah1asmaql lnoqc syu!ql.'lpoo% soas qs!qj! aru punojsc lou pinom 11.luaJajj!pu! -XpooS,, K?~ 01 sa!~uapual s'aidoad ssassc lcrll n'na~d maas Kay1 Ll[r?nsn inq 'sno!s!la~ a]!nb ~eaddc sda,\~ns dolahap 01 uaaq set1 qsco.rdde [vnsn aql ~1011?u!urop [c!30s Maj v iu0!8!la.l lnoqe ll?l]m ial!t?ui~o!].a~!ssa.~zsc -sanb n LO! lnoqe urarp ysv ia~doad U! Louapuai l~!?~nl!.roqrnn y.rep 'q.rcp maqi ~0103 louues am s!ql a.rnscaru am op ~\oq 's! alqnol] aql,op am 'aq Xeru Laql paolpnrald.rahamoq os ~suo~len~!s nadsns [ ~.sanlxzr~d'/r 01 san~asrlraqlnoql? s%u!q] assod JO sle!ll aql u! suc~~cl~~oqlnc SU!M-~Q!J se p~q l!rrrpc 01 ay!l lou op Xaql asne~q sasuods i(la~!ssass4c sr! lsc JOZ p!p Aaq~ 1n8 ~ao~pnb~d u! -a] qaql ices-~esns saur!lamos ska4ms Su!~am~ue " ~ qz!~ 8 aq1 uaha pa~u!od~no s~olcu!mop le!n aldoad oa.uo!~da~ap-jlasjo stujal rr! payono3 aq 01-0Vlu!g isoas q%!~ lnoqr! sn ['[a1 ~adcd s!ql L! scq uorlela~dralu! alcu~allr! s!q~ os.cuos~ad 3gqnd pauoda~ sa~pnls au!u aql op V~M 'yscq Zu!yoo~ e advqs 01 SU!X. uaaq a.\cq plno3 auo ou 'X1snorrr -Luoue panlas sluapuodsal Kw jo ~X!S,ai\!suajap ssal Ala~am lnq 'no os pun 'sy~xur adel jo Bu!ldamr! 'avw-g 'prim -dd a.lou1 ~ ou 'ssaqlo uvql paxpnfa~d a.lour aq ~ ou Lclu soas q81y '1rl4q s!ql U 'palr!laj an Ll1va.1 paqoau! sl!c11 arp Jaqlaqm 'a1kls asuodsa~ '.poos -~OO~-O-K~ snsjaa pnq-yoof-o~-su!ll!~,, s!yi Lq ']3l?J!.1! Ll!l~qc lualxa amos 01 1aqla4ol pan14 aq ~ M sanss! ah!] -.'!sap 1~30s c 60 qsnru aq 01 ~oaddv lnrr saop,.lsau -!srlas 2s!e.1 lvql salcos JO UO!D~O~ : 01 sasrrods -aj uayl '0s J.ruaql Jo ajnmcun uaaa a.rc 10 'qsns l!mpc 01 luclnnla.~ i(la~!rnlaj ale s.raqio lnq 'La~.rns c uo sahlasmaql lnoqc ssu!rll peq ~!u~pc 01 Su!ll!~ aldoad amos asoddns 'Sl32JJ3 Al!~!qc~!sap [c!~ -0s Lq palqulassc hl[nmnv s c suo~lela~~on ~ OaS jo,,lqau,. aq~ J! p3.laprrom O ~ M '11!yona uq01 Sq paldmo~d s c Spnls ~ luapnis Lmnrrcr p~!rli a q ~ ~os~ad lsauoqs!p pur: 'le~ourc*aa!ll: '20'- 'L 1. '50.:rr!aq w aqi -y~a ~M llam palcl -nd!ucm 'a~!l!o[dxa'su!laau!urop K~VUOSJ~~ 'uuaru -aj.lo3 sajnsl?arn snoj ayl jo auou.u!n2r! aorlo 'ua~!lp-ja~od '~e!~olcln!p '(ls!nsq 'sal) uc!.~e~!~oq~

