1 Providing effective testimony after pediatric traumatic brain injury Jacobus Donders March 2, 2013
2 Disclosure Speaker has no conflicts of interests to declare. Speaker is not a lawyer, nor a legal scholar, and is not giving legal advice.
3 Objectives Understand differences between clinical and legal roles. Describe the criteria for admissibility of evidence. Understand essential deposition and court procedures. Recognize, and deal with, some common gambits used during such procedures.
4 References I have found helpful*: Mastering expert testimony by Tsushima & Anderson (Erlbaum, 1996) Stanley L. Brodsky s series: Testifying in court (APA, 1991) The expert witness (APA, 1999) Coping with cross-examination (APA, 2004) * And no, I don t get kickbacks for this!
5 More disclosure Medicolegal referrals comprise about 15% of my practice. The vast majority of are from the defense. More than a third of the depositions that I do are based on clinically referred patients. No extra $ for any of this. So, why do I do them? Really, it just comes with the territory.
6 Understand the legal arena When you testify, your primary job is to assist the trier of facts, and you should do so in an objective and evidence-based manner. You may be a treating doctor or an expert witness (although those lines do get blurred). If you do file review only, document the limitations thereof. Understand local standards, including Daubert or Frye admissibility rules.
7 What evidence is admissible? Frye standard: Is the evidence generally accepted within the witness field of expertise?
8 Daubert went further: Has it been peer-reviewed? Can it be submitted to an empirical test? Is the error rate known? Is there a manual or other control procedure?
9 In general, it is best to: Stick to your area of expertise. Make sure that all of your procedures are reliable and well-validated. Understand who your client is. Be aware of your own biases. Always be well-prepared. Accept constructive feedback.
10 Differences in context Clinical Work Legal Arena Requester or service Physician Attorney Professional interaction Collegial / consultative Often adversarial Patient relationship Treating, advocating Objective, just the facts Confidentiality / HIPAA Almost always applicable Typically waived or superseded Handling of raw data Test security Discovery rules Level of certainty required for opinions Clinical judgment; knowledge of C.I. and base rates More likely than not (> 50%) or reasonable certainty (> 90%) Your audience Other professionals Judge and/or jury
11 Before agreeing to do an IME Is the matter within your expertise? Do you have a conflict of interest? Can you get access to all relevant records as well as to the potential examinee? Can you proceed in an unbiased manner? Are fees and contingencies agreed upon? Do they want a call before a report is written? Dealing with requests for tests to be given.
12 Third-party observers Unless sanctioned by state law don t allow it. Use AACN and NAN position papers and empirical evidence in peer-reviewed journals. If you proceed anyway, document the potential threat to validity.
13 During the IME Informed consent / assent Referral source No doctor-patient relationship Usual rules of confidentiality do not apply No feedback session or treatment initiation Importance of truth and effort Opportunities for breaks Stick to standardized, well-validated methods. Objectively document relevant observations.
14 Your report (if not a clinical eval) Remember your audience. Document referral source / reason. Document consent procedures. Note any limitations / reservations. May need more detail on records reviewed. Stick to the facts; avoid inflammatory remarks. Answer the questions that were posed to you. Plain language, for plain people, please.
15 Failure on the TOMM Nerdy doctor The examinee s performance on a standardized forcedchoice performance validity measure was not consistent with veracious effort and therefore indicative of a high probability of symptom magnification. Effective witness On a task where the chance of getting the right answer was equal to the flip of a coin, Mr. Jones answered correctly only 30% of the time. Truly, a person who had never seen the pictures, and just guessed, would likely have done better.
16 Requests for raw data Be familiar with your state s laws. Consult with your state psych association or APA on a PRN basis. Follow the guidelines described by Attix et al. (2007, TCN, vol. 21, pp ).
17 Types of testimony Sworn affidavit Can be used prior to taking the case. Make sure that you carefully read it. Always use peer-reviewed references. Deposition Discovery Trial Court appearance Most cases get settled.
18 In general Come to the deposition or trial fully prepared. Dress in comfortable business attire. First meet with the attorney who retained you. They may be aggressive; it s just business. If they raise their voice, lower yours. Learn to say No and I don t know. Personalize but don t make it about you.
