The Other "Authoritarian Personality"

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1 Council. rrisricol ~ rhsrr~r~~ gron, DC: U. S,!'. pqcmr?.st[rti.slic.v YQ, ng Ol'lice. 190). New York: The Other "Authoritarian Personality" Bob Altemeyer University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Canada ull up from your memories those haunting,! spectacular scenes of the Nuremberg rallies. A huge crowd of ardent Nazis fills the stadium on Party Day. while on the podium Adolf Hitler feasts on their adoration. "To see the films of the Nuremberg rallies even today is to be recaptured by the hypnotic effect of thousands of men marching in perfect order. The music of the massed bands, thc forest of standards and flags... the sense of power, of force, of unity was irresistible" (Bullock 1962, p. 379). A decade after all that power, force, and unity awed the world, the worst war in histoly and a Holocaust later, many of the Nazi leaders stood trial in Nuremberg for crimes against humanity. As the world learned of the horrors ravaged upon Europe by the Third Reich, people trying to grasp the barbarity and the millions of deaths asked, "Why?" A psychoanalyst, Er-ich Fromm (1941), had already given an answer. He argued that the Nazi regime arose from a sickness in the German people. The leaders on the podium at the Nuremberg ral- : lies and the vast crowds of faithful followers be- 1 fore them allegedly manifested the two faces of the sadistic-masochistic personality. This one illness drove both groups, Fromm proposed, lock- / ing them into a dominance-submissive authori- tarian embrace. 1 This explanation and psychoanalytic theory in general helped shape the famous "Berkeley" research program on authoritarianis~l~ (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, & Sanford, 1950). While Sanford and his team did not include an "authoritarian dunzinario17" trait in their model of the prefascist personality to complement the "authoritarian submission" trait that did appear, it is clear from several items on the Fascism Scale that the research team thought the authoritarian personality would both submit arid dominate. Adorno's sti!l-cited metaphor of the bicycle rider who bows from the waist up and kicks from the waist down sums it up (if you overlook the F~ct that one does not kick at anything when pedaling a bicycle).. The Submissive Personality But a funny thing happened to research on authoritarianism after t almost never studied domination, but instead focused on the many people in our qociely who seem ready to submit to a Hitler. This focus makes scnse in that wanna-be tyrants in a democracy are just comical figures on soapboxes when they have no following. So the real fascist threat lay coiled in parts of the population itself, it was thought, ready someday to catapult the next Hitler to power with their votes. So investigators studied the submitters. Research has since painted a fairly clear picture of those most vulnerable to the appeal of "a man on horseback." A< measured by the Right- Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) scale (Altemeyer, 1981, 1988, 1996; see Exhibit 1 for the latest version), right-wing authoritarians believe strongly

2 86 r Political Psychology in submission to established authorities and the social norms these authorities endorse. They also believe in aggressing against whotnever these authorities target. This personality structure. observable by early adulthood and better explained by social learning than by psychoanalytic theory. is thought to develop during adolescence from earlier training in obedience, conventionalism, and aggression, as modified by the individual's subsequent experiences. Adult authoritarians tend to be highly ethnocentric and heavy users of the "consens~~al validation pill" (Newcomb, 1961). They travel in tight circles of like-minded people so much, they often think their views are commonly held in society, that they are the "Moral Majority" or the "Silent Majority." t has been hard to miss the evidence that certaln kinds of religious training have some times helped produce their ethnocentrism a authoritarianism. High RWA5' thinking. based more on memc zation of what authorities have told them than independent. critical appraisal. tends to unintegrated. highly compartmentalized, and r with inconsistencies. Authoritarians harbor ma double standards and hypocrisies-seemin& without realizing it-which lead them to "speal out of both sides of their mouths" from one citua tion to another. For example, they will procla' n their patriotism and love of democracy at the dr 'OP of a hat. Rut they also