19 .suc!n!l!lod ywqi 40 alio,l~ana uo 1saq8!q pa.103~ pue 'u!c8e dan PUU p?laq!t UcqJ pa31pnra.rd puc 'lll?u!luop oas uo s.laqlo 1lc paj~r!odlno sls!le1!de3 '(9661) L ~ ~ ~! ~ o ~ u ~! ~ G ZU!M-~S!J ~! J o ~ alour ~ G aq 01 pual uoslapy pun pue[rc~nm jo uo!3e3!ldal pasrosle sun!~!r!lod Lro~ pne mlojay.op daql os puy -1uapnls 9661 aql U 'salvos msplua~ouqlg p~.syoolino.r!arp alcqs s.rapcal,sa!l~cd asaql asrras uo!lelna!.ro a3ucu!uroa le!3os arll rro dno~b Jaq /Carl1 asncsaq sa!~red aa!lei\rasuos pue wlojax aql 1aja.rd aldoad paxpnfard pue 'palua!.ro-a~~cu -!mop 'ue!ml!.roqlnc /Cla~!~elar 1eq1 sasoddns auo /Cue uerll.raqb!q pa103s,,s)s!f~!~v~,, 'dpnls luarl ~661.raqolso aql ul ~suogcb!isa~u! 1rrasa.rd ayj, claaas u! pasn La~~ns 3!qdelZowap ayl olu! uc 'sjadan pue 'sl1?raq!7 'sra~.rod -sanb,,lyoopno lue~rodru! isour,, ayl paddqs 1 -dns aa!lcajasuos aql Lq pamoloj 's.raqlo /Cue ueql '(E 1 z 'd),,s3!dmd10 L1! pan?pnfa.'tl a.row ale slse!snipua irr.1oja> lcqj -SOH uc!lci!.roqlnv aq1 uaaq pcq s!ql j! slsai aaj punoj scy Lpnls lap dpnls 'dl.rc~!m!~'r110q 10 's~ol (~c u! [cpaiir plo:! aql UOM aaeq plnom s~s!lcl!cf -cu!urop c!30s q:!q lo soc!rc~!.~or~)nr! Su!~-jqS!r aql,, 'alorm 9661 U! ley! sa.~nseau~ 11?3!pe~-assc - rls!q aq 01 ]no pao.rm sjadan aql JO % E puv 's[c.ra pue 'slenxasoiuoh plc~ol sapnl!$lv 'rus!.r~uas -q!7 aql JO 0b9~ 'S~!JOL ay] JO '~-la~.roja~ aql -ouqlg aq1 uo sa~oss q9!q qsns dn payse~ Kl~uals!s JO 95~9 <~1uau1!.1adxa 9661 [(q ayl u! paalas o y ~ -uo3 SJS!~G!~~~ pa~clnap-jlas (10 os put?,,'yo01 sluapnls ~ aqj 8.roj s!sllene aurw arll op nolj1 (.s3!j!~od u! isa.ra~u! ou peq.lo 'sluapuadaprr~ ajam a~diucs aql jo lsar aq~) '%6z SEM s.ral~od -dns dan 101. aqj ~ oj ley] PUG '%(j~ pa~enba slv.1a -q!79~~ a41 JOJ a~nbg aql y1oq.lo 'soas qb!y JO -1no ls!le!3os,, c,6'yoo[lno s!+!lua!3s c,,,6'qoolino sno!s![a~ G,. apnpu! sa!l!l!q!ssod.raqlo),;alc.rado plnoqs dia!sos moqjo d~oayl~s!le1!d1?3 e :a~!~sads -.rad ~ C ~ ~ O ~ S ~ y,, Jajjo ~ ~ ~ 'sa~!~eu.ralle V D au!u ayl 8uowv 'ajy u! yoopno U?.O~L! isow r!a s v ~ yz!q y ajam %9p 'saa!lealasno3 ayl paloag JO a.~n~eu aql ale~pu! 01 sluapuodsa.~ palysc ah1 O ~ 9M 1 arlljo ~ yoq 10 'uo~eu!wop lcpos q4!q 10 Lpuanbarj!pnlsja![lca Lur $0 duew u! Cl!l!~sc sue!.rcl!!oqlnc ~u!m-~~!. qb!q sc paz!.ra13e~eq3 aq jo uol e palclds!p,,'sue!~cl!.~oq~n~ plej-pply pp03 s.ral.roddns Xllcd urlojax arll jo 3/,p9 (= pg yl!~ Brrolr? '1eql dnor8 laq1oue su!eldxa uo!lsauuc 19s) laylabo1le os yoq alam ajoru t.1 pue 'soas Kqdosol!qd 3!~uouo3q--oa~ aql '/([le~~ap!xq ~B!H ajam 81 'uo!lnq!.rls!p vfix aql jo a~!l.' roj aa!.rp UMO J!aql dq uahpp /C~~nj.ram( do1 aqj u! paseld zz 'asaql jo 'laaa1 ejapaj ayl a.rc smay 3!mouo3a qaql lvql Klay!l suraas! 'Su! uo L1.1cd ur.rojay aq1 paroaq maql jo t.8 '(PE[ -aq-lla~ u ~ J!ayl o lnoqe 101 njme uc ales slolt?u = N ) S?!pnlS L66[ L.'"n~e[ PU" 9661 PUc S661 Jaqolso ayl u! paaras oqm s~ua~ed aqlbu!u!!l.rcd ie3!l!lod jua~a.g!p ayl jo SLLRJSO.~ aqj Jaj -!mop le!3os yu!rp nodj! 1na.spuels asayl~oj pajaj -TO/C[luanba.~j are sacuo!lej s~ruouosg.l~~unc- J!aq1 u! rll1camjo uo!lnq!lls!p uaaa ajow e asod~ -ad aldoadjo pug ~ cjo q s!sdlcuc ~ Su!y!~~s.raqlcl Laill ~!wp~ oslv Xay~.a~ueu!mop lc!~os u! 4: c 01 spcal ley1 pue 'u~s!uc!.~v~!~oqine Brr!m-lqB!.~ ~c yo01 nol uaym Srr!rap~o yue~ aures aq1 pug noa 'Jap -lo icy1 u! L~icnsn 's.ladan puvslvjaq!7 aql aurw paloss Llle~auaZ uo os puc 'druouo3a aql u! lua -aaloau! ~uauru~a~o8 ssal 'qsp aql pue sassau!sr.oj saxe1 JaMol 'slaapnq pasucleq 'suo!un jo Su![ -yeam 'Su!puads [c!sos u! uo11snpa.1 'uo!)t?z!lg+uaql.lsay8!q lxau parox slcm1e sa~!1e~rasuo3 Bu!lt?oo~pc ]sow srlos~ad ayl.dydosol!qu aqi pay!] oym asoql.s~al.roddn s'ducd laylo Xur? s!urouosa J!aql u! uo!ssa~dxa spug uo!l!soddo s!yl ucyl anueu!ruop c!aos n!.rayi??!q p2.103~ cpcuo3jo Cl.rrd mjojay aq1 pa1oacj o q suos~ad ~ 1cql punoj stq alms oas aq1 ql!~ auop aacq dpnls d ~a~a 'UO!lt?lUa!lO 1~3!1!10d 01 O!UO1033 UO.j ~U!AON./cl![cnf :sanp [c~lua3 s'l3c.nourap jo auo oj pasodd iuaas 'jlasl! alcss OaS aqlo~ sramsuc J!aql~o a1 -J!A Cq 'soas ~B!H ;,suaz!l!n ~aporu SP sraylo PL.slcnxasowoq p.rcmo1 's!oxqan() 'sucs!.raurv-u!lc-~ 'hrlsasuc ur?!sv 1 Ll~l~lsoq puc 'urs!~luasouq~a 'a3~1?n!rrrop 1c13os aldoad.slcnxasomoq 'sqc.1~.synelg 'scu!~~oc u! sraqlo paddol Xpnls lua~cd 9661 Jaqolno aql 'uauro~]su!c8c pan!pn[a~d snos.1ad fia! u! sls!p!den ayl 'X~.~~!U!S.axpnr;r.rdJo sa.lnst?aul auo uc3 p u "~SU~U!~U~S ~ c!l!l!w., J!~~~S-!U~ Pa 01 dlay~ sc lsnr -mn8 leuo!lnl!lsl -lqs!1 uerp pauy l!aq u~ il3e131 'ale. am La43 icyl MO pue d15u!mou: ~!aql a~a!q~u 01 -ucjs alqnop as1 -a~d pnom 1 u! '1aaj ro 'suo.~! -pul?lsyl!m]ou 3 13?1e d1!.14a11 sp.lepuss alqno -let13 ald!supd, "'(SSP'42J!1 JC -ua pile aselos u! jlas aylol nj -![a1 asoym 'SM: jlodlly nop~of -n!jlxa,, aql Buo soas ~B!~J! au Ailard uraas Laql sjojeu!iuop le!3 uv!.~~~!~ozllny 'aq dew daql p assod 10 s[c!ll : A~A!SS~J~" DOC S? SVMU Y ~ aq: H -0s ']SJ!d isoa pa~oda~ sa!pnl! loll! ane