19 In general (continued) Use humor sparingly and only in good spirit. Try not to be repetitive, except to prove a clear point (use sparingly). Don t talk too much. If the attorneys argue amongst themselves, stay out of it. In depositions, simply answer the question after they are done arguing. In court, wait for the judge to instruct you.
20 In general (conclusion) Listen very carefully when comments get rephrased or taken out of context. Look at the attorney during the question but at the camera or jury when you answer. Talk with confidence; try to avoid terms like I believe, I suppose, etc., and watch the body language.
21 General procedures Swearing in Direct and cross examinations Credentials review / voire dire Objections to counsel Foundation Leading / badgering Compound Argumentative Objections to witness Hearsay Non-responsive Irrelevant Speculative
22 Your credentials Keep it short and sweet. Delineate relevant expertise. Don t engage in self-inflation. Don t get into board / turf issues. Don t disparage other witnesses. No need to claim universal knowledge. Constructive offense is the best defense.
23 Credibility of a treating doctor: You would say anything to help your patient, right? I am her doctor and I have been taking care of her for years, so of course I want what s best for her! I have sworn to tell the truth, and I take that oath seriously. I will answer any reasonable questions to the best of my ability.
24 Credibility of an expert witness: You re being paid for your opinion here, right? Well, yeah, I guess I mean, I hope so. And there s nothing wrong with charging more for depositions! I expect to get paid today for my time. I have been hired for my expertise, not for my opinion which is not for sale.
25 The hired-gun insinuation Doctor, of all the times that you have testified, how often has that been for the plaintiff? And how often for the defense?
26 The contrary % In all the depositions over the last 3 years, I testified as a treating doctor by plaintiff request 12 times, and as an expert witness upon request by the defense 21 times. Keep in mind that when, as an expert witness, I arrive at an opinion that does not support their side, they often settle the case instead of having me testify. That happens about 1 in every 4 times.
27 Learned treatise: Is it authoritative? Well, everybody I know has that book. It s a classic. So, yeah, I agree that it is the go-to guide on how to do a good assessment. I am know and respect that work but that does not mean I agree with everything in it. What specific portion do you want me to comment on?
28 Isn t it possible to have significant mental problems after a mild TBI? Well yes. But they would be even worse with a severe TBI. That is unlikely. Some transient symptoms such as headache or irritability can occur in the short run but they are typically not severe and do not last.
29 The binary question If you can answer in a straightforward manner, then do so. If not, you do not have to. I am not comfortable answering that with a simple Yes or No. I am afraid that it might be confusing or misleading to the jury / court. For that reason, I would like a brief moment to explain my opinion.
30 Can children with TBI have problems with a b c d etc.? Yes, they can. Yes, that too. Yes. Yes. Yes. Let s be clear what we re talking about; severe TBI, or mild TBI like in this child? Because the answer would be different.
31 Is it not true that most children recover well from early brain injury? Well, I am not sure that it is most but I must admit that I have seen good recovery in some cases. No. In fact, the opposite is true. The earlier the brain injury, the higher the chances for longerterm problems.
32 The use of dependent clauses (admit / deny) Although it is indeed possible for children to have cognitive problems in the absence of any brain injury, my review of this child s school records both before and after the accident clearly suggest a considerable drop in test scores. Given the fact that there were no other complicating factors, I consider it most likely that the TBI was responsible for that decline.
33 The use of dependent clauses (more admit / deny) Whereas there may be some children who continue to have emotional issues for many months after a mild traumatic brain injury, the literature as well as my own experience strongly suggests that the vast majority of those children have other complicating issues. In this case, it is important to note that the parents were in the midst of a messy divorce when that car accident occurred in which the child sustained minor injuries.
34 Trying to make you defensive: You saw this child only once. Did you talk to the child s best friend? To her coach? To any of a dozen other people who have known her for years and saw her many times? Did you?
35 The push & pull technique Heavens, no! Not only did I not talk to this child s best friend or her coach, I also did not talk to her great-grandmother, her next-door neighbor, or her brownie scouts leader. I talked to her, to her mother, and I read her school and medical records. Just like I would with any regular clinical patient.
36 Subjectivity Doctor, when you interpret those test results, that is just your subjective opinion, right? No, that is my objective, professional opinion. Are you telling me that every other doctor would agree with you? If they just look at the facts, and know what they are doing, then most likely yes.