seem ready to chuck m~ ost of the Bill of Rights, and no matter how many tin les they say the Pledge ofallegiance, they never set to notice its coda, "with liberty and justice for a EXHBT 1. The 1997 Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale This survey is part of' an investigation of gcneral public opinion concerning a variety of social issues.you will probably find you agree with some of the statements, and rii,sacqr.i,e with others. to varying extents. Please indicate your reaction to e statement by blackening a bobble on the bubble sheet. according to the following scale: Blacken the bubble labeled Blacken the bubble labeled -4 if you very.strorrg!): disagree with the statement. -3 if you stronglj disa,qrec with tlie statement. -2 if you nioclercrtc,ly disagrce wit11 the'statement. - if you.rli,qhtlv disajirec with the statement. + if you.slightly agree with the statement. +2 if you ~nodc,ratelv a,qrep with the statement. +3 if you srron~k agree, with the statement. +4 if you ver;r. stronglj ogwe with the statcrnent. f you fccl exactly and precisely rlerctral about an item. blacken the "0" bubble. You may find that you sometimes have different reactions to different parts of a statement. For example. you might very strongly disagree (-4) wit11 one idea in > statement, but slightly agree (+) wit11 another idea in the same item. When this happens, please combine your reactions, and write down how you feel "on balance" (i.e., a -3 in this case). ( t 1. The established authorities gencrally turn out to be right about things, while the radici~ls and protectors are usually just "loud n~ouths" showing off their ignorance. 2. Women should have to promise to obey their husbancls when they get married. 3. Our country desperately needs a mighty leader who will do what has to be done to destroy tlie radical new ways and sinfulness that are ruining us. 4. Gays and lesbians are just as healthy and moral as anybody else.* 5. t is always better to trust the judgment of the proper authorities in government and religion than to listen to the noisy rabble-rousers in our society who are tryiug to create doubt in people's minds. 6. Atheists and others who li:~ve rebelletl against tlie established religions are no doubt every bit as good and virtuous as those who attend church regularly.* 7. The only way ourcountly can get through the crisis ah1 is to get back to our traditional vdlues, put some tot leaders in power, and silence the troublemakers spre ing bad ideas. 8. There is absolutely nothing wrong with nudist camps." 9. Our country rwed.~ free thinkers who will have the courage to defy traditional ways, even if this upsets many people.* 10. Our country will be destroyed someday if we do nolsm ash the perversions e:~ting away at our moral fiber and tr: rditional bcliefs.. Everyone should have their own lifestyle, religious beliefs, aritl sexual preferences, even if it rnakcs them different from everyone else.* 12. The "old-fashioned ways" and "old-fashioned values"!,... show the best way to live. 13. You have to admire those who challenged the law and

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5 The Other "Authoritarian Personality" 89,thing else h hniinance iatiius. Pratto, 94) created the )O) scale (Ex- ~al orientation ~g whether one be equal, ver- ly developed cale was built from botl- 11 dominance ales correlatec jered both (not ). SDO scores ly nonsignififrom both the Cough, 1987) :h Form (Jack- up some very )ver 50) with 1, cultural elitand anti-black evant attitudes lor, racial poli- Gulf War, sup- OUS measures m) proved al- tors, the SDO my studies. n ethnic preju- equal." :quais as much as :d equally.)* trics as equals.:r c scoring key is rcnd con-rmit itcms. blcmcnls frotil Pratlo ped: "A< n counlry'.: bc channeled lo th~. fcrior groups s~ayed :, sexism, militarism, punitiveness. and conser- [ism usually appeared as predicted when the ale was tested in Canada, China. srael. Mexico.,,3W Zealand. and Taiwan (Pratto, Liu. Levin, <idanius, Shih. & Bachrach, 1996). n another itudy, persons ridin, commuter trains were clevkrly involved in an experiment that contirrned student-based findings that people would hire High SDOS for positions that serve the interests of privileged groups, and Low SDOs for jobs that serve oppressed groups. ndependently of this. subjects also tended to hire men for the "hierarchy-enhancing" roles, and shunted women into hierarchy-dirninishing positions (Pratto, Stallworth. Sidanius, & S1c -':rsl 1997). Many studies have found that men score : higher than women on the SDO scale in almost every culture tested thus far. - Re -:cause Felicia Pratto shared some of her prelirnin lary results with me, quickly discovered that the S DO scale dominated the RWA Scale when it came : to explaining prejudice. n a March 1993 study involving 187 undergraduates at my school, RWA correlated.48 with answers to the Manitoba Ethnocentrism scale-a 20-item instrument measuring hostility toward aboriginals, Arabs, Asians, Blacks, Francophones, Jews, and so on, th;~ con- sider my best niensure of general prejudice among "white" Manitobans (Exhibit 3). But an early 1 Y- itern version of the SDO scale banged out an eyepopping.71 with the sum of such pre.judices! RWA and SDO correlated 38. Put in my place and impressed-if not stunned- never considered what the two scales could do together. A. The McFarland and Adelson (1996) Study EXHBT 3. The 1997 Manitoba Ethnocentrism Scale Enter Sam McFarland and Sherman Adelson, who employed 438 Kentucky students and 283 nonstudent adults in a grand pitting experiment featuring 22 different psychological measures. Three of these assessed prejudice against Blacks, women, and homosexuals, and a fourth scale tapped patriotic attitudes. Abbreviated versions of 18 personality tests that had shown some connection with prejudice. including the RWA and SDO scales, composed the rest of the longish booklet. The researchers wanted to see how much of the "target" prejudice/patriotism scores could be explained by these personality tests.. f we don't watch out. Asians will control our economy have m;~inly brought disease, ignor;incc, and crimc with and we'll bc the "coolies." them. 2. We should take in more refugees fleeing political perse- 13. Every person wc let in from o\,crseas me;lns either an- cution by rcprcssive governments.* other Canadian won't bc ;~ble to find a joh, or another! 3. Arabs are too emotional, ant1 they don't fit in well in our foreigner will go on welfare licre. country. 14. Ci~n;ld>~ should guarantee that French language rights exist 4. f Sikhs who join the RCMP want to wcar turh:lns in- cross the country.* stcad of the usual hat, that's fine.* 15. t is a wastc of limc to train certain r;iccs for good jobs: is good to livc ill il coilnlry where thcre ac so many they simply don'^ have the drive and determination it takes i minority groups present, such as Blacks, Asians, ant1 to learn a complicated skill. ;~boriginals.:% 16. Canada has much to fear fro111 the Japanese, who are as 6. Thcre are entirely too many people from the wrong sorts cruel ;S they are ambitious. of places being adrnittcd into Canada now. 17. There is nothing wrong with interm:~rriagc among the 7. "Foreign" religions likc Buddhism, Hinduism. and slam races.:' ;ire just ns good as Christianity, all things considered." 1s. Ahoriginal people should keep protcsling demonstrat- 8. As a group :iboriginal people are naturally lazy, dishon- ing un~il they get jus~ treatment in Canada." est. and lawlcss. 19. Many minorities arc spoilcd; if they really wanted to im- 9. The morc we ct people from all over the world into our prove licir lives. they would gct,iobs and gct off wclfure. country, the he~ter.* 20. t is a sad fact that many minorities have been persecuted 10. Black pcople are. by their na~ure. more violent and "primi- in our country, and sollie arc still lreated very unfairly.* tive" than others. 1. Jcws can hc trusted as much ;is everyo~ic else.'"?. The peoplc from ndia who have recently come to Canada Norr.* indicates : con-~r;~ir ircm. for which the scoring key is rcvcrsed.

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7 '0 TABLE 4.1. Results of the September 1996 Study Psychometric pro~erties.. Preiudice toward Mean No. of inter-item "Sum of Corr. with Corr. \ Scales items corr. Alpha Homosex. Blacks Women Patriotism "Sum of Sam" Six" social dom. RW Social Dominance Orientation Right-Wing Authoritarianism Just World Need for Structure ll Self-Esteem Psychoticism Collective Self-Esteem Attributional Complexity Value: Conformity OO.40 Security OO Power Achievement OO OO.01 Hedonism Stimulation OO Self-Direction Universalism Benevolence lo lo Traditionalism Spirituality Religious Fundamentalism Dangerous World OO.49 Self-Righteousness ll Anomie Subject's Sex Prejudice toward Homosexuals Blacks Women Patriotism Ethnocentrism Attitudes toward Aboriginals Attitudes toward Quebec Notes. "Sum of Sam" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward Homosexuals. Blacks. Women, and Patriotism scales. "Sum of Six" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward Homosexuals, Blacks, Women, Ethnocentrism. Aboriginals, and Quebec scales. Subject's sex was coded 0 = female. 1 = male.