20 'ac3s agl8u!sn q3jcasa.r u! ~cj snq1 dn a~doad ayl?ur icy1.sanua!.iadxa ;Crrcur pag!]uap! aacq paddot1 a~cq luql s9n!pn!~ 2u!snjuo jo lsou~ am 'anss! aq1 JO ap!s "a.rnl.rnu,, aq] uo snnoj o~ u!eydxa sdlarl no!luiua!.ro anucu!nrop 1c!3os 'Lllcu!~ '9~' palenha a3uclqurasar V M p~!qn-raql ~ pnv 'iq9!.1 LMO.!~L u! Lpms i!ram puc 'auo d1.12 -cj aql puk 'op' s c u~op-am-pucq ~ VMH pl!r1",,(lu!n1.ra~oas rls!rl '!ss!ur sew -raylour aql Lpnls s!rll ul.~tyuan~ju! arour Surrcad pz!ll:aj JaA3U 1 YU![ ~?-u"s/c"c!~os Ut?!Jl?l!JOLllnt? -de jua.rcd Jaql!au ~!M '(~9'd '886 1 '.~alaruallv) uo!ss!ruqns-uo!lcu!mop aqi K! yu!l Su!ss!m arlljo sa!pnls Lnciu J~AO salons \~r\ia,s~ua~ed.r!aqi. aasq am a.rnscarrr lsaq arp sap!~o.rd alu3s OaS aql L~!M 0 ~ lnoqe ' paleajjos scq t~/s!ut~,!.roylnn oslv 'aru sazcrrn? ~ c '.rcj q snql ~ pa!pnls saldures Y~r!nz-~yB!n 'sluapnis 'uos!~cduron Kg aql u! as!pn[a~d aql jo lsoru su!eldxa lsa1 s!ql.lwaao ale3s VMH arll urorj dlaq auros q ]!~ 'paapu~ 33!p s[aaal.raqs!q pnq saleur aql 'cnsn se lnq '(st,') -1iTa.rd jo a.rnscaru L~t?u!p.roeqxa uc pasnpo.rd sey LCM aql Lq 'a~treu!mop[cpos jo slaaa1 Jel!ur!s 11 'srroseal Lueur.~oj ~~nosnon a~~cu!mop (c!z~os palelds!p s.raqicj pue sraqloru jo sr!~?d '(E '),s.ra (~66 1) q.1~ la olln.~d lnoqc palyxa la8 rreo auo -r[loru arll p!p rrl?ql (op') OC(S s,ua.rpl!q3.l!aql jo a~!ls!pard a.rour Lllue3g!uS!s pa~o.rd OaS 'sjaql -cj 'Srrn.rdsjlo aq~ Su!rr!qmo3 'st.. puc ' 1" u! amen s]ua!syjaos a~!lnadsar aql (pp =N) sues.rod ',s.'aqlt?j.r!arll ql!~ 1s' pue 'a3ul?u!mop c!nos,sja 'pamolloj Lag1 -ylour rlarll qi!~ 91 ' paiclai.ro3 anucu!mop c!nos i slapour alor 3111 st? puc "'s~aqsnd,, J!~L~ sv ualjo (09 = N),s1alq2nca 'sjarllcj J!aql jo ~6 puc sra j arow pauo!luaur a.lam s.rarllr?j nq :auo JaqurnN -qlour l!ayljo 68 ql!~ sluapnls pol JOJ sdnqnlam 01 : aq ol saa!.rp r!aql pa4c.rnon1ra pcq slua.r~?d qioq pal s!q~.siaaqs alqqnq,sluarud.r!aql LO '.laqmnu p!cs ualjo soas q %,;Su!sol ~ alcy dlalnlosqe,, lar3as,, LMO.r!aql 111d 01 L~A.S aqo120 aql pun :,,asol lou 01 Srr!qlLue op ~,, M :,,Su!sol 1sa1 pajamsur! slua.rccl asoqm slrrapnls aql! -ap,, :,,Su!sol alt?q,, :G6Su!sol alt?q L~~uci.rodur! -pnls Lm u! lxau ail1 01 uo!~c~auas arro uloq pa3ca a.loru aqlcm puc BL!UU!M jo Su!laaj a111 ayq,, aq U?~,,~~uc!.~Lu! oas,, ur! 'Sutld!~3s a~nl~nu!,,su!,m tucal LLL uaq~ jjo la2 icllea~., pue :'&u!m snsjaa arnleu noqc Zu!qlou sn sllal! aur!l Lla~a la8 qsn.1 aql 30 asncnaq s,]~,, :lcaj ~sluaurqs!~rnd a111 jo.lama3 put -ap jo Luo8c at11 (L[lc!mdsa) puc L.ron!~ jo 11!rq1 'ajg u! sp1cma.r aq1 JO a.lou1 Su!lla8 1 aql paq!.rssap Laql araqm qdoad lsour ucql ualjo Su!i\erl 'a~uassa sl! 01 pampa8 '~301 rarlrrut?q ; ajour s1.rods a~!]!ladmo3 L! pase2ua aacy ol pamaas c u! najjg jo ME? aql aacq nol sucam asnen oslc Laq~ 'dl-lna~n sascssaur 11?~nlln3 asaql dn -aq *~a,~od Su!ploq sc 8rr!3~oju!a.r sn aq rren s2u!ql paqo!d L1u!n~as sro~co!urop ~c!oos os.;~jom s!q1 Maj puv.! aacq O ~ asoql M alcl!ru! pul? ' ~A!D~J~ U! aaa!qne raiza ~!M nol KBM LUO aql s! s!q~,, puc ~amod 1n!3os pug uarpl!qn lcll1 (E961) S S O puc ~ '.,,Xla!oos slxepol u! a.mlnj ~noljo lo.~iuon u! aq 01 'sso~'clnpucg anu!s rrmouy aaeq 2M.anrrap!i\a l~!l!laduron aq 01 aacq nol ley1 lq8nnl s! auol~a $0 ynn1 mj--p~!~~n c apqm paqs!und Lllw!sLqd AZJ,, :.,s.raqlo jo pnaqc la2 oi UUM a~doad :sy~o~ Su!aq-s~nadsns cnsn aql jo auo luamoru aql.roj ~JOM aql L?M aql s! s!q~,, sc s8u!q1 qons p!cs ascalar 01 pcq aacq am j! ua.42 'ool 'pucy Suo~ls 40 aroru s~o~~?u!rrrop 1cr3os 'sinapnls.raqio aql c sxnld Lyu!eua3 somlc Su!u~ea( 1c!3os lng "n soas ~18)~ aql jo SJaMSUl? 4rr!rndmo3.Sll?l.;noL ol Llcdn s!rp jo auou saop JO i,q!l aq 01 qn1 apop Jno a3uaq :s1q8!] p~qnoxa"a~ ~.,.m no/( lcql s!ql ay!l lapour e aizcq nol oa i,"j!l.sjay]o u! annpal icllc3.12 PUC 'sa!3ads auros L!! SJaqlO JaAO ~ah~od lucm 01 n0l s~!llas U! 1UCl Jo!ncqaq lucu!ruop 'a~!ssar22l? paa.rq ol alqc uaaq iodru! L~~elnn!l.n?d alaa3 lcql pcq no/( sanua!.radxa aanq strnrunq puc srualsxs a~unu!ruop punorc pnq 1a~y1.lo (>M awntr noic uc3 i,lc~ lcqi la4 nol p!p sa!la!nos lt?ur!un 11c L11cnlr!~ ~Llsno!.ras al!nh 1110 H i,ajc nol se,mollaj.raqlo aql v?aq ol pau!m slnadso~d n!1aua8 aqi aye1 plnoqs am.loamuoj!aua -. 3 lap, pun.sno!l!qruc Lllcuowad 'a~~l~laduron puc saua? jo uo!lnc.lalu! aql uo ~aq ~!M La~rour S? : 3.m nol yn!ql no/( op XLM.. 'iqqooq ayl JO pua lacrus aql ;.u~oy am(>:, soas qs!q op alaqm?,.. q~ 1vLa~~ns r)bbl JaqrnaAoN 1sc1 Lw u! pahras ~ sluapn~s M aql paqsc 1.L~SU!-.~~~V.aj!j L~SOJ~ 15 Lay] sr! un!ll:~!.rorllnl: SU!M-]~~!. SS~ JO a.roru