37 Opposing experts So, then why does Dr. X not agree with you? Because she obviously does not know what she is talking about. I gave more than twice as many tests as she did, so that should tell you something.
38 Opposing experts So, then why does Dr. X not agree with you? You re going to have to ask her for the basis of her opinion. It is not clear from her report, it is not supported by any facts, and it does not fit with the consensus in the literature.
39 About that literature You need to have a sound understanding of the literature; preferably before you accept a case, and definitely before you start testifying. Make only references that are specific; don t confabulate or speculate. Emphasize consensus papers in well-respected, peer- reviewed journals.
40 The worst witnesses Come unprepared. Become defensive fast. Or become too arrogant. Talk way, way too much. Make things up on the go. Go beyond their own competence. Act as if it is their job to win the case.
41 The best witnesses Come fully, thoroughly prepared. Are comfortable with what they know and what they don t know. Talk in a concise, clear manner, in a language that ordinary people can understand, yet is still evidence-based. Focus on the facts, not on personal ego. Maintain a calm, professional composure.
42 In the end Always leave in a dignified manner. Don t go out of your way to try to find out who won or how much money they got. Remember: It s not about you. It really is just business. Just stay honest and objective. The most important thing: Be yourself.
How to Prepare for your Deposition in a Personal Injury Case A whitepaper by Travis Mayor, Attorney If you have filed a civil lawsuit in your personal injury case against the at fault driver, person, corporation,
DEPOSITION LETTER Dear Client: The attorney for the defendant has requested your deposition as part of the discovery which you must provide in your lawsuit. A deposition is the defense attorneys' opportunity
CHAPTER 24 DEPOSITION GUIDANCE FOR NURSES I. INTRODUCTION With the number of personal injury and healthcare-related lawsuits increasing each year, at some time in your professional career as a nurse, you
WHAT HAPPENS IN A PERSONAL INJURY CASE From Negotiating With Insurance Companies To Trial By Michael A. Schafer, Attorney at Law 440 South Seventh Street, Ste. 200 Louisville, Kentucky 40203 (502) 584-9511
STEPS IN A TRIAL Note to Students: For a civil case, substitute the word plaintiff for the word prosecution. A number of events occur during a trial, and most must happen according to a particular sequence.
Community Alliance of Tenants Tenant Education Information is for general information purposes only, and is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney Small Claims Court Information provided by Oregon
CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 email@example.com Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social
ATTACKING EXPERT TESTIMONY EFFECTIVELY by Hon. Eddward P. Ballinger, Jr. Whether considering the damages suffered from an alleged contractual breach, the cause of plaintiff s injuries, or a professional
ROBERT N. NELSON KIMBERLY I. NELSON ADMITTED IN NY, NJ SHANA L. CURTI MATTHEW R. DROST Law Offices of ROBERT N. NELSON 2249 Derby Road (at Sunrise Highway) Baldwin, New York 11510 Telephone (516) 223-5500
10 Things You Must Know Before You Find a H Seattle Injury Attorney www.seattleinjuryattorneyfaq.com 1 Should I get an attorney if I am in a car accident? If you have been hurt or have serious injuries,
IMPROVING SETTLEMENT SAVVY Kathy Perkins Kathy Perkins LLC, Workplace Law & Mediation www.kathy-perkins.com In these difficult economic times, parties may be looking to reduce litigation costs and risk
JUROR S MANUAL (Prepared by the State Bar of Michigan) Your Role as a Juror You ve heard the term jury of one s peers. In our country the job of determining the facts and reaching a just decision rests,
How to Prepare for Your Civil Trial* IMPORTANT! Remember that the law is always changing. This brochure is not a substitute for talking to an attorney. Civil cases can be complicated, and the judge will
SMALL CLAIMS COURT What Is Small Claims Court? Nebraska law requires that every county court in the state have a division known as Small Claims Court (Nebraska Revised Statute 25-2801). Small Claims Court