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11 The Other "Authoritarian Personality" 95 Spence an, Women scale, $7 with these,.45 and.5s, and togethe, 3f the sum of ons ships ap. higher SDO : no such dif-.le (.00). The o either varii scores cane :ss educated 10 had no re- Finally, high church nore -. 13). tudy ~risons of so- ~thoritarians mts of about.s in October be answered luthoritarian., SDO, and le Left-Wing iis test mealorities dedient," aggresnce to the he Attitudes 'ter-radicals noc centrism nt was asked prejudiced red with the then poked ', meanness, :actions to a of Canada's tse "it gives ographers, :r. 1996, p..t sentences :ted of spit- ling on apretnier, of muggings, and of heroin dealing Burt's (1980) Rape Vyth Acceptance Scale and a demographic survey ended the booklet. R~SL/S. The SDO and RWA scores of the nts who answered Booklet A correlated.50 and. 41. respectively, with ethnocentrism, and.41 and. 57 with hostility toward homosexuals. ntercotin ecting.17, they accounted for 51% of the variance of the combined standardized prejudice,cores. As in earlier studies, High RWAs did not think they would prove more prejudiced than oth- - /-- era ( ). But high SDOs. to some extent, knew they would (.28). W hat about the other measures? Social dominancl e and authoritarianism correlated.20 and.35 with willingness to help persecute "radicals.".2 and. 32 with sentences handed out in the Trials situa tion,.24 and.32 with acceptance of myths -LA.. auuut rape, and.20 and.57 with willingness to repeal Canada's Bill of Rights. While all these pointed in the expected direction, the RWA relationships emerged significantly stronger in all cases except Rape Myth. Let's put that in the back of our minds for a moment, along with the relationships with the remaining variables in this questionnaire, and go on to the second booklet. 2. Booklet B Answered by 243 parents, Booklet B began with the Religious Fundamentalism, RWA, SDO, Eco- 1. Highly placed people in the national government are planning to impose a Communist-type dictatorship soon. / 2. The federal government is NOT plotting to destroy freci dom in our country." 1 3. Our country is basically controlled by Jewisli-owned financial institutions. 4. f people knew the truth, they'd know that Jcws are causing most of the corruption and suffering in our country. 5. The federal government is NOT taking away our rights, nor is it conspiring to destroy democracy in our country.* 6. There is an international Jewish conspiracy that is trying to dominate the world through control of banks, the news media, the movie industry, and so on. 7. t is ridiculous to think that some group of Jews or anyone else is planning on selling our country out to the United Nations or some mythical "world conspiracy."* EXHBT 5. The Militia Attitudes Scale notnic Philosophy, and Left-\?'in; Authoritarianism Scales. Next came an anti-semitic "Militia" scale, which developed after the Oklahoma City bombing (Exhibit 5). tried out some other personal power, meanness. and domination items. Then presented four situations in which High RWAs had shown double standards in the past: abuse of power during an election by a left-wing or aright-wing provincial government (Altemeyer, p. 323). Quebec's right to leave Canada versus Montreal's right to leave a seceding Quebec. sentencing a prohomosexual or an antihomosexual activist who led an attack upon opponent demonstrators, and sentencing either a panhandler or an accountant who attacked the other after a sidewalk argument. (Accordingly, two versions of Booklet B were distributed to homes. n one, parents judged the seriousness of a conservative government abusing its power, Quebec's right to leave Canada. an antihomosexual who led an attack on homosexuals, and a panhandler who attacked an accountant; in the other version of Booklet B parents judged the opposite cases.) The booklet ended with the Religious Emphasis scale and the question about being physically punished while growing up. A demographic survey wrapped up the task. ~esults. Mean responses to the 12 Militia items indicated these parents put little stock overall in the premise of a Jewish-led conspiracy in the federal government to take away everyone's guns and impose a left-wing dictatorship on the country. But 8. Jews are not trying to take over the world. That is simply a myth spread by bigots to make people fear and hate Jews.* 9. Our national government has been taken over by homosexuals, radical feminists, atheistic Communist-types, and, especially, by Jews. 10. Our country is a much better place because of the Jews who live in it.:". Powerful elements of our government, led by Jews, want to take all the guns and spirit from the people so they can enslave us. 12. We have more freedom than almost anybody elseon earth, and no group of Jews or feminists or "lelt-wingers" is plotting to take it away from us.* Nore.* indicate(; a con-trait iturn. lor which the scoring key is revursed.