21 "hey go Jen~s who ey, at the 'ou are as 'deter. re? How :) or three ly imporothers in You want n you'.'" 30s with ore often he world rs"; "Evnpetitive society"; chieve in ly picked hey also 3rts more ribed the ny of de- -y time n wins"; be more ;"; " desew; and ten said es to be ed more models (1994) sons. t f preju- A scale in the e. Also e have mission realized ertainly ht. And explain popped e. For example, Richard Christie and were surprised that RWA did not associate highly with scores on his Machiavellianism scale. n fact, it usually correlated negatively. Now see that we were ~~~arriers" of a misconception that goes back to Erich Fromm. We expected just one kind of personality to play a role in authoritarianism. when in fact the Machiavellianism associated with die- mmrial behavior appearst0 come from high SDOs. '..-- not high RWAs. navid -- Winter and were similarly mystified when his TAT-based measure of need-power (Winter, 1973, 1988) proved uncorrelated with RWA. Want to bet 1 was not again confusing dominators,it11 submitters? High RWAs may usually be content to bow to those above them, but high SDOs are driving to rise in the ranks. For a final Ancient Mystery of the RWA Scale, the positive correlation between left-wing and right-~ing authoritarianism also surprised me. Now it appears that the "Wild-Card Authoritarians" detected in those data were mainly hostile high RWA and high SDO "militia-types" who interpreted the Establishment as Jews, homosexu;ils, feminists, and other "left-wingers."? High SDOs "Authoritarians"? This paper is entitled "The Other 'Authoritarian Personality."' Why the qualification?are not high SDOs authoritarians?yes and no. would say they are in the sense that "authoritarian" connotes "dictatorial." think you can count on high SDOs dictating to others when they have the social authority to do so. But social authority probably does not produce dominance in high SDOs, thc way it triggers submission in high RWAs. nstead, high SDOs will probably try to dominate others in general, legitimately or otherwise. f some group landed in a Lord of the Flies wilderness and social authority evaporated. think the high SDOs would quickly start snarling and scheming to become the alpha animal. So 1 would not call social dominators "authoritarians, pure and simple." They do not have the reverence for established authority that rightwing authoritarians have, aside from its being a means to their end. They are social dominators, pure and simple. But they will produce authoritarian social syrterns with the support of high RWAs The Other "Authoritarian Personality" if they become legitimate authorities. Why then do high SDOs tend to end up on the "high RWA end" on many social issues? can offer three reasons. First, social dominators tend to hold conservative economic and political philosophies. Second, experiments have shown that high RWAs (but not lows) will trust untrustworthy people who tell them what they want to hear. So if-no offense intended-you believe that "one of the most useful skills a person should develop is how to look someone straight in the eye and lie convincingly," where will you find your easiest sell on the political spectrum? Whom do you sidle on up to and praise the Lord'? The right-wing authoritarians. Third, some social dominators could express strong belief in submitting to the established authorities on tlie RWA scale if they consider themselves (now or someday) the authorities others should submit to. Hitler would seem to have been such a person, and the students who role-played his beliefs produced extremely high scores on both tlie SDO and RWA scales. Such "High SDO-High RWAs" are somewhat rare, as the correlation between the two measures only comes in around.20. But about 8% of my sanlples did score in the upper quartiles of both the RWA and SDO distributions. These "dominating right-wing authoritarians" proved distinctive in another way. n every study, they had the highest prejudice scores of any group in the sample. They are thus the most worrisome persons have found in my investigations. 0. mproving the Social Dominance Orientation Scale Just as constantly tinker with my own measures, have tried to improve the internal consistency of the SDO scale. Adding tlie following 6 statements to the 14 original ones shown in Exhibit 2 raises the mean interitem correlation (and the tcst's relationship with prejudice) a small but useful amount: "Some people are just much better than everyone else, and deserve to have power and control over others"; "This country would be better off if inferior groups stayed in their place"; "The best people should not be expected to accept others as 'equals"'; "We should strive with our mightiest efforts to increase equality and social justice in our country" (con-trait); "The poor and the weak