79 Wall Street Huntington, NY 11743 800.660.1466 631.425.9775 718.220.0099 631.415.5004 (fax) A Consumer Guide What is a Deposition and How Does It Work in a Personal Injury Case? A key component in many
ROLES TO ASSIGN 1. Judge 2. Courtroom Deputy 3. Prosecutor 1 opening statement 4. Prosecutor 2 direct of Dana Capro 5. Prosecutor 3 direct of Jamie Medina 6. Prosecutor 4 cross of Pat Morton 7. Prosecutor
15th Biennial Symposium on Violence and Aggression University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK June 17, 2014 Licensed Psychologist Doctorate Shelburne, Vermont Professional Pathway Carpenter/Bartender Correctional
New York Law Journal Wednesday, July 31, 2002 HEADLINE: BYLINE: Trial Advocacy, Cross-Examination: The Basics Ben B. Rubinowitz and Evan Torgan BODY: Cross-examination involves relatively straightforward
New York Law Journal Friday, January 6, 2006 HEADLINE: BYLINE: Trial Advocacy, Impeachment With a Prior Inconsistent Statement Ben B. Rubinowitz and Evan Torgan BODY: One of the most exhilarating parts
Medical Malpractice VOIR DIRE QUESTIONS INTRODUCTION: Tell the jurors that this is a very big and a very important case. Do a SHORT summary of the case and the damages we are seeking. This summary should
VETTING THE EXPERT---YOURS AND THEIRS Too often an attorney will retain an expert on the advice of another attorney or based on a limited amount of time spent searching for the expert. The most important
The 5 Golden Rules HOW TO FIND AND HIRE AN EXCEPTIONAL PERSONAL INJURY LAWYER! Golden Rule Number 1 DO YOUR RESEARCH Research your lawyer s background before you hire him! Would you hire a doctor, dentist
You are probably reading this guide because you were recently in an automobile accident. Now you are faced with some difficulties. The tasks of managing your care and your insurance claim can be confusing
9 secrets most divorce lawyers won t tell you CONTENTS Introduction Why is Divorce So Difficult? 1. Your Lawyer s Outlook Matters - Your Attorney s Outlook on Divo rce 2. Your Lawyer s Experience Matters
Question 5 Attorney mailed a professional announcement to several local physicians, listing his name and address and his area of law practice as personal injury. Doctor received Attorney s announcement
Fact sheet FL02 June 2013 How to prove your family law case Rules about what you can say in court Who should use this fact sheet? Use this fact sheet if you had legal aid for your family law case and your
Cooper Hurley Injury Lawyers 2014 Granby Street, Suite 200 Norfolk, VA, 23517 (757) 455-0077 (866) 455-6657 (Toll Free) YOUR RIGHTS WHEN YOU ARE INJURED ON THE RAILROAD Cooper Hurley Injury Lawyers 2014
ATTORNEY HELP CENTER: MEDICAL MALPRACTICE The healthcare industry has exploded over the last thirty years. Combined with an increasing elderly population, thanks to the Baby Boomer generation, the general
A Seat at the Table: Witness Prep, Trial Examinations and Other Essential Trial Skills for Young Lawyers November 7, 2015 Sponsored by: NAPABA Young Lawyer Network NAPABA Judicial Council NAPABA Litigation
Common Myths About Personal Injury and Wrongful Death Cases 1 By B. Keith Williams There are several myths about accident cases and the attorneys that handle them. It is important to keep these myths in
FURR & HENSHAW http://www.scmedicalmalpractice.com 1900 Oak Street Post Office Box 2909 Myrtle Beach, South Carolina 29578 (843) 626-7621 (800) 849-2525 firstname.lastname@example.org and 1534 Blanding Street Columbia,
OPENING STATEMENT FROM THE DEFENSE PERSPECTIVE BY JAMES C. MORROW MORROW, WILLNAUER & KLOSTERMAN, L.L.C. 53--1 Where Voir Dire is an opportunity to give the jurors an outline of your themes, opening statement
Being a Witness What is a witness? A witness is a person who is required to come to court to answer questions about a case. The answers a witness gives in court are called evidence. Before giving evidence,
The Malpractice Lawsuit: Process and Prevention Advocate Health Care 7 th Annual Advocate Trauma Symposium Wyndham Lisle - Chicago November 18, 2010 Rogelio Lasso The John Marshall Law School BACKGROUND
EMPLOYEES GUIDE TO APPEALING A WORKERS COMPENSATION CLAIM DENIAL Appeals of workers compensation claim denials are handled by the Labor Commission s Adjudication Division. If you disagree with the claim
Consumer Awareness How to Keep From Getting Ripped Off by Big Insurance Provided as an educational service by: Anthony D. Castelli, Esq. Concentration in Auto and Work Related Injuries (513) 621-2345 ATTENTION!!!