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14 98 Political Psychology called these puzzling people "Wild-Card Authoritarians." and the Militia wale provides the key to understanding many of them. The pretent stucly indicates most Wild-Card Authoritari:~ns have anti-semitic militialike sentiments. Of the 25 high RWAs-high LWAs in the sample that answered Booklet B, 17 (68%) also scored in the top quartile on the Militia scale. So most of these "wild-cards" seem to be right-wing authoritarians who overrode the preamble and table-setters to the LWA Scale because they "know" the Establishment is composed of Jews and their accomplices who control an oppressive, plotting, gun-grabbing government. Accordingly, the LWA scale's scan for revolutionary authoritarianism uncovered such authoritarianism in the anti-semitic militia-oriented High RWAs. Moving beyond the mystery of the Wild-Card Authoritarians, which seems more understandable now, who overall harbors anti-semitic militia sentiments? Of the 60 respondents who scored in the top quartile on the Militia scale, 20 were High RWAs, 14 were High SDOs, and an additional 10 were both. So right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance-the two major consorts of prejudice in our society it seems-provided 73% of the anti-semitic Militia types in this study. G. The November 1996 Student Studies Both the parent studies indicated that SDO-RWA results obtained with student samples had broader validity. So prepared another booklet for some yet-unsurveyed Manitoba introductory psychology students, which 185 of them completed in November under "secret number" conditions. However, circumstances dictated that this questionnaire had to be answered on a 48-hour "take-home" basis. As this can produce sloppy responding, attached a slip of paper to each booklet that read. "t is a condition of this study that you will answer carefully and honestly. So do not participate if you cannot do a conscientious job." stressed this precondition when describing the experiment in the students' class. The booklet began with the Religious Fundamentalism, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Social Dominance Orientation scales. Then Christie and Geis's (1970) Machiavellianism ("Mach V") scale appeared, followed by some "Mach-type" items of my own invention. An up. dated version of the Manitoba Ethnocentrism scale once again provided a broad-band measure of prejudice: it ended by asking respondents how prejudiced they thought they would be compared with the rest of the sample. then presented my choicest assortment of personal power, meanness, and dominance items. A demographic survey ended the task. The results proved considerably stronger than had any right to expect, so gave essentially the same booklet to another untested class on the same take-home basis. Their 177 sets of answers simmered down the earlier findings when stirred in. and shall present the results from the merged samples. Results: Old Tricks and New Tricks SDO and RWA correlated. with each other. but.67 and 40, respectively. with Ethnocentrism. Together they explained 54% of the prejudice scores-obviously due mostly to the social dominance measure. As usual, high RWA students seldom realized they would prove more prejudiced than average (-.02), but high SDOs usually knew they would (.44). As before, right-wing authoritarians tended to be religious fundamentalists (.80), toaccept the teachings of their home religion (.52), and to attend churcll(.53). But high SDOs had no such leanings (-.02, -. 15, -.08). Males popped up more often than females among the socially dominant (.39) but not among the high RWAs (.03). Now for some new tricks. The Machiavellianism scale had a low mean interitem correlation of. 1 l and an alpha =.72. Whatever its items measure, its summed score correlated.54 with SDO and -.8 with RWA. The hefty relationship with social dominance got its heft from such "Mach" items as "The biggest difference between most criminals and other people is that criminals are stupid enough to get caught"; "The best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear"; "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so"; and "All in all, it is better to be humble and honest than important and dishonest" (with which High SDOs disagree). The suspicion that high social dominators tend to be Machiavellian (in the generic sense) was reinforced by the Mach-type items wrote, nearly all of which correlated with SDO scores. The stron-