22 ~ -~ S.E(,-EL ' 6 ', ~ /i~!.>o~,/i /J.~O~ 'L~allol ye.lp l!no!lnu aql u! slr~ed!n!i~cd 40 Xl)nls v :lo1 ScJ3LflflLr! 01 suo!l3l?3j ~[JOA~ lsn!! u! ja![ag '(~~61) 'V 'neldad 78 "Z 'u!qntl 'Ss?.ld i(l!~.laa!un UOlaJU!Jd :fn 'UO?JU!Jd '3317 -!:/~~.s ~.J~~/O/J~ ayr prri~,ila!.~os'(~961) 'p~'s.raquasox 'FS-LE 'ZL '.is'o/oi/~.isd /"!.XS ~ U ;~~!/JJUO.T.~~ Ji) ~n ~.l~~oj~~! ~D~U!UO) :!X)S v :irlaruu!cnr! a10.1 ~vuo!i~!dnnno u! d1!5 ~apua4 aql.(~6(,[) 'H 'SllS D "f 'Sll!Ul:pls "14 '7 'L[llOMllr!lS"2 'Olll?Jd 'C9L- pl 'L')'~~Sfl~Ol/.J,<~ /17!.70s )S)llD lil,l -/J~os..'~,/" /~l.l110f'wp~l!lll! ~sn!l!lod pul: l!!3os 3~!13!p -a.~d ~~~!!J?A L![!OS.?~ v :uo!lelua!jo anncu!lrroa!!jos.(p(j61) 'J'g '"1"?$ '"1.q'1'L[JOM?S"f 'Sfl!U!P!S ''-1 'OllcJd 'S2.~11/11,7.SSO.~.JJJ,~~!/J~L!,ji~ O!~U:!L~!S,~/ 1x111 ~O!~U~!.O anll?jir!rrroa /17!.70~ '(9661) 'H 'qnc~q~ca "w'l(!ls"r 'Sn!Ul!p!S "S '11!.431 ''1-1.f 'll!l ''A '0llC.ld 'L[ E-LOE '09 ',i~o/f)y~,<.sd /17!.7lls /)!n.if! -/~llos.2~f,/0 /JM~O[ ~Bu!puodsa.i a[ql!j!sap Ll[e!nos u! [e!u -ap pur! 1uawanul:qrrg.(166[) 'g'a 'pi"."?'a 'Snq[ncd,609-86s '9p ',isolorp.<sd ll)!jos P117,</!/fl~O':l2d j1 ]ljlullof.%u!puodsa~ alql!.l!sap ~(["!"os JO S[3POU ~~UO~L~OJ-O.M~ '(t86()'7 'a 'Snqlnl?d.rlol<n!~ 7h7.J!~~U!H 'OH :yloh MaN '~.~2.l0.1~/~.711~111~1711/7.~1J 21l.L '( 196 [) '14 'L 'qu103man '[!H-MW~3AJ:ylO,?, M3N 'd~!.l~/.j,j1112,fi) rj/?!.y ll7llllll{ dl/,l.(()961) 'a '.O~~.C)~~J pue 'laqlour! auo pug sa3.10~ 2rr!lx.r11c rcl[cnlnru.c!qrunlo3 qs!l!~8 'Ja,\nonuR,\ "icso[flq3i(sd ~:J!!~O~~ JOJ Lla!Jos!U~CUJ~~~[ aql jo 3u!iaaru vnuuc asaql rrarlm nsaj ue3 let11 Xl!urc[c3 aql~su!cse uo!l aql! paluasa~d laded 'a.?!/ puv '.~~~/!/~11o.s.1.~(1 -na]o~d Jno alquop s!rll XepJ Tuaql a.ojaq p~o.13 /O S<PU/S ~ll~!llll~o Ut/ '(966 ) 'S 'UOS[aPV 'X "t)'s 'Plll?[JF?dJY 8n!~opr! aq] jo 2q!puels.rapun uc padolahap aacq ' S-SE '02 'WJU am sc lsnrl~ou ~allaq ]!q c wn!pod aql rro aldoad ras 'sloapn~s Ll!s~a,\!un rr! luamsscjer1 r!nxas jo sa3oa!~adxa aql puelslapun am yu!ql~ 'X~o]s!q usrrrnqjo sluaru pur: 'sapnl!llr 'suo!]da3~ad Buorur! sd!qsno!lslai aql i,a3ua -!~?dsa 10 i(9o1oapl.(6861)..j 'g L[~~3~nd 7 "g 'a 'ia7c14 -ow sayjcp ay] jo awos $u!leada~ ppnn ol %u! '81 E-Z()E 'R 'Ll!l2/[ug.i8o/01/~.ird v!.7os pl4n -1smb a.rn am lcrp.aqruarrra.i plnoqs am 'k[[cu!.~.~j!/jjuosj~,~.ll!irlap! n!nos s,aoo 40 uo!