I suggest the following simple ten ways to avoid malpractice in litigation: CONSTRUCTION LAW AND LITIGATION May 2012 IN THIS ISSUE Lawrence J. West gives us a Top 15 List for Preparing the Expert Witness
Injury Case Roadmap The Legal Process For Personal Injury Cases By Christopher M. Davis, Attorney at Law Davis Law Group, P.S. 2101 Fourth Avenue Suite 630 Seattle, WA 98121 206-727-4000 Davis Law Group,
S u m m a ry Judgment and S u m m a ry Trials in Supreme Court This guidebook provides general information about civil, non-family claims in the Supreme Court of B.C. It does not explain the law. Court
Maximizing Strikes for Cause MAXIMIZING STRIKES FOR CAUSE IN CRIMINAL CASES BY ROBERT R. SWAFFORD I. INTRODUCTION This paper will introduce an approach to jury selection that is radically different from
Interpreting pediatric neuropsychological data: curveballs & pitfalls Jacobus Donders March 2, 2013 Disclosure Sponsored in part by a grant from the Mary Free Bed Guild Fund (#60). Speaker has no conflict
Page 1 of 7 Ben Brodhead on proving causation and damages in spinal fusion cases. Friend on Facebook Follow on Twitter Forward to a Friend Proving Causation and Damages in Spinal Fusion Cases By: Ben C.
TAKE-1 YOU AND YOUR LAWYER XVIII AIRBORNE CORPS LEGAL ASSISTANCE OFFICE YOU AND YOUR LAWYER 1. Q. HOW DO I CHOOSE A PRIVATE ATTORNEY? A. There are many ways to select a private attorney if you do not have
7.9. The likely running order Assuming both parties are going to give evidence, the trial is likely to proceed along the following lines: claimant opens and gives their evidence claimant s witnesses give
How To Determine The Value Of A Personal Injury Case What Is Your Car Accident Case Really Worth? By Christopher M. Davis, Attorney at Law 206-727-4000 Phone: 206-727-4000 Fax: 206-727-4001 email@example.com
Table of Contents 1. What should I do when the other driver s insurance company contacts me?... 1 2. Who should be paying my medical bills from a car accident injury?... 2 3. What should I do after the
IADC Webinars are made possible by a grant from The Foundation of the IADC. The Foundation of the IADC is dedicated to supporting the advancement of the civil justice system through educational opportunities
STEPS IN A MOCK TRIAL 1. The Opening of the Court Either the Clerk of the Court of the judge will call the Court to order. When the judge enters, all the participants should remain standing until the judge
Discovery Devices Automatic (mandatory) disclosure Rule 26 requires the automatic disclosure of a host of basic information regarding the case Interrogatories Questions addressed to the other party Depositions
PERSONAL INJURY SETTLEMENTS Negotiating Techniques Settling cases and winning jury verdicts is the lifeblood of any successful plaintiff s law practice. So how do you turn a case into a settlement check?