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21 "hey go Jen~s who ey, at the 'ou are as 'deter. re? How :) or three ly imporothers in You want n you'.'" 30s with ore often he world rs"; "Evnpetitive society"; chieve in ly picked hey also 3rts more ribed the ny of de- -y time n wins"; be more ;"; " desew; and ten said es to be ed more models (1994) sons. t f preju- A scale in the e. Also e have mission realized ertainly ht. And explain popped e. For example, Richard Christie and were surprised that RWA did not associate highly with scores on his Machiavellianism scale. n fact, it usually correlated negatively. Now see that we were ~~~arriers" of a misconception that goes back to Erich Fromm. We expected just one kind of personality to play a role in authoritarianism. when in fact the Machiavellianism associated with die- mmrial behavior appearst0 come from high SDOs. '..-- not high RWAs. navid -- Winter and were similarly mystified when his TAT-based measure of need-power (Winter, 1973, 1988) proved uncorrelated with RWA. Want to bet 1 was not again confusing dominators,it11 submitters? High RWAs may usually be content to bow to those above them, but high SDOs are driving to rise in the ranks. For a final Ancient Mystery of the RWA Scale, the positive correlation between left-wing and right-~ing authoritarianism also surprised me. Now it appears that the "Wild-Card Authoritarians" detected in those data were mainly hostile high RWA and high SDO "militia-types" who interpreted the Establishment as Jews, homosexu;ils, feminists, and other "left-wingers."? High SDOs "Authoritarians"? This paper is entitled "The Other 'Authoritarian Personality."' Why the qualification?are not high SDOs authoritarians?yes and no. would say they are in the sense that "authoritarian" connotes "dictatorial." think you can count on high SDOs dictating to others when they have the social authority to do so. But social authority probably does not produce dominance in high SDOs, thc way it triggers submission in high RWAs. nstead, high SDOs will probably try to dominate others in general, legitimately or otherwise. f some group landed in a Lord of the Flies wilderness and social authority evaporated. think the high SDOs would quickly start snarling and scheming to become the alpha animal. So 1 would not call social dominators "authoritarians, pure and simple." They do not have the reverence for established authority that rightwing authoritarians have, aside from its being a means to their end. They are social dominators, pure and simple. But they will produce authoritarian social syrterns with the support of high RWAs The Other "Authoritarian Personality" if they become legitimate authorities. Why then do high SDOs tend to end up on the "high RWA end" on many social issues? can offer three reasons. First, social dominators tend to hold conservative economic and political philosophies. Second, experiments have shown that high RWAs (but not lows) will trust untrustworthy people who tell them what they want to hear. So if-no offense intended-you believe that "one of the most useful skills a person should develop is how to look someone straight in the eye and lie convincingly," where will you find your easiest sell on the political spectrum? Whom do you sidle on up to and praise the Lord'? The right-wing authoritarians. Third, some social dominators could express strong belief in submitting to the established authorities on tlie RWA scale if they consider themselves (now or someday) the authorities others should submit to. Hitler would seem to have been such a person, and the students who role-played his beliefs produced extremely high scores on both tlie SDO and RWA scales. Such "High SDO-High RWAs" are somewhat rare, as the correlation between the two measures only comes in around.20. But about 8% of my sanlples did score in the upper quartiles of both the RWA and SDO distributions. These "dominating right-wing authoritarians" proved distinctive in another way. n every study, they had the highest prejudice scores of any group in the sample. They are thus the most worrisome persons have found in my investigations. 0. mproving the Social Dominance Orientation Scale Just as constantly tinker with my own measures, have tried to improve the internal consistency of the SDO scale. Adding tlie following 6 statements to the 14 original ones shown in Exhibit 2 raises the mean interitem correlation (and the tcst's relationship with prejudice) a small but useful amount: "Some people are just much better than everyone else, and deserve to have power and control over others"; "This country would be better off if inferior groups stayed in their place"; "The best people should not be expected to accept others as 'equals"'; "We should strive with our mightiest efforts to increase equality and social justice in our country" (con-trait); "The poor and the weak

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