~cnle.\a-jlas :a11!~.p~ojuvs!a~n ale1 aql jo puyr apl-raj uaalta- as an!l>al[oo \J '(2661) '1aqmi3 ">yuauv~rlnl aql u! ose smax 0s JaAo uc2aq lsanb s!ql 'paapq -SSald ~ls!~0loq3i(~d 113Jl??S3~ :AN 'Ulq~Clf) '114.lf~f yj.ln2f2.l Xr!/n~ro.v.~ad '(S961) 'N 'a.]rlz!su! jo luawdo1a~ap a~!le.radoo~ aql u! sauo 'UO"Y"l?f.ssaJd sls!r Mau ppc puv s2u!pug plo lsal s~aqmcasa~ Bunlj-~g -0lOg3dsd ~u!llnsuo~ :v3'011~ Olcd '2p!tlS s,.lol1j.ll.v!~r~ll~ q ~! q u! ~ '~sanb s!j!iua!3s aq~ jo a~n~cn pascq ~'~~loll~2.111! /~~J!SO/~/.'~S~~ 17!11.l(!/llo~ '(L861) 'H 'qznof) -uo!les!lda~ nql salcjlsn[! laded aql ']lam s~ 'a3!p ~uolsu!~ ;x,'ljnqau!h -nfa.rd leuos~adjo sa~~nos aql jo Xpms X~eu!p~oc~~ i '110~:yJo,?, fi" '."'O~~.J.[ UO./~~D,~.VZJ '([phi) '3 'ULOJJ ~ -xa s'uoslapy puc pucllcgnm jo Su!lcada.~ v ~!M 'PXR-SLR 'S 'ds0/0y.?:(~d/u!>os!/"uos.~ad,fi)/j~uuo~ 'a.lnseau1 qanuajajj!p snp!n!prl! rrcsaq! roj 'uo!ln3!lda~ ~ oj ~eaddc uc ~!M??u!so[3 ub' :Al!saldmon cuo!inq!.lllv '(9861)'a 'f)'.'spaax '.a s,.~adcd s!ql u! X~~aurnrXs u!l?uas c pug Xcru auo 'uos~alad'.r~.zapul?u.rad'a 'sx!~o[!ur!a..o 'f 'f)'~qn"l[-~./(npaiuos alns,lundluo3 9 'yrssn~'aun.13 :q-loh MAN.;<!JOS.~~~,/0 -Paw J!aql as!haj 01 JUVM Lay] plnoqs 'alc3s OaS O~SU~!~ " Sn lll~!,~!/ol/.~.\s~ '(9L6 1 ) '8 'S '~3UaSk3'B "f 'H '\lnu2~63 aql jo sloluaau! aql 01 pap.rcfijoj aq plnoqs sllns 'ddl:u>l :0Ba!a 1CS ~ll2ul~j.lllsn2rll /JUn a1 aq1.swal! a~ucu!urop 11?!30S Mau asay] no X.11.~~,t/~lO.T.l2d '(6961 ) 'fl 'S 'Y~u?s(~ "r 'H '73u?"i(3 oslc puc 'suo!iclndod u ~ J!aql o rr! suo!snl3uon Xw 'dal!~:q.loa M?N 'a,~!lo~o 11~~o.1ddi~ 2 1 '(~96 ~ [)'a 'MOlr!pJ ;b7 '.d.a isal ll!~ s.rarllo lcql adoq 1ng 'lu!od s!qi E pa!$ '2~~0.13 'SS2.ld.7! :yjo,j, M3,q pow aq alms OQS aql~cy~f?u!sodo~d lou U? 1 '1u.~!~rn!ll>~7~!y.~~)~4~, ra!pr115 '(0~6 ) '5 'SRE) "8 '2!ls!~q3 '(l!e.11-~03).'a.rc siualcd 'hpf-~p~ 'T '.iso Jtaql O ~ jo M ssa~p~e%a.r"rli.r!q ruo.1~ auoha~a.~oj 'lr11/.7.<.vd ~'!]v'.uod,~~ /ll1.u1/7f 'kl!l!ls'oq JO SPUy lua.lq!p s"!\-\.3csr! ~flj b~oluahu! u~ ).V ' a Xl!unl.roddo lcnba ajow rl3nu1 aq plnoqs a.rarl,,..h.y.s'ng 'O~T-L 1~ 'sj~- ~~<~o~o~/.~.ic.~ J~!JOS J?,il!~r7~lf1.~.12d,{il pwnry. pur!!(l!c.ll-uon),'op aldoad [njla~od pup q3!~ 'ade.1,101 sl.roddns pur! sqliur r!rnl[n3 OX^[).tl.w'lnfl aql sl? qnnw cr! 1sur ajq jo sa~nsvald all1 ah.rasap