Winning the Mediation: A Trial Lawyer's Guide Article Contributed by: Allen B. Grodsky, Grodsky & Olecki LLP Lawyers often market themselves as great trial lawyers, even going so far as to promote their
Learning The Art Of Negotiation Pennsylvania Bar Institute Summer 2014 Scott B. Cooper, Esquire SCHMIDT KRAMER P.C. firstname.lastname@example.org 717-888-8888 or 717-232-6300 (t) 717-232-6467 (f) 209 State
Urban Survival Guide: Please Step Out of The Car A Step by Step Guide Through The Los Angeles DUI & DMV Process MR DUI LA Attorney Mark Rosenfeld The Law Office of Mark Rosenfeld 800-9700-DUI (384) MRDUILA.com
THE DEFENSE LAWYER S TOOL KIT FOR WORKING WITH MEDICAL EXPERTS ABA Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section Medicine and Law Committee Annual Meeting August 1, 2009 Jessie L. Harris Williams Kastner 601
Choosing a Lawyer How to Choose a Great Lawyer for Your Injury Accident Case By Ross A. Jurewitz Injury Accident Attorney, Jurewitz Law Group.JUREWITZ LAW GROUP Jurewitz Law Group 600 B Street Suite 1550
FINRA s Dispute Resolution Process 1 What to Expect: FINRA s Dispute Resolution Process It is rare for most firms to find themselves in a dispute with a customer, an employee, or another firm that escalates
Chapter 4 Legal Ethics Yes. You read that right legal ethics. Har de har. Go ahead. Get it out of your system. How about this one? Why do scientists prefer using lawyers over lab rats? There are some things
AFCC Ninth Symposium on Child Custody Evaluations October 28 30, 2010 Cambridge, Massachusetts Hyatt Regency Cambridge Workshop 4 The Use and Misuse of Expert Witnesses Mindy Mitnick, Ed.M., M.A. Susan
SOCIAL SECURITY OVERPAYMENTS: RESPONDING TO A NOTICE THAT SAYS YOU HAVE BEEN OVERPAID This document contains general information for educational purposes and should not be construed as legal advice. It
FURR & HENSHAW 1900 Oak Street, P.O. Box 2909 Myrtle Beach, SC 29578 Phone: (843) 626-7621 and 1534 Blanding Street Columbia, SC 29201 Phone: (803) 252-4050 YOUR AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT CASE The purpose of
Presentation by: Margaret Pisacano, BSN, JD Director of Risk Management UK Healthcare Basic elements of a medical malpractice claim: DUTY: To act as a reasonably prudent family practice physician under
Choosing An Attorney For Your Accident Case By Michael A. Schafer, Attorney at Law 440 South Seventh Street, Ste. 200 Louisville, Kentucky 40203 (502) 584-9511 www.mikeschaferlaw.com CHOOSING AN ATTORNEY
INFORMAL CUSTODY TRIAL: A Child-Focused Alternative Hon. Benjamin R. Simpson Judge of the Magistrate s Division, Kootenai County Idaho law requires the determination of child custody based upon the best
What To Do If A Lawyer Contacts You By Lustbader Law Firm This article is written by David Lustbader of Livingston, New Jersey. It grew out of a discussion during a Medical Protective Risk Management Seminar
PARENT GUIDE TO THE JUVENILE COURT CHIPS PROCESS INTRODUCTION This booklet has been prepared to help parents gain a better understanding of what to expect in Juvenile Court CHIPS proceedings (Chapter 48
How to Prepare for Your Divorce, Legal Separation, Custody or Support Trial IMPORTANT! Remember that the law is always changing. This brochure is not a substitute for talking to an attorney. Family law
Your Voice in Criminal Court a guide to court orientation for adult witnesses INFORMATION + RESOURCES FOR VICTIM SERVICE WORKERS introduction Victim Service Workers have an important role to play in the
Table of Contents Introduction 3 Why Not Settle With the Insurance Companies 4 What to do First 7 Hiring a Personal Injury Lawyer 11 How Much is My Claim Worth? 14 What if I have a Pre-Existing Condition?
A SAFE Client s Guide to Civil Protection Orders in D.C. Want to talk to a SAFE Advocate in Court? Look for the SAFE Advocate carrying a Purple Clipboard! SAFE, Inc. 202-879-7851 Domestic Violence Intake
Step-by-step guide to pursuing a medical negligence claim Suffering from medical negligence can be a painful and distressing experience for anyone. This short guide offers some advice to help people thinking
DENNIS A. PALSO workers compensation board certified DENNIS A. PALSO, P.A. ATTORNEY AT LAW Gateway Pines Executive Park 710-94 th Avenue North Suite 309 St. Petersburg, Florida 33702 Telephone (727) 578-5911
INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILING YOUR MODIFICATION OF CHILD SUPPORT A modification of child support is allowed if the parties can show a change in income or financial status. If the parties agreed on child support
A Guide to a Successful Interview with a Lawyer This guide will help you prepare for your interview with a lawyer. A little preparation will make your interview successful. Introduction This guide describes
Seven Things You Must Know Before Hiring a DUI Attorney Seven Things to Know Before Hiring a DUI Attorney Copyright 2014 SmartWeb Online 1 Introduction Some people don t quite understand the severity of
Clark County District Court SMALL CLAIMS COURT INFORMATION INTRODUCTION The Small Claims Department of District Court allows a person or business with a legal dispute to sue without hiring an attorney.