You and your child. For parents of children who have been sexually abused. Department of Human Services

You and your child. For parents of children who have been sexually abused. Department of Human Services You and your child For parents of children who have been sexually abused Department of Human Services Acknowledgements Published in consultation with many services that work with families where child sexual

More information

Is There Anything Good About Men?

Is There Anything Good About Men? Is There Anything Good About Men? Is There Anything Good About Men? HOW CULTURES FLOURISH BY EXPLOITING MEN Roy F. Baumeister 1 2010 1 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford

More information

Pioneering a Different Future Why don t they just leave? (The Booklet) Written by Brian Fox

Pioneering a Different Future Why don t they just leave? (The Booklet) Written by Brian Fox Why don t they just leave? (The Booklet) Written by Brian Fox - 1 - Forward Pioneering a Different Future During the past five years I have come to learn more about domestic violence and abuse than I ever

More information

Training Guide for University Debating. Tips, Tactics and First Principles. By Tim Sonnreich 2010 Edition

Training Guide for University Debating. Tips, Tactics and First Principles. By Tim Sonnreich 2010 Edition Training Guide for University Debating Tips, Tactics and First Principles. By Tim Sonnreich 2010 Edition Contents Introduction Chapter One Definitions. Chapter Two Hard/Soft Lines and Models. Chapter Three

More information

We re (Nearly) All Victims Now!

We re (Nearly) All Victims Now! We re (Nearly) All Victims Now! We re (Nearly) All Victims Now! How political correctness is undermining our liberal culture David G. Green Civitas: Institute for the Study of Civil Society London Registered

More information

Talking with Children about War and Violence in the World

Talking with Children about War and Violence in the World by Sheldon Berman, Sam Diener, Larry Dieringer, and Linda Lantieri Educators for Social Responsibility 1-800-370-2515 Growing up has never been easy. It s especially difficult

More information

TEACH YOUR OWN. John Holt. Introduction

TEACH YOUR OWN. John Holt. Introduction TEACH YOUR OWN John Holt Introduction This book is about ways we can teach children, or rather, allow them to learn, outside of schools--at home, or in whatever other places and situations (and the more

More information

Book IV. Beyond Personality: Or First Steps In The Doctrine Of The Trinity

Book IV. Beyond Personality: Or First Steps In The Doctrine Of The Trinity Mere Christianity By C.S. Lewis Contents: Book Cover (Front) (Back) Scan / Edit Notes Preface Book I. Right And Wrong As A Clue To The Meaning Of The Universe 1. The Law of Human Nature 2. Some Objections

More information

Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know

Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know Clinical Trials: What You Need to Know Clinical trials are studies in which people volunteer to test new drugs or devices. Doctors use clinical trials to learn whether a new treatment works and is safe

More information



More information

What is Good Writing?

What is Good Writing? Full Version What is Good Writing? More More information Visit by Steve Peha 2 The best way to teach is the way that makes sense to you, your kids, and your community. 3 What is Good

More information

Children are Unbeatable SEVEN VERY GOOD REASONS NOT TO HIT CHILDREN. Rhonda Pritchard

Children are Unbeatable SEVEN VERY GOOD REASONS NOT TO HIT CHILDREN. Rhonda Pritchard Children are Unbeatable SEVEN VERY GOOD REASONS NOT TO HIT CHILDREN Rhonda Pritchard Published by The Office of the Children s Commissioner, UNICEF New Zealand and the Families Commission. Printed in New

More information

The World We Want After 2015. What should come after the Millennium Development Goals? A discussion pack for children and young people

The World We Want After 2015. What should come after the Millennium Development Goals? A discussion pack for children and young people The World We Want After 2015 What should come after the Millennium Development Goals? A discussion pack for children and young people Contents Section 1: What are the Millennium Development Goals? An introduction

More information

Learning with care. Experiences of student carers in the UK

Learning with care. Experiences of student carers in the UK Learning with care Experiences of student carers in the UK Foreword Foreword I am proud to introduce Learning with care, the firstever national research into the experiences of student carers. This report

More information

Conclusions and Controversies about the Effectiveness of School Resources

Conclusions and Controversies about the Effectiveness of School Resources Conclusions and Controversies about the Effectiveness of School Resources Eric A. Hanushek Both the U.S. public and U.S. policymakers pursue a love-hate relationship with U.S. schools. While a majority

More information

When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer?

When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer? When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer? Charles Abelmann Richard Elmore with Johanna Even Susan Kenyon Joanne Marshall CPRE Research Report Series RR-42 Consortium for Policy Research in Education

More information

Daniel C. Dennett, Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA. Email: (Corresponding author).

Daniel C. Dennett, Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA. Email: (Corresponding author). Evolutionary Psychology 2010. 8(1): 122-150 Original Article/Essay Preachers Who Are Not Believers Daniel C. Dennett, Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

More information

M. Kugler (&) University of Chicago, 5020 S Lake Shore Dr, 2611, Chicago, IL 60615, USA e-mail:

M. Kugler (&) University of Chicago, 5020 S Lake Shore Dr, 2611, Chicago, IL 60615, USA e-mail: DOI 10.1007/s11211-014-0223-5 Another Look at Moral Foundations Theory: Do Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation Explain Liberal-Conservative Differences in Moral Intuitions? Matthew Kugler

More information

THIS IS ABUSE. Discussion Guide

THIS IS ABUSE. Discussion Guide THIS IS ABUSE Discussion Guide This is Abuse Discussion Guide 2 Contents Introduction Background to the This is Abuse campaign Note to facilitators Key messages Section One: Preparing for the sessions:

More information

Supporting victims and witnesses with a learning disability

Supporting victims and witnesses with a learning disability Supporting victims and witnesses with a learning disability July 2009 Contents Introduction page 2 The Crown Prosecution Service page 5 The Code for Crown Prosecutors page 8 Ability to give evidence page

More information

don't think of an elephant!

don't think of an elephant! NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER "one of the most influential political thinkers of the progressive movement" Howard Dean don't think of an elephant! KNOW YOUR VALUES AND FRAME THE DEBATE u GEORGE LAKOFF FOREWORD

More information

It s Not What They Do, It s How They Do It: Athlete Experiences of Great Coaching

It s Not What They Do, It s How They Do It: Athlete Experiences of Great Coaching International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 4 Number 1 2009 93 It s Not What They Do, It s How They Do It: Athlete Experiences of Great Coaching Andrea J. Becker Department of Kinesiology,

More information


THE MOST DANGEROUS SUPERSTITION Larken Rose THE MOST DANGEROUS SUPERSTITION Larken Rose 2011, Larken Rose Preparing the Reader What you read in this book will, in all likelihood, go directly against what you have been taught by your parents and

More information

Attitudes, Values and Beliefs about Violence within Families

Attitudes, Values and Beliefs about Violence within Families Attitudes, Values and Beliefs about Violence within Families 2008 Survey Findings Prepared by Fleur McLaren Prepared for Centre for Social Research and Evaluation Te Pokapū Rangahau Arotake Hapori March

More information

How Do I Deal With These New Ideas? : The Psychological Acculturation of Rural Students

How Do I Deal With These New Ideas? : The Psychological Acculturation of Rural Students Journal of Research in Rural Education, 2006, 21(6) How Do I Deal With These New Ideas? : The Psychological Acculturation of Rural Students David M. Dees Kent State University Salem Citation: Dees, D.

More information


CHAPTER 15 GENDER INEQUALITY CHAPTER 15 GENDER INEQUALITY Final Draft, August 2009 The transformation of gender relations since the beginning of the 20 th century is one of the most rapid, profound social changes in human history.

More information


IS RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE? LESSONS FROM COMBATING MODERN RACISM IS RECONCILIATION POSSIBLE? LESSONS FROM COMBATING MODERN RACISM By Valerie Batts, Ph.D. Two weeks after September 11, 2001, the bishops of the Episcopal Church, USA met for a scheduled meeting on the

More information

Making Groupwork Work

Making Groupwork Work Making Groupwork Work Making Groupwork Work This booklet is a revised version of an original booklet prepared by Colin Neville. The following staff also contributed to the revision: Professor Peter Hartley

More information

The Making of an Economist Redux

The Making of an Economist Redux Journal of Economic Perspectives Volume 19, Number 1 Winter 2005 Pages 175 198 The Making of an Economist Redux David Colander Individuals are not born as economists; they are molded through formal and

More information

When They Say You Say

When They Say You Say Defending the Pro-Life Position & Framing the Issue by the Language We Use By Olivia Gans Turner and Mary Spaulding Balch National Right to Life Committee 1 5/14 Contents 5 Basic Categories of Arguments...

More information